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THOMAS   WILLIAM   COWAN,   F.G.S.,   F.R.M.S.,   etc. 

Author  of  'The  British  Bee-keeper's  Guide  Book.' 

January- December,  1887. 


AND    BY 


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LuNDUiN  : 

Printed  by  Stkangeways  and  Sons, 

Tower  St.,  Cambridge  Circus. 


Abbott,  Bros.,  their  cot- 
tager-crate, 290 

Abbott,  J.  A.,  his  visit  to 
America  and  Canada,  6, 

Accommodation  cells,  ISO 

*A.  E.'  wants  a  diploma, 
548,  572 

African  bees,  525 

After-swarms,  212,  330 

Age  of  bees,  224,  225 

Agriculture  and  apicul- 
ture, 561 

Alighting-boards,  19S 

Allan,  J.  his  description  of 
a  Stowarton  hive,  305 

Alley,  H. ,  Bee-  keepers' 
Handy  Bonk,  154 

Allotment  garden,  manag- 
ing stock  on  an,  10,  28,  41 

Amateur  Expert,  crate  ex- 
hibited by  the,  59,  12S ; 
jottings  by,  23 

American '  artificial  honey,' 

American  Beekeeper's  Maga- 
zine, 22,  53,  80 

American  blight,  439 

American  cloth,  188,  294 

American  hives  exhibited 
by  Messrs.  Abbott,  186 

*  A  more  excellent  way,'  201 

Andreu,  F.,  La  Apicultura 
Mobilista  en  Bspana,  210 

Andreuidee,  261,  262 

Ants,  144 ;  and  aphides,  450 ; 
and  bees  in  Jamaica,  514 

Antenna:  of  bees,  320 

Aphides,  the  producers  of 
honey -dew,  420;  their 
countless  numbers,  430 ; 
their  migrations,  439; 
their  organism,  ib. ;  their 
enemies,  450 ;  their  re- 
lations with  ants,  450 

Aphis,  212,  439  ;  vastatrix, 

Apiary,  position  of,  19 ; 
clearing  up,  452 ;  com- 
petition, 489 

Apis  dorsata,  39 

Apiculture  and  agriculture, 
1,  561 ;  lectures  on  (sec 
Lectures');  patents  relat- 
ing to,  521 

Apifebris,  117 

Apifuge,  the  new,  99,  108, 
116,  131,  137,  110,  217, 
227,  248,  257,  280,  318, 
415, 456;  and  methyl  sali- 
cylate, 121 ;  experience 
with,  163,  290 ;  tests  of, 
202 ;  uses  of,  270 

Apifuges,  8,  38 

Aplaugh,  Mr.,  his  machine 
for  inserting  foundation 
in  sections,  469,  472,  474 

Argentine  bees,  552 

Arnold's  soap,  415 

Artificial  combs,  16S 

Artificial  comb-compresser 

Artificial  pollen,  93,  152  ; 
supplying  bees  with,  122 

Artificial  swarm,  352 ;  how 
to  make,  253 

Artificial  swarming,  131, 
574 ;  antiquity  of,  111 

Association,  a  useful,  435 

Associations,  non-members 
of,  352 ;  and  members' 
honey,  415 

Aspect  of  hives,  431,  490 

Asp  in  wall  and  Treadwell, 
147,  470 

Autumn  food,  417;  plants, 
late,  100 

Average  yield  per  hive,  113 

Avoiding  extremes,  353 

Bacilli,  354 

Bacillus,  354  ;  its  tenacity 
of  life,  391 ;  alvei  and 
depilis,153;  Gaytoni,  112, 
12±,  164,  283, 365 ;  minor, 
307,  337,  372,  399 

Bacteria,  391 

Balsams,  their  composi- 
tion, 271 

Barbaglia.on  the  wax  found 
on  the  leaves  of  boxus 
sempervirens,  147 

Bare-headed  nymphs,  497 

Barrowful,  a,  of  honey,  425 

Barrels  for  storing  honey, 

Basswood  honey,  510 
Be  ready,  272 
Bee,  the  song  of  the,  214 ; 

mistake  of  a,  27,  62 
Bee-bobs,  119 

Bee-colonies,  experiments 
to  ascertamdevelopment 
of,  193 
Bee-conciliators,  1,  17,  99 
Bee  disease,  515,  527 
Bee-farm,  64,  542  ;  starting 
a,  413,  435,  442,  466;  A 
Modem,  517 
Bee-farming,  512 
Bee-fever,  117 
Bee  flora,  175,  237,  248; 
alfalfa,  1SS ;  azaleas,  205  ; 
berberis  Darwini,  1 , 5 ; 
blackberries  301 ;  bor- 
age, 227,  237,  301 ;  buxus 
arborescens,  175 ;  Can- 
terbury bells,  237 ;  car- 
raway,  155 ;  Chapman 
honey  plant,  9S,  209; 
Clarkia,  228;  clover,  red  ; 
112,  255 ;  clematis,  564  ; 
clover,  white,  255  ;  co- 
toneaster  niicrophylla, 
2S3;  crocuses,  1S4,  227; 
echinops  ritro,  3,  159 ; 
echioops  spha3rocephalus 
3, 159,  173, 177,  210,  217  ; 
erica  carnea,  124;  forget- 
me-not,  237;  fuchsia,  504 ; 
gautheria,  S ;  hawthorn, 
552 ;  kalmialatifolia,  199 ; 
lady  slipper,  254 ;  lini- 
nauthes,  227,  301,  336 ; 
lythrum  salicaria,  500; 
mignonette,  237 ;  nepeta 
mussini,227,240, 301, 3S6, 
485  ;  nepetos  purpurea, 
271 ;  orchis,  520  ;  poker 
lilies,  501;  poppies,  237; 
rhododendrons,  205;  rue, 
228  ;  scrophularia,  1S1 ; 
snowdrops,  227;  statice 
limonium  (see  Lavender) , 
307,338;  sunflowers,  386, 
501 ;  strobilauthes,  381 ; 
sycamore,  262 ;  thyme, 
228  ;  wall-flowers,  237  ; 
wood-sage,  228 
Bee  -  flowers,     sowing    in 

waste  places,  217 
Bee  forage,  203 
Bee-hives,  notes  on,  120, 

161,  141.    Sec  Hives 
Bee-houses,  144,  205,  237, 

Bee-keeper,  becoming  a,  42 

Bee-keepers'  Associa- 
tions and  Shows  : — 
Aberdare,  368,  332; 
Ambleside,  395;  Armagh, 
357 ;  Banbridge,  347 ;  Bel- 
fast, 381 ;  Berks,  5,  48,  96, 
171,  289,  331 ;  British,  13, 
34,  81,  127,  159,  179,  183, 
222,  224, 232, 235,318, 431, 
441, 449, 451, 470, 509, 513 ; 
Bucks,  70 ;  Bury  St.  Ed- 
munds, 203,  232,  216,  2S9  ; 
Caledonian,  334,  317; 
Cambridgeshire,  316; 
Cornwall,  47;  Craven, 
119,  396;  Derbyshire,  70  ; 
Devon  and  Exeter,  24; 
Dungannon,  357 ;  East 
Lothian,  127  ;  Essex,  70, 
535 ;  Faringdou,  346  ; 
Forfar,  395;  Glamorgan- 
shire, 71,  346,  362,  373  ; 
Gloucestershire,  101, 331 ; 
Hants  and  Isle  of  Wiaht, 
1,  49,  119,  225,  332,  333, 
409;  Hawkshurst,  216; 
Hereford,  410 ;  Hereford- 
shire, 70;  Horsforth,  71, 
409;  Hants  Agricultural, 
315;  Irish,  104,  119,  159, 
216, 256, 298, 355, 493, 547 ; 
Kent,  492 ;  Lancashire, 
o94 ;  Lancashire  and 
Cheshire,  2,  94,  215,  246, 
416;  Leeds,  204;  Leices- 
tershire,71,  256,  344, 517 ; 
Lincolnshire,  1,  321,  535  ; 
Lowestoft,  205 ;  Maer 
(Staffordshire),    369; 

Manchester  Exhibition, 
317  ;  Manchester,  391  ; 
Middlesex,  61,  95,  127, 
145,  330,  380,  432,  514; 
Monmouthshire,  333 ; 
Newcastle-on-Tyne,  179, 
309 ;  Newton  Abbot,  231 ; 
Norfolk  and  Norwich, 
283 ;  Northamptonshire, 
355 ;  North-east  of  Ire- 
land, 191,  3S1,  424,  436, 
483,195;  Norwich  Show, 
1;  Notts,  204,  431;  Ox- 
fordshire, 71  ;  Prescot, 
322;  Reading,  167,  242, 
278;  Royal  Agricultural, 
179,  192,  309;  Royal 
Counties'  Agricultural, 
167,  242,  278;  Rutker- 
glen,  481 ;  Saltaire,  38  ; 
Shrewsbury  Horticul- 
tural, 380;  Shugborough, 
394;  Somerset,  368; 
Southampton, 332;  South 
Kensington,  1 ;  South- 
gate,  3S0  ;  Spalding,  192 ; 
Staffordshire,  307,  394; 
Stone,  394  ;  Strabane, 
334 ;  Suffolk  Agricul- 
tural, 246  ;  Surrey,  127 ; 
Swanmore,333;  Paunton, 
368;  Warwickshire,  215, 
345  ;  Waterford,  410  ; 
Wellington  (Somerset), 
368  ;  Wilts,  278,  395  ; 
Winchcombe  and  Sude- 
ley,  382  ;  Windsor,  5  ; 
Worcestershire,  61,  94, 
309;  Wrockwardiue,409; 
York,  276 ;  Yorkshire, 
61,  119,  204 
Bee-keeping,  and  teaching, 
43 ;  how  to  commence, 
64,  276  ;  making  it  pay, 
101 ;  profitable,  208  ;  re- 
vival of,  214;  boobs  on, 
303  ;  in  the  Isle  of  Man, 
436;  a  novice's  experi- 
ence in,  445  ;  in  Ireland, 
465;  as  a  livelihood,  479; 
with  other  pursuits,  485 ; 
increasing  knowledge  in, 
Bee-loving  hen,  268 
Beeman's  tour,  9S 
Bee-ology,  235 
Bees,  flowers  for,  3  ;  effect 
on,  of  various  perfumes, 
8  ;  treatment  of,  19,  239 ; 
supplying  with  water, 
39 ;  working  pieces  of 
new  comb,  40 ;  on  roof 
of  house,  41,  42  ;  where 
they  may  be  kept,  43 ; 
who  may  keep,  ib. ;  sin- 
gular mode  of  bringing 
a  nest  of,  to  the  ground, 
46;  voice  of,  56;  hearing 
of,  ib. ;  then*  power  of 
talking,  58;  brain-  weight 
of,  ib. ;  in  skep,  dead, 
64;  in  confinement,  100; 
are  able  to  sting,  115  ;  in 
the  suburbs,  112 ;  mov- 
ing from  one  side  of  high 
fenc3  to  another,  ib.  ; 
packing,  122 ;  starved, 
123 ;  race  of,  123  ;  do  they 
hear  ?  131,  149,  152  j  in  a 
loft,  134,  141 ;  fighting 
after  uniting,  134 ;  how 
to  manage  and  control, 
135;  human  breath  offen- 
sive to  them,  ib. ;  diffe- 
rent, found  in  a  colony, 
ib. ;  fighting,  154  ;  birds 
eating,  161 ;  sundry  ex- 
periences with,  163  ; 
sensitive  to  atmospheric 
influences,  161;  by  the 
side  of  a  railway,  165  ; 
clustering'  outside,  176; 
their  dwellings,  179  ; 
and  roses,  183,  233 ;  and 
flowers,  183  ;  and  clover, 
ib.  ;  depredations  on 
fruit,  186  ;  dying,  188, 
233,  46S  ;  and  ripe  fruit, 
196, 207, 216, 236, 249, 280 ; 
and  sparrows.  197  ;  can 
they  hear  ?  197  ;  in  boats 
in  the  East,  213;  eating 
fruit,  216 ;  and  straw- 
berries, 219 ;  no  respecter 

of  persons,  219;  stung 
by,  ib. ;  birds  and,  il>. ; 
and  grapes,  223 ;  unpro- 
tected, 226 ;  and  noise, 
229  ;  diseased,  239 ;  slug- 
gish, 250  ;  their  fertilisa- 
tion of  flowers,  254 ;  breed 
of,  262;  fraternisation  of, 
272 ;  changing  queens, 
273  ;  management  of,  for 
profit,  276  ;  water  for, 
280,  300 ;  obstructing 
then."  queen,  231 ;  protec- 
tion of,  from  heat  and 
cold,  237 ;  leaving  glass 
jar,  293;  on  a  ti*ee,  293; 
tumbling  out  of  hive, 
293 ;  attacking  chickens, 
294 ;  hanging  outside, 
294 ;  building  outside 
super,  294 ;  on,  303 ; 
working  in  the  sections, 
311;  giving  salt  to,  314; 
my  pet,  325 ;  driven,  327  ; 
attacked  by  a  swarm  of, 
347 ;  escapade  with,  350 ; 
getting  from  the '  gable 
end  of  a  house,  ib. ;  pre- 
paring for  the  winter,  ib. ; 
vagaries  of,  in  swarming, 
351 ;  attacking  fruit,  352 ; 
vicious,  359 ;  the,  363 ; 
black,  366 ;  a  pound  of, 
365 ;  near  house,  385 ;  in 
a  box-hive,  375 ;  in  a 
thunderstorm,  3S5  ;  and 
manure-heaps,  411,  44 1, 
477,  487,  505;  invading 
shop,  414 ;  casting  out 
young,  416;  refusing  to 
raise  queen,  437 ;  and 
essence  of  lemon,  437 ; 
utilising  wax,  447 ;  with 
white  backs,  ib.  ;  and 
manure-heaps  or  drains, 
466;  breeding,  475;  injur- 
ing roses,  481;  building 
drone-comb,  ib.  ;  amount 
of,  for  winter,  510;  age 
of,  510  ;  enemies  of,  190 ; 
dead  and  dying,  498 ; 
what  they  can  do,  505 ; 
short  of  food  at  beginning 
of  year,  508 

Bee-space  between  bottom 
bar  and  floor-board,  89 

Bee-sting  a  useful  tool,  75 

Bee-stings,  quicklime  a  re- 
medy for,  40 ;  receipt  for 
the  cure  of,  57 

Bee-subjugators,  7 

Beeswax,  and  its  conver- 
sion into  money,  116, 
168,  303 ;  its  production, 
ib. ;  its  colour,  ib. ;  its 
constituents,  ib. ;  cost  of 
its  production,  ib. ;  on 
the  proportion  of  honey 
to,  ib. ;  uses  of,  2S2  ;  how 
made,  4S1.     Sec  Wax. 

Bee-tent,  143;  at  Horti- 
cultural Show,  101 

Bee  tour  through  Lanca- 
shire and  Northumber- 
land, 243,  269,  279,  293 

Bee-way  sections,  174 

Beginners,  caution  to,  276 

Bell-glass  to  hold  35  lbs, 
133 ;  on  bar-frame  hive, 
219;  fastening  foundation 
in,  239  ;  clearing  a,  339 

Bellows  -  smoker,  how  to 
make,  31 

Benzoic  acid,  506 

Benzoin,  487 

Bertrand,  M.,  his  fumi- 
gator,  250 

B  e  s  s  1  e  r,  Lehrb  itch  der 
Bienenzuht,  559;  his  por- 
traits of  bee-keepers,  ib. 

Birds,  370  ;  and  bees,  219  ; 
eating  bees,  161,  173  ; 
reptiles,  bees,  399 

Bitter  almonds,  essential 
oil  of,  488 

Bitter  honey,  389 

Black  bees,  195 

Black  honey,  492 

Blacklead  a  lubricant,  561 

Bleaching  honey,  301 

Blow,  T.,  among  the  Car- 
niolan bee-keepers,  9 ; 
his  invertible  bive,  67 ; 
his  dividers,  125 

Blue  tits,  4 

Botubus  lapidarius.  217 

Bonnier,  G.  ct  Georges  de 
Layens,  Noucello  FLove, 

Borax,  134 

Borgue  honey,  3S8 

Bottles,  small,  337 

Box-hives,  driving  bees 
from,  339 

Box-trees,  184 

Boyle,  Hon.  R..  his  use  of 
glass  hives,  130 

Boys  and  girls,  for,  292, 

Braula  cmca,  194,  3S9,  437, 
5  S3 

Brazilian  bees,  21 

Breeding  for  qualities,  22 

Breeding  space,  478 

Breeding  and  stimulation, 

British  B.K.A.,  work  for, 

British  bees,  129,  206 

British  aud  American  in- 
ventions, 113 

British  honey,  167 

British  Honey  Company, 
3  v3  ;  suggestions  to  the, 

British  invertible  hive 
made  watertight,  132  j 
keeping  rain  from,  139 

British  wild  bees,  100 

Broad  shoulders,  211 

Brood,  drone  and  worker, 

Brood,  capped,  220  ;  cast- 
ing out,  262 ;  addition 
of,  263;  introduction  of, 
into  nuclei,  283;  rotten, 
304  ;  desd,  380,  427 

Brood-cell  covers,  467,  480 

Brood-combs,  size  of,  180 ; 
extracting  honey  from, 
327,  372,  333,  402,  411, 
412,  425,  433,  445,  463, 

Broodless  colonies,  437 

Brood-nest  enlarging,  203, 

Brood-spreading,  117 

Brother  Jonathan,  311 

Brown  paper  not  suitable 
for  dividers,  198 

Brown  and  Poison's  corn- 
flour, 175 

Bumping.  330,  312,  415, 
423,  426,  435 ;  a  success, 
400;  a  failure,  400,  415 

Burns,  salve  for,  309 

Burrowing  bees,  261,  262 

Burying  beetle,  273 

Butler,  Dr.,  157,  158,491 

Buzzing  and  humming,  58 

Cages  and  introduction,  475 

Calif ornian  honey,  166;  in 
England,  234 

Calvert's  carbolic  acid,  200, 
250,  555  ;  soap,  208 

Camomile  weed,  337 

Camphor  a  cure  for  foul 
brood,  14, 15 

Canada,  13,  170  ;  bee-keep- 
ing iti,  6,  73;  wintering 
in,  13,  72;  sending  honey 
to  England,  170,  282 ; 
*  the  winter  is  past," 
216 ;    season  in,  515 

Canadian  bee-feeder,  407, 
463 ;  bee  -  keepers,  1 ; 
experiences,  163 ;  hives, 

Candy,  41,  136,  490 ;  soft, 
Good's,  30,  554;  warm, 
100 ;  making,  112 ;  re- 
cipe for  winter,  488 ; 
white,  554;  Scholz,  ib. 

Cane  sugar,  212  ;  in  honey, 

Cappings  of  brood  -  cells, 

Carbolic  acid  solution,  60, 
134,  135,  250,  304,  339, 
343,  406,  415,  427 ;  for  re- 
moving sections,  566 

Carbolised  cloth,  393,  402, 

Carbolic  fumigation,  220 

Carbolic  sheet  recipe,  417 

Carniolan  bee-keepers,  9 

Carniolan  bees,  19,  40,  97, 



130,  145,  160,  182,  218, 
224, 337  ;  transferring,  42 

Carniolans  and  Ligurians, 

Carniolan  queens,  259 

Carr,  W.  B.,  his  metal 
ends,  57 ;  his  advocacy  of 
the  use  of  small  frames, 
97 ;  his  device  for  fix- 
ing foundation  in  Lee's 
frame?,  553 

Cast  on  back  frames,  293 

Casts,  212 ;  feeding,  283 

Castor-oil  plant,  250 

Caucasiau  hees,  4-0 

Caught  in  the  act,  300, 323, 

Caution,  a,  237;  a  word  of, 

Cedar  oil  and  olive  oil,  an 
apifuge,  109 

Cellar  wintering,  124 

Cells,  ISO 

Central  Africa,  tribes  of, 
smoke  bees,  111 

Ceylon  folk  lore,  523 

Chaffinches,  161 

Chelifers,  563 

Chemists,  query  for  the,  496 

Cheshire,  F.,  394,  464- 

Chile,  exports  of  honey  and 
wax  from,  215, 548,  553 

Chilled  brood,  239, 273;  and 
diseased,  49S 

Chimney  swallows,  370 

Christmas  greeting,  553,554 

Chrome  alum,  122 

Chrysalis,  212 

Chyle  stomach  of  the  bee, 
ejection  of  chyle  fro  m,  539 

Cinnamon  oil,  a  remedy  for 
bee-stings,  410 

Clearing-up,  407 

Clover  in  front  of  hives,  28, 

Coffee  pernicious  to  bac- 
teria, 10 

Cold  cream,  309 

Colonies,  small,  44,  69  ; 
defunct,  45 ;  to  be  kept 
strong,  ib. ;  equalisation 
of,  69 ;  examination  of, 
in  spring,  92  ;  strong,  254 

Colony  of  B's,  a  full,  507 

Comb-f  oundation,  200, 238 ; 
fixing  in  skeps  for  con- 
demned bees,  361 ;  worker 
and,  512.  See  Foundation 

Comb  honey,  203;  keeping, 
554 ;  in  sections,  560 

Combs,  empty,  19;  transfer- 
ring from  large  frames  to 
standard,  29;  built  irre- 
gularly, ib. ;  broken  donna 
in  autumn,  112;  stored 
with  syrup,  utilisation 
of,  124;  structure  of,  in 
a  hive,  179;  old,  199,239; 
spare,  210,  218 ;  of  pre- 
vious  year,  250 ;  crooked, 
ib. ;  fixed  together,  315 ; 
clearing  out,  352  ;  work- 
ing out,  ib. ;  position  of, 
426;  preserving  through 
■winter,  437;  affected  with 
foul  brood,  45S ;  age  of, 
490,  573 ;  best  way  of  ob- 
taining a  quantity  of,  511 

Coming  bee,  the,  206 

Committee-men,  5,  17 

Committee,  criticised,  193 

Conversaziones,34, 183, 318, 
470;  scientific  subjects 
at,  56 

Condemned  bees,  165,  218, 
236,  329,  330,  339,  341, 
544;  treatment  of,  417; 
an  iting  to  f  ramc-hivo,  427 

Condy's  fluid,  250 

Cook,  Prof.,  his  apiary  and 
"work,  471 

Co-operative  show,  341, 
436,  447 

Co-operators,  amongst  the, 

Corn-plaster,  309 

Cornell,  Mr.,  bin  poction- 
orate  and  sections,  t,  L6; 
his  snpor,  128  ;  hi  E  »tuj- 
dation  uxor,  431  ;  hie  gift 
of  Mr.  Aplaugh's  ma- 
cuixiG  for  foundation  fix- 
ing to  fchoB.B.K.A.,  W9, 

<  .::  c  il  "Univ:;;>',y    apu  n'1 

tare  at,  226 
Cosmetic  specialities,  309 
Cosmdtiquo,  309 

Cottagers'  Apiary  Compe- 
tition, 465,  4S9 

Country  life,  92 

County  Associations.  509 ; 
members  of,  100 ;  ex- 
perts, 196,  217 ;  secre- 
taries, their  duties,  509 

Cowau  hive,  112,  144,  327, 
566 ;  damp,  210 

Cowau,  T.  W.,  his  Guide- 
book, 2;  his  Doubling  and 
Storifying,  ib.;  on  the 
proportion  of  honey  to 
wax,  147  ;  his  inventions, 
327 ;  his  visit  to  America, 
439 ;  his  reception,  ib, ; 
presentation  to,  450,  451; 
liis  narrative  of  his  visit 
to  Canada  and  the  Uni- 
ted States,  470.  515 

Crates  of  thirty-five  sec- 
tions, 76,  83 

Crates  and  sections,  151 

Creme  celeste,  309 

Crimea,  bee-keepingiu,  565 

Croakinc,  30, 187  ;  queens, 
110,  152. 173 

Crooked  combs,  134,  250, 

Crowding  bees,  339 

Crown  -  boards,  478  ;  v. 
quilts,  22 

Cubic  contents  of  one 
pound  of  honey,  304 

Cumbarland,  a  voice  from, 

Cupid  and  the  bees,  138 

Curiosities  of  bee-life,  148 

Curtis,  Dr.,  on  the  source 
of  honey-dew,  420 

Cyprian  bees.  3,  98,  105, 
120,  128,  129,  181;  ex- 
perience of  bee-keepers 
with,  ib. ;  instructions 
for  manipulating  them, 
ib. ;  characteristics  of,  136 

Cyprian  queen,  experience 
with  a,  40 

Dadants,  Messrs.,  founda- 
tion-makers, 471 ;  hives, 

Dampness,  22 

Danish  bee-keeping,  past 
and  present,  244 

Dead  brood,  371,  411,  431 

Dead  larva:  and  young  bees, 

Death's  head  moth,  45S, 

Demarca,  G.,  159,  286 

Deunler,  J.,  Das  Bicncn- 
icacks  und  seine  Vcrter- 
wimg,  111,  128,  168,  296 

De  quibusdam,  1S7,  290 

Dor  Pralctische  Imlcer,  527 

Desborough,  J.,  on  the  life 
of  worker-bees,  158 

Desideratum,  a,  506 

Diagrams,  Sartori's,  552, 

Diarrhoea,  remedy  for,  309 

Dines,  Mr.,  his  crate,  12S 

Disclaimer,  a.,  28 

Discouraged  one,  86 

Diseased  brood,  447 

Distance-guides,  absence 
of,  383 

District  associations,  50, 
55,  74,  503 

Dividing,  by  a  lady,  250 ; 
for  increase,  301 

Division-boards,  158,  211, 

Dobbie's  Bee  Pasturage,  375 

Dokoupil,  M.,  9 

Donholf,  Dr.,  ou  propor- 
tion of  honey  to  wax,  146 

Doubling,  19,  73,  209,  220, 
223,  250,  233,  478;  and 
stoiifying,  144 

Driving,  48.3 

Driving  bees,  222,  253,  303, 
327,  330,  403,  512;  par- 
tially filled  skep,  220; 
and  uniting,  326 ;  time 
for,  314  ;  by  a  novice,  of 
bees  by  candle-light,  413 

Drone-breeding,  160 

Drone  -  brood  in  workor- 
comb,  210 

Drone,  young,  1 14 ;  the 
lazy,  yawning,  301 

Drone-comb,  L80,  2-40,250, 
389,  107,  438,  550:  whon 
built  by  tl'.o  bees,  39;  size 
of,  180 ;  in  lower  hive,  283, 
and  drone  foundation,  574 

Drone-cells,  180 

Drone-eggs,  339 

Drones,  136, 173,  183,  233, 
321?,  447;  havimr  white 
eyes,  28;  selected,  74; 
why  they  do  not  store 
honey,  77  ;  value  of,  ib. ; 
casting  out,  250,  339; 
abo«t=d.  262;  white- 
headed,  315;  presence  of, 

Drought,  354,  379 

Drv-suq-ar  feedinc.  14,  26, 
dead  larva?,  273 

Dry  sugar,  364 

Duncan's  pearl  sugar,  93, 

Duties  on  wax  and  honey 
in  France,  4 

Dysentery,  29,  64;  in  an 
observatory  hive,  29 

Dzierzon,  Dr.,  ou  honey- 
dew,  419 ;  on  brood- 
covers,  467,  481 

Earthen  pans  for  honev, 

Earwigs,  375,  533 

East  winds  and  smoke  v. 
carbolic,  268 

Eastern  races,  453  ;  build- 
ing comb  between  frames 
and  quilts,  504 

Echoes,  passim 

Economical  cushion  and 
feeder,  550 

Eggs,  queen  and  worker, 
identical,  124  ;  several, 
in  one  cell,  177,  250 

Egyptian  babe  embalmed 
in  honey,  331 

Elizabeth,  Queen,  her  fond- 
ness for  metheglin,  213 

Ellwood,   Mr.,  471 

Embalmed  in  honey,  171 

Embedding  foundation,  45 

Enamel  cloth,  64,  92,  100, 
144,  165,  209,  478 

Ends  of  sheet  metal,  63 

English  bees,  160;  queens, 
two,  410 

Entrances,  211,  243,  417, 
528  ;  distances  of,  229  ; 
shading,  510 

Ericacece,  8 

Eristalis  fossarum,  478 

Erslev,  H.  Forcr  i  Biavl 
T.  W.  Cowan,  302;  on 
drone-comb,  452 

Eucalyptus  honey,  139,  155 

Evans,  Dr.,  158 ;  on  the 
cause  of  honey-dew,  420 

Evelvn,  Mr.,  his  glass  hive, 

Examination  of  bees,  44 

Examinations,  125,  235 

Excluder  sine,  152,  283, 
303,  336 

Exhibition  in  France  in 
1S87,  bee-section  in,  215 

Experience,  my,  142 

Experts,  becoming,  64 ;  pay 
per  day,  112 ;  visits  of, 
172, 182  ;  aud  foul  brood, 
181;  spring  tour  of,  218; 
a  word  for  the,  256; 
examinations,  348 ;  con- 
duct of,  536 

Extracted  honey,  strain- 
ing, 123;  or  section  hon- 
ey? 167;  working  for,  349 

Extracting,  88,  288,  293, 
330,  352,  354,  365;  and 
feeding,  293 ;  from  brood- 
combs,  372,  380 

Extractor,  how  to  make, 
11 ;.  size  of,  77  ;  distance 
of  baskets  from  spindle, 
in,  153;  for  heather 
honey,  177 ;  conveying 
foul  brood,  508 

Eyes  of  bees,  318 

Facts,  567 

Fastening  combs  in  skeps, 

Fecundation,  in  confine- 
ment, 431 ;  late,  451 

Feed  your  stocks,  519 

Feeder,  condition  of,  165; 
a  cheap,  501 

|.\,  [i,,  ■.  tw.  11:  ,  ifil.  330, 
355,  379,  458;  simplicity 
in,  14,  51;  without  feed- 
ors,  174 ;  out-of-doors, 
203 ;  swarm  hived  on 
combs,  210;  for  winter, 

Feeding  bottle,  211 

Fermented  syrup,  375 

Fertile  worker,  100,  136, 
314,  199 ;  eggs  and  erubs 
of.  177 ;  getting  rid  of, 
147 ;  theory  respecting, 

Fertilisation,  pure,  122; 
signs  of,  240;  methods 
of,  293;  of  queens,  324, 
105 ;  of  plants,  self,  254 ; 
cross,  ib. ;  insect,  ib. ; 
wind,  ib. ;  of  flowers, 
490  ;  by  bees,  520 

Fighting,  112 ;  and  robbing, 

First  swarm,  how  I  lost, 

Firth,  J.  C,  169 

Fixed-comb  system,  211 

Fixing  dummies,  141 

Flat-bottomed  foundation, 

Flavours  of  honey,  459 

Flight  of  bees, '  rata  of, 
364  ;  distance  of,  ib. 

Floor-boards,  407;  cleaning, 
45 ;  size  of,  53 ;  moveable 
or  fixed,  229 

Flour  candy,  4S3 

Flowers  for  bees,  3;  aud 
honey,  301 ;  structure 
and  fertilisation  of,  490, 

Fly-catohers,  370 

Food,  for  bees,  44 ;  mode- 
rate supply  of,  69 ;  recipes 
for,  93,  514;  for  the 
season,  155 ;  of  larva>, 
184  ;  amount  of,  for 
winter,  45S,  510 

Foreign  :— Australia,  234, 
255,  492;  Austria,  138; 
Canada.  47,  441,  450. 
559 ;  Denmark,  244 ; 
France,  4,  194,  215.  246, 
297,  481,  492,  547,  553; 
Greeca,  278;  Hanover, 
232;  Italy,  138,  148,  194, 
475 ;  Minorca,  563  ;  Na- 
tal, 563  ;  New  Zealand, 
163  ;  Norway,  5-46  ;  Si- 
lesia, 245;  Spain,  24; 
Switzerland,  14, 138, 147, 
193,  541 ;  Tasmania,  168 ; 
United  States.  256 

Foreign  bees,  97,  145,  173, 
175,  457 ;  gleanings,  392 

Formic  acid,  40,  115,  561 ; 
use  of,  124 ;  and  carbolic 
acid,  165 
Forty-frame  hive,  4S7 
Foul  brood,  26,  52, 164, 181, 
188,  197,  206,  228,  242, 
250,  273,  324,  326,  336, 
365,  371,  391,  396,  39S, 
403,  417,  423,  434,  4,37, 
445,  447,  454,  457,  463, 
46S,  482,  489,  550,  556; 
query  respecting,  176  ; 
kuowledge  of,  217  ;  in  a 
district,  224 ;  directions 
issued  for  cure  of,  by 
Lancashire  and  Cheshire 
B.K.A.,  242;  again!  259, 
538;  suspected,  338;  my 
experience  with,  359 ;  and 
profitable  bee-keeping, 
432;  curiug,  434;  cure 
of,  454, 456 ;  propngatmg, 
Foul -broody  hive,use  of, 200 
Foundation,  45,  136,  175, 
219,  243 ;  full  sheets  for 
sections,  41 ;  making,  ib.; 
when  and  how  to  use,  42 ; 
flat-bottomed  wire,  45; 
fixing,  63 ;  utilising  last 
year's,  64;  tests  for,  130, 
161 ;  purity  of,  146 ;  its 
brittlouess,  199 ;  white- 
coloured,  314 ;  fastening 
in  skeps,  401 ;  supply  of, 
511 ;  advantage  of,  538  ; 
•u.  worker-comb,  550,  572 
Foundation-fixer,  321,  431 
Four-bee-way  sectious,  217, 

Fowls  and  bees,  88 
Frame,  deep,  64 
Frame-distance,  19, 117, 144 
Frame-block,  123 
Frames,   243  ;    number  of, 
53,  262,  453 ;   reversing, 
64,  110;  removing  from 
full  hive,  123;  improve- 
ments iu,  125;    sizo  of, 
152;    and  sections,  174; 

combs  filling,  239  ;  spaces 

beneath,  308,  333,  379 ; 

number  of,  to  winter  in, 

330;    position    of,    444; 

withdivided  top-bars,  511 
Fruit-blossoms,  store  from, 

Fumigating  combs,  566 
Fumigation,  250;  required, 

Fumigator,  177,  199;  sili- 

cylic,  164 

Galvanised  iron  reservoir, 

varnishing,  122 
Galvanised  piping  not;  in- 
jurious to  wax,  124 
Galvanised  receptacles,  10 
Geese,  value  of.  555 
Glass  hives,  129,  140 ;  in- 
ventor of,  76,  83 
Glass  shade,  200 
Glass  on  alighting-board 

a  preventive  of  robbing, 

Gleanings,  28,  39,  147,  286 
Gloves,    100 ;     suggestion 

for,  104 
Gloucestershire,      district 

work  in,  527 
Glvceriue,  19;  waxbalsain'- 

Goat,  stung  to  death,  2/2  ; 

and  bees,  288 
Godfrey,  R.  R.,  144,161 
Godman,  A.,  469,  474 
Good's  candy,  44,  522,  553 
Gossip,  196 
Granulated  honey,  51,  4S2, 

Grape  sugar,  212 
Grass  befoi-e  hives,  198 
Green,  W.  T.,  his  Imperial 

hive,  326 
'Greenock'  disease,  2S3 
Griffin,  W.  N.,  234,  423 
Grimshaw,    ft.  A.   H  .   his 

paper    on    '  The    Vocal 

Organs  of  Bees,'  34,  56; 

his  workin  Yorkshire,  46; 

his  paper  '  Ou  the  Visual 

Organs  of  Bees,  318  ;  his 

apifuge,  227,  516,  392 
Grizzly  bear  and  the  bees, 

Guazzoni.his  cornb-prasser, 


Hannington,  Bishop,  an 
adventure  with  African 
bees,  525 

H  a  w  k  h  u  r  s  t  Cottagers* 
Competition,  46S 

Healing  salve,  309 

Heariug,  organs  of,  in  bees, 

Heather,  sending  hives  tc- 
the,  283,  303,  314,  327, 
339,  352  ;  a  trip  to,  with 
bees,  537 

Heather  honey,  238 ;  ex- 
tracting, 188,  314 ;  util- 
ising, 389  ;  crop  of,  how 
to  make  the  best  of,  243 

Heddon,  J.,  Success  m  Bc'o- 
cultwe,  2 ;  his  hive,  50, 
63,  99,  101,  136,  141,  166, 
456 ;  his  syrup,  44  ;  his 
recipe  for  syrup-food,  93; 
his  plan  of  preventing 
swarms,  15S ;  his  apiary, 
471  ;  subject  to  a  bee- 
disease,  517 ;  half-a-day 
with,  ib. 

Hedges,  willow,  30 

Hehner,  Otto,  450  ;  on  the 
requirements  of  bees,  464 

Heredity,  23 

Hereford  honey  fair,  421 

Hessian  fly,  354 

Hetherington,  Car/tain, 
his  apiary,  470,  473 

Hilbert's  fumigating  pro- 
cess, 250 

Hill's  device,  417 

Hippuric  acid,  417,  437 

Hive,  a  cheap,  484 ;  mea- 
surement of,  89 ;  280 
pounds  from  one,  508; 
with  twenty  frames,  ib. 

Hive-building,  554 

Hives,  3,  303 ;  examination 
of,  4  ;  dry,  23  ;  patented 
in  the  United  States,  52 ; 
position  of,  4, 417;  surface 
for,  27;  smoke  necessary 
in  examining,  112  ;  pack- 
ing, 122;  changing,  177; 


with  moveable  and 
fixed  combs,  211 ;  price 
of,  212 ;  aspect  of,  223  ; 
removal  of,  272;  deser- 
tion of.  250 ;  modern 
essential,  276 ;  higher- 
roofed,  280 ;  shading, 
2S7  ;  for  doubling,  453; 
broken  into,  52S 

Hive  covering-,  92 

Hive-construction,  165, 197, 
413,  417,  480 ;  improve- 
ments in,  by  whom  claim- 
ed, 42,  X4S 

Hive-entrances,  4, 109, 140, 
165,  375,  452 

Hive-roofs,  379 

Hobbv,  our,  285 

Holy-lands,  140 

Honey,  36-4;  packing-  for 
transport,  10 ;  in  Pales- 
tine, IS  ;  specimens  of, 
28  ;  uses  of,  29 ;  frames 
of,  44 ;  in  zinc  vessels, 
73 ;  and  pollen  producing 
plants,  77;  harvest,  time 
of,  112;  judging,  130; 
what  shall  wo  do  with 
our  ?  145  ;  analysed,  155  ; 
a  sting-averter,  116 ;  as 
an  article  of  food,  191,  | 
357;whereitispriucipally  | 
produced,  if). ;  as  food  for  j 
infants,  207 ;  a  royal 
luxury,  213 ;  versus  sugar, 
235,  258 ;  preventing  un-  I 
tinued  treacle  -  valve 
affecting,  239  ;  how  and 
why  plants  produce,  254; 
the  flavour  of,  25S,  459 ; 
price  of,  262,  503,  507, 
514,  536,  539,  519,  562; 
flow,  262,  4S2;  harvest, 
277,  314,  354,  370,  385, 
453;  taking,  277 ;  market- 
ing, ib. ;  transmission  of, 
per  railway,  toshows,281; 
packing,  2SS ;  disposing1 
of,  238  ;  used  for  curing 
erysipelas,  298  ;  bleach- 
ing, 304 ;  specific  gravity 
of,  ib. ;  prospects,  308  ; 
with  taste  of  prussic  acid, 
314 ;  when  ripe,  314 ; 
keeping,  327  ;  extracting 
from  brood-combs,  327 ; 
Egyptian  babe  embalmed 
in,  331 ;  making  bright, 
337  ;  and  sugar,  relative 
sweetness  of,  339 ;  using 
fermented,  339 ;  ripening, 
351 ;  exhibited,  352 ;  in 
auv  form,  ib. ;  black,  364, 
492;  and  pollen,  365;  ob- 
stinate, ib. ;  marketing, 
367 ;  temperature  for 
keeping,  383,  542 ;  pre- 
servation of,  ib.  ;  bitter, 
389;  dark,  425;  by  the 
hundredweight,  372, 
400,  415,  423,  446,  455; 
tainted,  437;  unsealed, 
ib.  ;  from  unsealed  sec- 
tious  fermented,  ib. 
candying  quickly,  ib. ; 
difficult  to  extract,  437, 
488  ;  by  the  pound,  446 ; 
sale  of,  475 ;  uses  of,  in 
India,  481 ;  granulated, 
482  ;  as  medicine,  486  ; 
large  yields  of,  487 ;  sam- 
ples, 4SS  ;  old,  for  spring 
feeding,  508;  linden  or 
basswood,  510;  sour  and 
rancid,  552;  price  of,  573 

Honey  associations,  230, 

Honey  beer,  144;  beverage, 
275 ;  vinegar,  281 ;  wine, 
339 ;  lemonade,  410 

Honey-bottle,  Walton's,  44 

Honey  companies,  2 

Honey  company,  another, 

Honey-comb  designs,  200, 
205,  228,  283 

Honey-dew,  212,  352,  411, 
419,  429,  542 ;  produces 
dysentery,  375  ;  use  of, 
for  feeding  in  spring,  ib. ; 
and  frozen  bees,  401 ; 
estimation  in  which  it 
was  held  by  the  ancients, 
ib. ;  how  produced,  ib. ; 
caused  by  aphides,  420 ; 
in  Suffolk,  421,  429  ;  dif- 
ferent opinions  as  to  its 
origin,  ib. ;  its  taste,  ib. ; 

large  quantity  of  it,  ib. ; 
its  producers,  439,  449 ; 
its  curative  qualities,  450 

Honey-drop  not,  528 

Honev,  imports  of.  2,  81, 
92,  "96,  172,  225,  25S,  298, 
34S,  111,  453,  503,  513, 

Honey-jars,  528 

Honey  market,  153 

Honey  locust,  39 

Honey  -  producing  flowers 
and  plants,  227 

Honey-sac,  212 

Hops,  injuries  to,  by 
aphides,  419 

Hot  v.  cold  systems,  363 

How  to  do  it,  504.  524,  53? 

Howard  frame,  153 ;  sec- 
tions, 151 ;  slotted  divi- 
ders, ib. 

Howells,  Rev.  J.,  213 

Huber's  apiavv,  186 

Humble  bees,  226,  207,  217, 
302,325;  inNewZealand, 
168 ;  the  ways  of  some, 
237 ;  visits  to  flowers,  254 ; 
and  clover  blossoms,  2S2 ; 
proposition  for,  436 

Humming,  56 

Hut,  in  the,  107,  142,  206, 
226,  '270,  358,  382,  476, 
483.  505,  5il 

Hybrids,  3,  195,  233,  323, 

Hlusbrici'tes   Jjehrbuch   dcr 

Bieacnzuclit,  559 

Imperial  hive,  283 

Increase,  how  and  when 
to,  302 

Increasing  stocks  and 
honey,  100 

India,  uses  of  honev  in,  4S1 

Indian  bees,  260,  3S6 

Inoculation,  385,  390,  412 

Interbreeding,  105 

Insect  exhibition  at  Paris, 

Insects  at  fault,  63  ;  ferti- 
lisation by,  of  flowers, 
254 ;  vision  of,  2S7 

Instinct  of  bees,  152 

Introducing  queens.  Sec 

Inventions,  British  and 
American,  7  ;  new,  in 
bee-appliances,  469 

Invertible  frames,  132 

Invertible  hives,  S,  16,  25, 
38. 45,  51,  52,  75, 121.  123, 
134, 176  ;  and  how  I  use 
them,  99;  are  they  water- 
tight ?  109 

Inverting,  327 ;  frames, 
Canadian  opinions  of, 
146 ;  sections,  89  ;  skeps, 

Ireland,  bee-keeping,  2,  80 

Irish  bee-keeping,  past  and 
present,  241 ;  standard 
hive,  29S ;  bee  -  keeper, 

Irish  B.K.A.,  sale  of  mem- 
bers' honey  by,  416 ;  stan- 
dard hive  of,  461 

Italian  hybrids,  2L0 

Italianising,  308 

Italians,  Oarniolans  and 
blacks,  283 ;  their  high 
qualities,  307 ;  or  hy- 
brids ?,  3SS 

Ivy  honey,  518 

Jenkins,  H.  M.,  notice  of 

his  death.  34 
Jenyns,  F.  G.,  A  Bookaboub 

Bees,  2 
Jonathan,  how  cousin,  gets 

comb-honey,  289 
Jones,  D.  A.,  departure  of, 

for  Canada,  4 ;  his  works 

and  apiary,  471 
Jones-Heddon  hive,  75 
Jottings,  46,  80, 93, 118, 145, 

182, 224 
Journal,  motto  for,  69; 

hints  for,  511 
Jubilee  designs,  180,  283; 

year,   how  bee-keepers 

should  honour  it,  202  ; 

proposed   show  in  year 

of,  221 ;  the  queen's,  265 
Judge,  appreciation  of,  415 
Judges,  decisions  of,  101 ; 

hints  for,  131 ;  at  shows, 

their  decisions,  427 

Judgiug,  162, 187,  425,  130, 
3S9,  402,  415  ;  appliances 
at  shows,  50 

July  4,  299 

Kandratieff,   his   apiaries, 

Kaugaroo  Island,  255 
Keep  colonies  strong,  509 
Keep  geese,  keep  bees,  555 
Keeping  honev,  327 
Kentrapone,  117,  133 
Kenworthy,     ().     J.     Fox, 

death  of,  45,  82,  145 
Killick's      wax  -  extractor, 

76,  119,  313,  330 
Knickerbocker  and  Lock, 

queen-raising,  470 
Kohler  method,  137,  293 

La  Circ  des  AbciVcs,  ct  son 

Utilisation,  518 
Lady  bee-keepers  in  Eng- 
land and  America,  473 
Ladybirds,  449,  485 
Lancashire  bee-cellar,  279 
Langstroth  hive,  29 
Larva?,  food  of,  184 
Lavender-water,  388 
Layens,  M.  de,  13S,  146 
Law  on  bess,  239 
Leaf -cutting  bees,  62 
Lectures  on  bees  and  bee- 
keepin?,    41,    133,    139, 
14S,  171,  182,  246,  403 
Lecturing  tour,  northern, 

Lee's  folding  sections,  7 ; 
frames,     sections,     and 
crates,  69,  125,  145,  160, 
183,   206,   218,   225,    354, 
370,    385,   417,   431,   469, 
474,  552 ;  fixing  founda- 
tion in,  553 
Lcs  Abcdles.  112 
Leuckart  on  the  food  of 

larva?,  185 
Ligurian  bees,  97,  337,  361 ; 
preferred,     112  ;     pure, 
122 ;     loss    of,    through 
mismanagement,       153  ; 
keeping   pure,   239 ;    six 
stocks  from  two,  4L 
Lignriauising,  240 
Lincolnshire  B.K.A.,  369 
Linden  honey,  510 
Little  Wonder,  403 
Locality  of  apiary,  277 
Long  words,  195 
Lowe,  J.,  death  of,  4 
Lowestoft  apiary,  239 
'  Ludovicus  Vives,  490 

M'Knight,  B..,  memoir  of, 
170  ;  at  Owen  Sound,  4-71 

M'Lain,  W.  N.,  his  experi- 
ments in  controlling  the 
fecundation  of  queens, 

H'Nally,  Messrs.,  4S,  483, 

Madagascar  bees,  75 

Mahin,  M.,  on  getting  rid 
of  fertile  workers,  147 ; 
introduction  of  queens, 

Manipulating,  68,  354, 
392 ;  tent  at  Manchester 
show,  465 

Manipulation,  4,  294  ;  best 
time  for,  283,  2SS,  308, 
373,  379,  400,  407,  412  ;  in 
high  wind,  339 

Maraldi  and  glass  hives, 

Marigold  flower,  plaster 
for  wounds,  309 

Marketiug  honey,  367 

Martins,  370,  399 

Matamata  apiary,  169 

Meadows,  W.  P.,  his  ex- 
tractor, ISO 

Mead  or  metheglin,  217 ; 
recipes  for,  427 

Megachile  muraria,  262 

Mehring,  ef  Frankenthal, 
his  discovery  of  making 
artificial  comb,  16S 

Mel  et  sal,  188 

MeUa,  275,  292 

1  Mel  sapit  omnia,'  16,  172, 
181, 188 

Metal  ends,  211,  226,  303 

Meteorogical  observations 
for  July,  36S 

Methyl  salicylate,  7,  117, 

Mexican  bee,  79 

Miee,  4 

Microscope,  works  on  the, 

334  ;     Mr.    Cowan's    in 

America,  472,  473 
Middle  sections,  removing, 

Mid  Wales,  a  visit  on  bee 

business  in,  460 
Miller,  Dr.  0.  C,  reply  to, 

399  ;  on  bee-keeping  as  a 

livelihood,  479 
Minorca,    bee-keeping    in, 

Modem  Bee.lccepiag,  2 
Monkeying  with  bees,  373 
Morren.    C-,  on  the  strac- 

ture  of  aphides,  44't 
Moth  in  hives,  200;  in  spare 

combs,  352 
Mouse,  in  a  hive,  452 
Moveable    frame-hive,    in- 
ventor of,  76,  83 
Moveable    bottom  -  board, 

Moveablo  comb  system,  211 
Moviug  bees,  39,  149,  210, 

409.478;  half-a-mile,335; 

and  uniting,  33S  ;  a  short 

distance,  339 
Musty  smell  in  feeders,  210 
My  Bees,  501,  512,  521,  532, 

544,  569 
My  year's  work,  485 

Natal,  bees  in,  563 
Natural  swarming,  204 
Nectar,    212 ;    in   flowers, 
object  of,  184 ;  secretion 
of,  455 
Neighbour,  Messrs.,  inver- 
tible  hive,    121  ;    inver- 
tible   section    rack,    79, 
128 ;    good  example  set 
by,  232 
Newman,  Mr.,  of  Chicago, 

New  races  of  foreign  bees, 
139,  160, 175, 186, 195,  218 
New  Zealand,  bee-keeping 

in,  375,  3S3 
New  Zealand  and  Austra- 
lasian Bet  Journal,  33S 
Nitro-benzol,  488 
Nomenclature,  9, 17,  27, 1S7 
Non-swarming,  53, 144 
Norway,  bee-keeping  in,548 
Notes  by  the  way,  150,  249 
Notes  on  current  topics,  336 
Nouvellc  Flore,  132 
Novice,  experience  of  a,  87 
Novice's  metal  corners,  3SS 
Nuclei,  2S2 
Nucleus  swarming,  134 

Obituary:— M.  Mona,  14; 
0.  Fumagalli,  ib.;  Jules 
Madare,  ib. ;  M.  Gerard, 
■ib. ;  J.  Anderson,  ib. ;  A. 
Butlerow,  ib. ;  H.J.  Jen- 
kins, 34 ;  F.  Kenworthy, 
45,  82,  146 ;  J.  Bolton, 
223  ;  D.  Stewart,  420 

Observatory  hive,  64,  153, 
23S,  355 ;  stocking  an, 
100;  and  judging, ^403 

One  and  a  half  sections,  165 

One  hundred  pounds  per 
hive,  455,  496 

One-pound  bottles,  361 

Ontario  bee-keepers,  result 
of  their  exhibition  at  s. 
Kensington,  46 ;  library 
of,  503 

Orchids  and  pollen  masses, 

Outlines  of  bee-keeping  for 
beginners,  43, 67, 115, 135, 
179,  211,  231,  253 

Overstocking,  482 

Packing,  22 ;  swarms,  200 ; 
honey,  238 

Packing-cases,  cheap,  for 
transmission  of  honey  by 
railway,  271 

Painting  hives,  119, 143 

Palestine  bees,  18,  140 

Pallus  Romulus,  on  meth- 
eglin and  oil,  214 

Pai'allel  v.  right  -  angled 
frames,  363,  379,  384,  412, 
432,  522,  526,  531,  550 

Parallel  system,  379 

Parsons  and  bees,  499 

Patent  rights,  200 

Patents  relating  to  apicul- 
ture, 522 

Patenting  inventions,  69 

Pea-flour,  173,  135,  223 

Penrose's  Carousal  of  Odin, 

Peppermint,  38S 

Persevering,  by,  35S 

Pheasants  and  bees,  64 

Philadelphia,  Mr.  Cowan's 
reception  at,  472 

Philology,  1S1 

Phorodon  humuli,  449 

Photographs  of  Swiss  api- 
ai-ies,  exhibited  by  Mr. 
Cowan,  183 

Phvsiological  queries,  S,  3S, 

1  Pieces,'  176 

Pine-wood  the  best  for  hive 
making,  327;  attractive 
to  bees,  437 

Pipe-cover  queeu-cae-es430, 

Pitched  paper  for  quilts, 

Plauta,  Dr.  A.  Yon,  on  cane 
sugar  in  honey,  29 ;  on 
the  colour  of  wax,  146; 
his  experiments  on  the 
brood  of  larva?,  185  ;  on 
brood-covers,  467,  4S1 

Platelayer's  report,  456 

Plinths,  165 

Poison-bag,  115 

Poisonous  )iouey,  76,  77, 
8S,  198,  2S2 

Poisonous  plants,  205 

Pollen,  separation  of,  from 
wax,  10  ;  grains  in  honey, 
17  ;  storing  of,  by  bees, 
40;  and  syrup,  44;  na- 
tural, 112  ;  baskets,  212  ; 
dried,  239 ;  iratberiug, 
245 ;  masses,  ^249,  520 ; 
vessels,  2d4  ;  clogged 
combs,  339,  and  honey, 
493 ;  carriers,  520 

Porto  Rico  sugar,  14,  51, 
53.  64, 124 

Position  of  apiary,  92 

Posterior  legs  of  the  worker 
bee,  503 

Poultry-farming,  167,  486 

Pound  of  honey,  visits  of 
bees  to  flowers  for  a,  363 

Praktische  Imlcer,  542 

Preparations,  45,  204 

Preparing  hives,  supers,  70 

Preventing  swarms  set- 
tling on  high  trees,  61 

Propolis,  212,  552 ;  use  of, 

Propolisation,  preventing. 

Queen,  35 ;  finding  in  a 
swarm,  41  ;  found  on 
alighting  -  board,  ib.  ; 
preventing  entering  up- 
per boses,  100,124;  dead, 
109,  210,  250,  352,  427; 
loss  of,  112,  129;  found 
alone,  123  ;  depositing 
eggs,  124 ;  a  drone  breed- 
er, 188 ;  clipping  wings 
of,  1S8;  raise  X  in  April, 
200;  injured,  200,  294; 
introducing  to  two  weak 
stocks,  219 ;  unfertilised, 
229 ;  impregnation  of, 
239 ;  our,  and  G-ovemour, 
265  ;  her  history,  266  ; 
and  the  bees,  202 ;  lost 
and  found,  301;  joining 
swarm,  314 ;  laying 
drone  and  worker  eggs 
at  same  time,  323  ;  cause 
of  dead,  326;  old,  3391; 
loss  of,  and  uniting, 
352 ;  diseased,  397 ;  not 
finding  the,  401,  423; 
driven  bees  without,  427; 
producing  diminutive 
bees,  437 ;  taking  away 
diseased,  455 ;  supersed- 
ing, 26S,  478;  piping,  561; 
releasing  at  sunset,  574 

Queens,  young,  19;  raising' 
in  swarming  time,  40 ; 
age  of,  39,  200,  47S ;  ex- 
periment of  raising  dur- 
ing queen's  presence,  59 ; 
changing,  110;  croaking, 
ib. ;  dying,  cause  of, 
118 ;  return  of,  165 ; 
raising  of,  1S5, 362  ;  ball- 
ing, 229  ;  effect  of  cold 
on,  ib.;  observations  on, 
266;  changing,  307;  fe- 
cundation of,  303,  324; 



in  section  cases,  312  ;  two 
in  one  hive,  337 ;  in  se- 
cond rear,  447 ;  young, 
453,  462  ;   by  post,  531 

Queen-  cell  surrounded 
with  drone-comb,  229 

Queen-cells,  212,  180;  and 
drone  hatching  from, 

Queen-excluding  zinc  for 
dividers,  77 

Queen  -  introduction,  147, 
154,  222,  262,  467,  493, 
555  ;  another  success  in, 
258,  262,  407,  430 

Queen-mating-,  314 

Queen-raising,  210,  301, 
313,  315  ;  in  nuclei,  41 ; 
or  introduction  of  queen- 
cell,  2S1 

Queenless  stocks,  37,  64, 
69,  226,  364,  437,  508 

Queen  Victoria's  train  and 
the  bees,  317 

Queen-wasps,  89, 180 

Quilt,2U;  position  of  .while 
supering,  47S 

Quilts,  407, 64,  478  j  chang- 
ing, 4 ;  porous,  175 

Queries, 111 ;  bvabeginner, 

Query,  551 

Rabbet,  9,  17,  27 

Races  of  bees,  2 ;  crossing, 

22;    the  new  means   of 

interbreeding,  105,  298 
Railway  station,  bees  at, 

Ray  nor   feeders,    leaking, 

Raynor,  Rev.  G.,  his  recipe 

for  makincr  carbolic  acid 

solution,  402 
*  Ready,  aye,  ready,'  180 
Red-backed  shrike,  370 
Red  Indians,  amongst,  476 
Reed,  F-,  bis  apiary,  382 
Releasing  queen,  574 
Remedies  for  coughs,  309 
Removing  stocks,  69,  123, 

219,  489 
Renfrewshire     Stewarton, 

Re-queen  mv  stocks,  how 

may  I  ?  297 
Re-queening    stocks,    250, 

327,  330,  336 
Reque-t.  a,  222,  260 
Resuscitation,  164 
Retrospect,  a,  1 
Reversible  section  rack,107, 

311 ;  frames,  16,  110 
Rigb.t-n.ngl  ed    v.     parallel 

frames,  556 
Ripening  honey,  351 
Robbers,  how  known,  573 
Robbing,  53,  124,  136,  330, 

355,  365,  406,  573 ;  pre- 
venting, 379,  475,  506 
Roofs  of  hives,  109,  211 
Root,  A.  I.,  9S,  471 
Routh,  Mr.,  answers  to,192 
Royal  jelly,  124,184,  238 

Salicylic  acid  solution,  8, 

28/134,  136,417;  feeding 

with,    100 ;    and   borax, 


Sorters1  Company,  182,  188 

Salve  for  wounds,  309 

Sartori,    M.,    his    apiary, 

138 ;  diagrams,  518,  552 
Schedules  for  shows,  103 
Schonfeld,Pastor,on  brood- 
cell  covers,  467,  480;  on 
the  food  of  larva1,  185 
Schulz,  Otto,  on  artificial 

combs,  168 
Schwcinfurth,  Dr.,  his  ex- 
periences   with    African 
bees,  525 
Scotch  bee-keeper,  a,  322 
Scotch    exhibit  of    honey 
at  Glasgow,  421 

Scotch      hive  -  manufac  - 

turers,  100 
Scripture  texts,  571 
Second-class  examinations, 

Second  swarms  returning, 

Section,  the  one-and-tbree- 
quarter,   10S;     distauce, 
154;  the  first,  280;  broken, 
Sections,  237, 354  ;  utilising 
for  feeding,  53;  woods  of 
which  they  are  inade.147; 
in  frames,165;  unfinished , 
219,  330 ;  removing,  222, 
283,  308,   336,   380,   452  ; 
skeleton  case  for  holding, 
260;  treatment  of,  262, 
311,  312;    in  a  time  of 
drought,  288 ;  removing 
propolis  from,  304 ;  fas- 
tened to  separators,  314 ; 
breaking  up,  339 ;  taking, 
352;      refusing    behind 
hive,  ib.  ;  slinging,  362  ; 
unsealed,    364,  47S ;   re- 
moving     middle,      3S4; 
orange  -  coloured,     427 ; 
the  new,  516,  524,  53S ; 
bleeding,  529 ;    still  on, 
Section  cases  and  sections, 
127  ;  Woodley's,  177,  237, 
Section-crates,  with  queen- 
excluders,  186 
Seed-vessels,  254 
Selborne  Society,  191 
Selected  queries,  501,  511, 

524,  534 
Separating  doubled  hives, 

Separating  of  wax,  76 
Separators,   143,   175,   237, 
294,  524;  tin  and  wood, 
Shades  for  swarms,  243 
Shelter,  planting  for,  511' 
Siebold,  Professor  von,  325 
Simmins,    S.,    The  Non- 
Sicavming  System,  3,  348;  j 
his  self-acting  syrup-can, 
68;  hisUnionorUniversal 
hive,  385,  403  ;    she   of 
frames  advocated  by,  97; 
hive  cover,  122;  his  comb- 
honey    supers,  267  ;    on 
buying  and  introducing 
queens,  291 ;  his  apiaries, 
335,    529  ;    Modem   Bee- 
Farm,  547 
Simplicity  in  feeding,  14 
Sirex  gigas,  315 
Skep  overthrown,  64 
Skep,  from,  to  bar-frame, 

Skeps,  feeding,  22 ;  making 
the  best  of  twelve,  239  ; 
v.  foul  brood,  475;  cover- 
ings for,  490 
Skin   diseases,  wax  -  salve 

for,  309 
Slots,  width  of,  154 
Slotted  dividers,  150,  162, 

163,  501 
Smoke,  60,  135,  318,  395 ; 

how  long  known,  111 
Smoker,  for  bees,  141, 173 
Snow,  clear  away  the,  38 
Spain,  bee-keeping  in,  24 
Spare  combs,  207 
Sparrows  and  bees,  197 
Specific  gravity  of  honey, 

Spiders,  219 
Spinete,  P.,  model  apiary 

conducted  by,  148 
Spircea,  essence  of,  8,  57 
Spreading  biood,  124 
Spring,  dwindling,  45 ;  feed- 
ing, 53;  flowers,  64,  68; 
management,      69 ;      by 
Amateur    Export,    232  ; 
examination  of  colonies, 

95,  132 ;  work  in  apiary 
in,  93 

Stamens,  254 

Standard  frame,  3,  16, 109, 
123, 132,  211,  564  ;  Irish 
B.K.A.,461;  top-bar,565 

Starters  of  foundation,  311 

Stands,  19 

Statistics,  410;  wanted,  393 

Stewart,  D.,  death  of,  420 

Stewarton  hive,  136,  174, 
273,  305,  335 

Stimulating,  77,  93,  112, 
118,  177/200,  210 

Stimulative  feeding,  245 

Sting,  115  ;  effects'  of,  370, 
40^ ;  preventers,  271 

Stock,  the,  212;  dwindling, 
53,  339 

Stocks,  weak,  219;  tra- 
velling by  rail,  123 ; 
strength  of,  219 

Stores,  superabundance  of, 
176;  for  winter,  354;  de- 
ficiency of,  462 

Storifying,  207,  478 

Storifying  hive,  212 

Sudeley,  Lord,  his  planta- 
tions, 377 

Sugar  for  feeding,  S9, 112, 

Sugar  syrup,  100 

Suggestions,  198 

Summer  shade  for  hives,  89 

Sundries,  10,  16 

Sundry  experiences  with 
bees,  163 

Sunflowers  and  insects,  406 

Super,  bees  ascending  to, 

Super-crate,  exhibited  by 
Mr.  Hooker,  186 

Supered  colonies  swarm- 
ing, 268 

Superficial  area  of  sealed 
comb,  386 

Sivpers  not  accepted,  29 ; 
giving,  203;  putting  on, 
222;  removing,  338;  lclt 
on  hives,  447;  andsuper- 
ing,  532 

Surplus  boxes,  243 ;  cases, 
removal  of,  268 

Sussex,  and  Yorkshire,  25; 
a  voice  from,  87 ;  Asso- 
ciation, 259 

Swallows,  370,  394 

Swarm,  how  to  put  into  a 
hive,  231 ;  a  vagabond, 
250  ;  adventure,  a,  280  ; 
erratic,  293 ;  feeding, 
339 ;  can  it  be  left  to 
evening  ?  508 ;  natural, 
placed  on  stand  of  parent 
stock,  508 

Swarms,  15S,  181,  222; 
putting  together,  77 ; 
prevention  of,  158;  caus- 
ing them  to  settle,  173 ; 
and  swarming,  212 ;  pos- 
sible number  of,  ib. ; 
value  of,  ib. ;  purchasing, 
223 ;  setting  up,  243 ; 
how  to  treat,  253,  288 ; 
returning,  273 ;  small, 

Swarming,   212,   373,   532; 

natural  or  artificial,  232 ; 

time    of   queens,  young 

and  old,  laying  eggs,  518 

Symington    pea-flour,    89, 

Syrians,  136, 139 
Syrup,136,181,230;  amount 
stored,  136 ;  in  rusty  tin, 
200  ;  recipe  for,  25? ;  for 
winter-feeding,  417 
Syrup-feeder,  110 
Syrup-feeding,  23,  452 
Syrphida!,  450 

Tabanus  bovinus,  314 
Tar,  64  ;  for  hives,  100 
Teachers  and  bee-keeping, 

Temperature  of  hive,  rais- 
ing the,  38  ;  for  keeping 
comb  honey,  388,  542 

Third-  class  candidates, 
431 ;  certificate,  64,  229, 
314,  352,  410 

Thirty  thousand  stings, 
412,  414,  444 

Thistle  honey,  474 

Thoughts  on  current 
topics,  132,  173,  372 

Thymol,  250 

Tinker,  Dr.,  his  frames,  97 

Tit  killed  by  bees,  84 ;  and 
bees,  197 

Tits,  161,  226,  371 

Toads,  27,  371.  399 

Tomtits,  37,  486,  551;  prob- 
lem, 531,  555 

Tooth-stopping,  309 

Top-bars  of  frames,  524 

Toronto  industrial  exhi- 
bition, 441,  472 ;  recep- 
tion of  Mr.  Cowan  at,  ib. 

Transatlantic  bee- keepers, 

Transferring,  89,  112,  12t, 
134,  188,  273,  294,  315, 
416,  512;  stores,  431; 
time  for,  113  ;  to  smaller, 
sized  frames,  206 

Transparent  roofing,  208 

Trap  for  escape  of  bees, 

Travelling  box,  283 

Treacle,  403 

Trimorphism,  500 

Tristram,  Canon,  42 

Trouessart,  M.,  464 

Turner's  honey  -  squeezer, 

Twichbells,  478 

Uncapped  nymphs,  496 
Uncapping      cells,      100 ; 

sealed  honey,  123 
Unicomb  observatory  hive, 

United  bees  fighting,  437, 

Uniting,  41,   53,    165,  250, 

314,  339,352,  403,  521;  in 

autumn,   462  ;   queenless 

stock,     53 ;    two    weak 

skeps,  220 
Uric  acid,  477,  4S7 
Unslaked  lime,  250 
Useful  hints,  2,  et  passim 

Van  Deusen,  Messrs.,  their 
wired  foundation,  243 

Vaniere,  Prtvdium  kusti- 
cum,  127 

Tarnish  for  hives,  175 

Varnishes,  88 

Varnishing  interior  of 
hive,  210 

Vaseline,  8 

Veil,  135,  414 

Ventilation,  22,  164,  287, 
386,  457 ;  in  winter,  463 

Vespa  Norvegica,  314 

Vienna,  apiarian  exhibi- 
tion at,  138 

Village  clubs,  61 

Visual  organs  of  bees,  318 

Vol.  XV./end  of,  567 

Von  Berlepsch,  on  the  pro- 
portion of  honey  to  wax, 

"Wales,  visit  to  apiary  in,  36 
Walton,  E.   C,  his  honey 

bottle,  44 
Ward,  T.   E.,  his  cure  for 

foul  brood,  397 
Warm  covering,  463 
Warning,  a  word  of,  287 
Wasps,   175,  225,  295,  330, 
372, 38S,  406, 411,  414, 4  H, 
487;    a  word  for,  373; 
and   grapes,    223  ;    how 
caught,  401 ;  how  to  de- 
stroy, 402  ;    injurious  to 
bees,  384;  nest  of,  and 
foul  brood,  455 

Wasp-trap,  an  Irish,  456 
Water  for  bees,  45, 133, 173, 

212,  280,  300,  330 
Watertight  roofs,  257,  296 
Wax    extractor,    Killiek's, 

Wax  foundation,  239 
Wax,  512 ;  separation  from 
pollen,   19,  53,  111;    its 
uses,  29  ;  production  of, 
29,     126 ;     imports    of, 
91.    132,    553  ;     ancient 
uses  of,  126;  history  of, 
ib. ;  adulteration  of,  296; 
analysis  of,  ib. ;  employ- 
ment of,  for  economical 
purposes,  308 
Wax-melting,  25,  42 
Wax-moth,  168,  220 
Wax-scales,  179 
W.  B.  C.  metal  ends,  165, 

217,  243 
Weather,  passim 
Webster,  W.  B.,  his  lectur- 
ing tour  through  Wales, 
1  ;     his     swivel    frame- 
lifter,  33,  60 ;    his  fumi 
gator,  60,  392 ;  lectures, 
4,  61, 216 
Weakening  sections,  542 
Weight   of    combs    before 
and  after  slinging,  104  ; 
in    proportion    to  comb 
surface,  364 
*  When  doctors  differ,'  96 
White  ants,  21 
White     earthen    jar    for 

honey,  236 
White,  Gilbert,  419,430 
Wide  sections,  488 
Width  of  sections,  198 
Wild  flowers,  our,  191 
Wintergreen,  7,  57, 154,  238 
Winter,  making  up  stocks 
for,  239 ;    passages,    44, 
132,  417, 439, 490,  503, 524 ; 
preparation  for,  278, 407, 
452;  stocks,  464;  stores,. 
294;   quilts,  510;    flights 
of   bees,    530 ;    smallest 
amount    of   stores    for, 
534  ;  packing,  538 
Wintering,  164,430;  amount 
of  food  for,   351 ;  requi- 
sites   for,  510 ;    bees  in 
cellars,  515 
Wire-cloth  mesh,  89 
Wiring  frames  for  founda- 
tion, 256 
Wired  foundation,  259, 267, 
303,  335,  400 ;  a  desidera- 
tum, 511 
Woiblet  spurembedder  for 
fixing    foundation,    115, 
197,  220 
Woodleigh,   152,  162,  175, 

217,  423,  462,  466,  536 
Woodley,    A.    D.,   his    tin 
section    cases,  177,  237 
Worker-bees,  136 ;  age  of, 

157,  208,  228,  236,  249 
Worker-cells,  180 
Worker-comb,  180 
Work  for  B.B.K.A.,  443 

Xenophon,  his  account  of 
effect  of  poisonous 
honey,  198 

Yeast,  463 

Yorkshire,  small  voice 
from,  26 ;  County  Asso- 
ciation, 37,  50,  01 ;  notes, 

Young,  Ivan,  Pral-tish, 
302 ;  at  Toronto  exhibi- 
tion, 441,  472 

Zig-zag  slides,  528 ;  en- 
trances, 552 

Zoubareff,  M.  A.  do,  his 
pamphlet  on  honey,  210 

Communications  to  the  Editor  to  be  addressed  '  Stbancieways'  Printino  Office,  Tower  Street,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  w.c.' 

[No.  237.    Vol.  XV.] 

JANUARY  0,  1887. 

[Published  Weekly.] 

(Sfottorcal,  Sotrtcs,  #r. 


We  have  passed  the  threshold  of  another  year, 
but  before  we  commence  the  activities  and  duties 
of  that  on  which  we  have  entered  it  is  desirable  to 
cast  a  retrospective  glance  on  the  progress  of  api- 
culture during  the  year  1886. 

In  looking  back,  then,  on  the  year  that  has  just 
passed  our  mind  is  chiefly  attracted  to  the  numerous 
shows  which  have  been  held  in  various  parts  of 
the  United  Kingdom.  We  are  pleased  to  be  able 
to  note  these  visible  indications  of  the  growing 
interest  taken  in  apiculture  by  agricultural  and 
horticultural  societies  and  by  the  public  generally. 
Wherever  a  meeting  of  a  society  for  the  pro- 
motion of  agriculture,  horticulture,  or  floriculture, 
is  now  held,  the  bee-keepers  are  invited  to  take 
their  part  in  adding  an  attraction  and  in  giving  a 
zest  to  the  show.  The  claim  of  Apiculture  to  be 
allied  to  Agriculture  is  now  generally  recognised. 
This  has  been  notably  the  case  during  the  past  year. 
The  bee  department  at  the  Royal  Agricultural 
Show,  held  at  Norwich,  was  no  unimportant 
auxiliary  to  the  attractions  of  that  exhibition. 
The  visit  to  the  department  by  their  Royal  High- 
nesses the  Prince  and  Princess  of  Wales,  their 
daughters,  and  suite,  will  cause  it  to  be  borne  in 
remembrance  by  bee-keepers.  On  that  occasion 
the  number  of  exhibitors  was  very  large  and  the 
exhibits  were  of  a  very  diversified  character,  and 
the  most,  improved  methods  of  bee-culture  were 
brought  before  the  notice  of  British  agriculturists 
in  a  very  practical  form.  Again,  when  the  Royal 
Horticultural  Society  renewed  its  provincial  shows 
by  holding  one  at  Liverpool,  the  Council  of  the 
British  Bee-keepers'  Association  rendered  material 
assistance  towards  the  arrangement  of  a  depart- 
ment for  bees,  hives,  honey,  &o.  The  Royal 
Counties  Society,  which  had  held  its  meeting 
in  1885  at  Southampton,  this  year  held  it  on 
Southsea  Common,  on  which  occasion  it  was 
accompanied  by  that  enterprising  Association  the 
Hants  and  Isle  of  Wight  B.  K.  A. ;  and  as  this  was 
the  first  occasion  when  a  bee  show  had  been  held 
in  Southsea,  this  Association  made  the  best  of  the 
opportunity  thus  presented.  The  meeting  of  the 
Lincolnshire  Agricultural  Society,  held  at  Lincoln, 

was  also  an  opportunity  which  the  Lincolnshire 
B.  K.  A.  took  advantage  of,  much  to  the  promotion 
of  bee-keeping  in  that  district.  But  the  great  and 
outstanding  event  of  the  year  has  been  the  South 
Kensington  Exhibition.  Never  before  has  there 
been  made  so  effective  and  complete  a  display  of 
the  products  and  appliances  connected  with  bee- 
keeping. To  be  fully  realised,  it  was  necessary 
that  it  should  have  been  witnessed.  It  was  held 
in  one  of  the  finest  buildings  in  the  United 
Kingdom,  in  the  large  and  commodious  Con- 
servatory adjoining  the  Albert  Hall.  No  less  than 
290  exhibitors  sent  contributions  to  the  Exhibition, 
and  the  amount  of  honey  was  calculated  to  be 
nearly  twenty  tons.  The  honey  was  of  a  superior 
quality,  and  it  was  exhibited  in  a  most  attractive 
form.  There  was  a  great  rivalry  among  the  com- 
peting counties  for  precedence.  The  premier  prize 
was  awarded  to  the  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  B.K. A. 
Conferences  were  held  on  the  occasion,  when  im- 
portant papers  were  read  by  several  leading  bee- 
keepers. After  an  interval  of  five  weeks  the 
delegates  from  Canada  exhibited  their  honey  at 
the  Exhibition.  This  exhibit  consisted  of  about 
eighteen  tons  of  honey ;  but  the  flavour  of  the 
honey  was  by  the  best  judges  considered  to  be  not 
comparable  to  that  of  the  United  Kingdom.  The 
oprjortunity  of  practising  fraternal  courtesies  and 
amenities  towards  the  Canadian  bee-keepers  was  not 
neglected ;  and  many  pleasant  and  instructive 
meetings  were  arranged,  in  which  the  mutual 
methods  of  conducting  bee-keeping  in  Canada  and 
Great  Britain  were  earnestly  discussed.  The  ban- 
quet, which  was  held  in  South  Kensington  Ex- 
hibition, and  the  Conversational  Meeting  in  the 
evening,  are  amongst  the  most  pleasant  reminis- 
cences of  our  retrospect.  The  visit  of  the  Canadians 
will  be  long  held  in  remembrance  as  a  chief  feature 
of  the  year  1886. 

There  has  been  a  considerable  development  of 
the  work  of  the  B.  B.  K.  A.  in  the  counties.  Dr. 
Walker  was  specially  deputed  to  visit  South  Wales 
with  a  bee  tent.  In  Glamorganshire  the  cause  was 
much  advanced.  Thence  he  proceeded  to  Cardigan- 
shire and  Montgomeryshire.  A  lecturing  tour  was 
also  conducted  by  Mr.  W.  B.  Webster,  who  delivered 
lectures  in  the  principal  cities  and  villages  in  North 
Wales.  Considerable  progress  has  been  made  in 
Northumberland  ;  and  as  the  Royal  Agricultural 
Society  will  hold  its  next  annual  meeting,  in  July 


[January  6,  1887. 

at  Newcastle,  it  is  expected  that  the  work  already 
begun  there  will  be  then  consolidated  and  com- 
pleted. The  Association  representing  the  counties 
of  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  has  made  considerable 
progress  this  year.  By  the  presence  of  its  repre- 
sentatives at  the  Liverpool  and  South  Kensington 
Exhibition  and  by  their  regular  attendance  at 
the  quarterly  meetings  of  the  B.  B.  K.  A.,  the 
northern  counties  have  been  brought  well  in  touch 
with  the  central  Society.  Ireland,  too,  has  pro- 
gressed considerably  during  the  year ;  although 
not  largely  represented  at  the  South  Kensington 
Exhibition,  it  held  its  own,  and  secured  a  large 
share  of  the  honours  bestowed  in  proportion  to 
the  number  of  exhibits  sent  in  for  competition. 
The  future  of  bee-keeping  in  the  United  King- 
dom materially  depends  on  the  loyalty  of  the 
affiliated  Associations  and  the  support  they  are 
prepared  to  render  to  the  Central  Society.  There 
is  yet  much  fallow  ground  to  be  broken  up,  and 
the  work  before  the  Parent  Association  is  as 
arduous  as  it  is  important.  May  all  bee-keepers 
give  cheerful  and  ready  assistance  in  promoting 
the  progress  of  the  work  which  yet  remains  to 
be  done. 

In  literature  we  may  point  to  the  large  circula- 
tion Modem  Bee-keeping,  issued  under  the  auspices 
of  the  British  Bee-keepers' Association,  has  attained. 
A  new  edition,  bringing  the  work  up  to  the  present 
times,  consisting  of  10,000  copies,  has  been  issued. 
We  may  say,  without  fear  of  contradiction,  that  the 
circulation  of  this  work  is  unprecedented  in  the 
annals  of  bee-literature,  being  far  in  advance  of 
any  work  of  a  similar  kind.  Mr.  Cowan's  Guide- 
Boole  has  also  met  with  much  success  during  the 
year ;  it  has  now  reached  its  eighth  edition,  and 
the  number  of  copies  issued  has  been  15,000.  The 
work  has  already  been  translated  into  the  Swedish 
and  French  languages  ;  and  arrangements  are  now 
being  made  for  its  being  translated  into  Danish, 
Russian,  and  Spanish.  Mr.  Cowan  has  also  sent 
forth  a  pamphlet  on  Doitbling  and  Storifying,  which 
will  prove  of  great  service  to  bee-keepers  desirous 
of  increasing  their  produce  of  honey.  A  cheap 
edition  of  the  Rev.  F.  G.  Jeuyns'  work  on  Bee- 
keeping for  the  Young  has  been  published.  The 
first  volume  of  Mr.  Cheshire's  work  is  completed, 
and  the  second  is  being  continued  in  monthly 

By  the  aid  of  the  various  shows,  and  the  action 
of  the  Honey  Companies,  the  sale  of  honey  has 
been  much  popularised,  and  a  great  impulse  has 
been  given  to  its  sale  during  the  year.  Already  we 
hear  that  the  wholesale  buyers  arc  unable  to 
purchase  sufficient  sections  to  meet  the  demands 
made  upon  them.  This  is  promising  news  for  the 
cultivators  of  honey  and  emphasises  the  advice 
we  have  frequently  given  to  bee-keepers,  namely, 
not  to  place  before  the  public  immediately  after 
the  honey  season  the  whole  of  the  produce  of  their 
apiaries,  but  to  keep  it  in  reserve  till  they  are 
warranted  in  asking  and  obtaining  a  higher  price 
for  their  honey.  We  hope  the  attention  of 
bee-keepers  will,  in  the  expectation  of  increasing 
amounts   of  honey   being   produced,    direct   their 

attention  to  the  discovery  of  further  utilities   of 
honey  in  the  way  of  beverages,  comestibles,  <fcc. 

During  the  year  considerable  attention  has  been 
paid  to  the  introduction  of  new  races  of  bees. 
From  Cyprus,  Carniola,  the  Holy  Land,  South 
Africa,  America,  &c,  there  have  been  considerable 
importations.  These  attempts  to  introduce  bees  of 
superior  powers  have  found  much  encouragement 
amongst  our  leading  bee-masters,  but  the  English 
black  bee  still  continues  to  hold  its  place  in  the 
estimation  of  the  great  body  of  bee-keepers. 

The  imports  of  honey  for  the  year  are  not  yet 
complete ;  we  hope,  however,  in  the  course  of  the 
present  month  to  have  full  statistics  before  us,  when 
we  propose  to  take  the  opportunity  of  dealing  with 
both  the  honey  imports  for  1886  and  the  wax 
imports  and  exports  for  1885. 

Notwithstanding  the  grand  display  of  honey  at 
the  South  Kensington  Exhibition,  the  season  of 
1886  cannot  be  pronounced  to  have  been  a  prosper- 
ous one.  In  some  localities  it  has  been  favourable, 
but  the  yield  in  the  United  Kingdom  generally 
has  not  reached  the  average  of  previous  honey 
yeai's.  Hope,  however,  ever  dwells  in  the  hearts 
of  bee-keepers ;  and  we  trust,  with  enlarged  expe- 
rience, and  with  improved  appliances,  their  best  and 
brightest  hopes  for  1887  may  be  fully  realised. 

G.  H. 


To  our  readers,  old  and  young,  experienced  and  novices, 
a  hearty  greeting  with  the  new  year  :  may  it  prove  to 
each  and  all  a  year  of  happiness  and  prosperity,  and  not 
less  so  to  our  great  care,  the  bees.  The  old  departs,  the 
new  enters — enters  in  a  mantle  of  white,  departs  with 
storm  and  hurricane,  fatal,  alas,  to  many  a  poor  mariner 
—enters  with  joyous  forecast,  the  pleasures  of  hope,  to 
all,  save  the  aged,  the  worn,  and  weary.  Days  are 
creeping  out,  fog  and  cloud  will  soon  give  place  to 
sunshine,  and  our  little  sun-worshippers  will  soon  again 
be  flitting  from  flower  to  flower,  and  carrying  home  to 
their  callow  brood  the  precious  burdens  of  pollen  and 
nectar.  At  present  many  of  our  hives  are  deep  below  the 
banks  of  snow,  but  we  cannot  help  anticipating,  in 
thought  at  least,  the  good  time  coming.  The  late 
storms,  we  fear,  will  have  disarranged  many  apiaries. 
Fortunately,  our  own  have  stood  firm — not  a  hive  over- 
turned, not  a  roof  displaced. 

The  departed  year  will  assuredly  rank  as  an  annus 
mirabilis  in  the  records  of  apiculture.  Progress  has  been 
its  watchword,  and  long  will  it  be  remembered  in  con- 
nexion with  the  gracious  patronage  of  Royalty  and  the 
visit  of  Colonial  apiarists  to  our  shores.  And  not  less, 
perhaps,  by  the  importance  of  the  bibliological  additions 
to  scientific  and  practical  apicultural  literature  which 
have  issued  from  the  press.  New  editions  of  those  truly 
practical  works — Cowan's  British  Bee-keepers'  Guide,  and 
Modern  Bee-keeping,  have  been  called  for ;  and  Mr. 
Jenyns'  excellent  little  work,  A  Book  about  Bees,  has 
been  published  in  so  cheap  a  form  as  to  render  its  useful- 
ness to  the  rising  generation  tenfold  that  of  the  previous 
issue.  Professor  Cook,  treating  of  the  new  work  of  Mr. 
James  Ileddon,  Success  in  Bee  Culture,  says  : — 

'  It  ia  wholly,  from  first  to  last,  practical.  Rarely  does 
any  work  bring  such  a  profusion  of  rich,  practical  hints 
as  does  this.  On  every  page  is  some  suggestion  which 
commends  itself  to  the  wise  apiarist.  I  would  advise  any 
bee-keeper  who  has  not  read  Success  in  Bee  Culture  to 
procure  a  copy  and  study  it  thoroughly,  since  nothing  will 
tend  more  to  win  success.' 

January  6,  1887.] 


We  need  scarcely  remark  that  Professor  Cook  is 
strongly  in  favour  of  '  inversion,'  and  uses  the  Heddon 
hive,  of  which  he  speaks  most  highly.  He  also  refers  in 
flattering  terms  to  Mr.  Simmins'  brochure,  The  Nortr 
Siuarming  System,  as  a  'racy  little  work  from  England,' 
and  says : — 

'  If  unfinished  combs  next  to  the  entrance  of  a  hive  are  a 
sure  security  against  swarming,  it  is  surely  an  interesting 
fact  which  can  be  turned  to  good  use.  Mr.  Simmius'  idea 
of  crowding  bees  into  the  sections  reminds  me  of  much  that 
has  been  said  by  two  of  our  distinguished  bee-keepers, 
Messrs.  Heddon  and  Hutchinson.  Simmins'  method  of 
direct  introduction  of  queens  is  not  new  in  America.  This 
work,  I  am  sure,  will  interest  and  benefit  the  American  bee- 
keepers who  may  read  it.' 

We  think  the  Professor  confuses  Mr,  Simmins'  former 
and  later  systems  of  '  Queen  Introduction,'  since  his 
former  plan,  of  introducing  a  queen  with  brood  and  bees, 
has  been  long  practised  in  America  and  elsewhere ;  but 
so  far  as  we  are  aware,  his  later  system,  of  introducing  a 
queen  sola,  after  dark,  at  the  top  of  the  hive,  and  after 
thirty  minutes'  fasting,  has  never  before  been  set  forth 
as  a  system,  nor  practised  individually.  We  still,  there- 
fore, adhere  to  our  motto  of  '  Suum  cuique,'  in  this,  as  in 
other  cases. 

Hives  and  Standard  Frames. — In  our  last '  Hints' 
we  confessed  to  a  longing  for  a  larger  frame,  which  might 
be  worked  in  connexion  with  the  present  Standard,  and 
expressed  an  opinion  that  such  a  frame  might  be  success- 
fully introduced  by  private  enterprise.     We  are  pleased 
to  learn  that  Mr.  Simmins  is  of  the  same  opinion,  and 
that  for  three  years  his  brain  has  been  at  work  on  the 
subject,  resulting  in  the  production  of  a  hive  for  which 
he  is  now  obtaining  a  patent.    By  the  courtesy  of  the 
inventor  we  have  been  favoured  with  a  sight  of  the 
drawings,  and  a  full  description  of  the  hive.     To  this 
hive  Mr.  Simmins  referred  in  his  letter  (No.  700),  and 
stated  that  if  there  appeared  a  desire  for  a  larger  frame, 
he  might  at  some  future  date  describe  the  hive  he  used, 
in  which  could  be  worked  advantageously  a  14"  x  14" 
frame   together   with  the  present  Standard.     Without 
going  into  a  full  description  of  the  hive — which,  we 
hope,  together  with  the  drawings,  may  shortly  appear  in 
the  Journal — we  may  say  the  distinctive  features  of  the 
hive  consist  of  four  novelties,  which   are   more  par- 
ticularly to  be  protected  by  patent,  viz. :  —  (1.)  A  key 
arrangement  for  holding  shallow  frames  and  skeleton 
section-holders  in  place,  for  inversion,  when    desired. 
(2.)  Folding  skeleton  section-frames,  which  can  he  used 
either  with  or  without  a  rack,  in  various  parts  of  the  hive. 
(3.)  A  pliable  adapting-board,  and  (4)  a  weather  rabbet 
for  protecting  the  joints  of  the  hive.     Besides  these, 
there   are   other  features  entirely  new  to  us,  such  as 
metal  rests  let  into  saw-cuts  on  floor-board ;  a  sunk  floor- 
board forming  a  permanent  feeder;  as  luve-entrances, 
small  circular  holes ;  the  plan  of  suspending  the  14-inch 
frames,  which  are  partly  close-ended ;  bee-space  provided 
at  top  of  frames  instead  of  bottom ;   an  ingenious  and 
simple  plan  of  enlarging  or  diminishing  the  bee-space ; 
the  shallow,  or  super-frames  (12"  x  6"),  standing  on  end 
close  up  to  the  larger  ones,  &c.    The  hive  itself,  when 
complete,  with  roof,  forms  a  most  picturesque   object, 
and  its  appearance  is  thoroughly  English,  sound,  and 
substantial,  and  it  is  clearly  impervious  to  weather. 

Taken  as  a  whole  it  is  simplicity  itself,  notwithstand- 
ing its  various  parts — all  of  which  can  be  worked  on  the 
invertible  system — although  Mr.  Simmins  is  not  an 
advocate  of  the  plan — and  we  cannot  but  aug'ur  a  suc- 
cessful future  for  a  hive  which  unites  in  itself  so  many 
good  points,  and  which  can  be  worked  with  the  greatest 
ease,  both  with  the  standard  and  larger  frames. 

Flowers  for  Bees. — We  have  received  a  beautifully 
illustrated  annual  from  Messrs.  Webb  &  Sons,  which 
they  style  Webb's  Sjn-ing  Catalogue  of  Vegetable  and 
Flower  Seeds,  and  in  which  thev  give  a  short  but  useful 

essay  on  '  Flowers  for  Bees.'     We  quote  the  following  as 
of  considerable  importance  and  interest : — 

'  AVherever  fruit  trees  are  grown  in  quantity,  either  out 
of  doors  or  under  glass,  no  better  assistants  in  ensuring 
fertilisation  can  be  obtained  than  the  bees,  and  some  of  the 
most  successful  market  fruit  growers  attribute  the  regularity 
of  their  crops  to  the  industrious  aid  of  these  insects.  Most 
of  our  hardy  fruit  trees,  however,  flower  in  early  spring, 
and  there  is  a  long  period  during  which  the  bees  have  to 
seek  their  honey  and  pollen  supplies  in  other  directions. 
To  assist  in  this  we  have  prepared  the  following  list  of 
plants  that  are  most  serviceable  for  the  purpose,  and  which 
are  most  frequented  by  the  bees.  The  object  is  to  obtain 
as  long  a  succession  of  bloom  as  possible,  and  this  can  be 
effected  with  most  annuals,  or  biennials,  by  sowing  batches 
of  seed  at  different  times,  so  that  plants  are  had  in  all 
stages.  Have  a  good  quantity  of  whatever  plants  are 
employed,  as  patches  are  not  of  much  use,  and  will  be 
scarcely  sufficient  to  keep  the  bees  at  home,  and  it  should 
be  remembered  that  if  this  can  be  accomplished  much 
time  will  be  saved  in  the  filling  of  supers,  a  quick  reti  r  j  in 
honey  amply  compensating  for  expenditure  in  the  purchase 
of  seeds.  Four  plants  that  should  be  grown  extensively 
are  Limnanthes  Douglasi,  mignonette,  borage,  and  the 
corn-flower  (Oentaurea  cyanus).  As  much  ground  as  pos- 
sible should  be  devoted  to  these.  Sweet  scabious  is  a  good 
plant  for  summer  flowering,  and  does  particularly  well  on 
banks  or  mounds.  Sweet  alyssum  and  the  white  arabis 
also  merit  a  portion  of  the  ground,  and  will  well  repay  for 
the  space  occupied.  Wallflowers  are  almost  indispensable 
in  early  spring,  and  cannot  be  too  freely  employed.  The 
phacelia  is  a  capital  plant  for  a  later  period,  as  also  are 
candytuft,  stocks,  and  sweet  peas. 

'  Suitable  additions  to  this  list  will  be  found  in  the 
following  annuals  :— Ambrosia  Mexicana,  Calliopsis  bicolor, 
Cerinthe'  major,  Clarkia  pulchella,  Colinsia  bicolor,  Col- 
lornia  coccinea,  Gillia  tricolor,  Leptosiphon  densiflorus, 
Lupins,  Nasturtium,  Phlox  Drummondi,  and  Whitlavia 
grandiflora.  Shrubs  like  the  berberis,  lilac,  and  ribes,  are 
useful,  and  among  trees  the  lime  and  sycamore  are  perhaps 
the  best. 

'All  the  sunflower  tribes  are  favourites  with  the  bees, 
also  thyme,  and  most  herbs  may  be  added  with  advantage.' 

It  is  a  pleasing  circumstance  that  one  of  our  largest 
and  most  suocessful  firms  of  seed-growers  acknowledges 
the  growing  importance  of  apicultnre,  as  Messrs.  Webb 
do  by  stating  that : — 

'  The  number  of  amateur  apiarians  has  increased  greatly 
in  the  past  few  years,  for,  apart  from  the  bountiful  stores 
of  honey  so  easily  obtained  under  the  modern  system  of 
management,  it  is  now  generally  recognised  that  bees 
perform  a  most  important  work  in  the  garden.' 

We  may  here  mention  that  Mr.  Cowan  informs  us 
that  he  has  grown  Echinops  spheerocephalus  for  eight  or 
ten  years,  and  classes  it  high  as  a  bee-plant. 

Many  of  our  readers,  no  doubt,  are  well  acquainted 
with  Echinops"  Ritro,  an  ornamental  perennial  border- 
plant,  which  bears  a  blue  flower,  and  of  which  bees  are 
very  fond. 

Cyprians. — Much  has  been  written  respecting  the 
Cyprian  bee,  some  praising  it  highly,  others  condemning 
it  utterly.  Our  own  view,  after  some  years'  experience, 
is  that  it  is,  when  thoroughly  acclimatised,  the  best 
honey-bee  of  all.  We  have  no  difficulty  in  handling 
them,  although,  as  with  other  races,  colonies  vary  in 
temperament.  The  capping  of  their  sections  is  extremely 
light,  consequently  the  honey  is  more  apt  to  '  sweat.' 
The  breeding  power  of  the  queens  is  simply  marvellous, 
and  large  hives,  with  ample  ventilation,  are  required  to 
prevent  swarming.  The  cross  between  the  Cyprian 
and  Italian  is  one  of  the  best,  if  not  the  best.  Next  we 
should  place  that  between  the  Syrian  and  Italian,  or 
between  the  Syrian  and  Black.  All  these  hybrids  are 
splendid  workers,  extremely  prolific,  and  produce  fine 
sections,  though  somewhat  more  lightly  sealed  than 
those  worked  by  pure  Blacks.  The  cross  between  the 
Carniolans  and  the  Eastern  races  has  not  proved  very 


[January  6,  1887. 

successful  with  us  in  a  few  cases  we  have  tried,  but 
we  hope  to  experiment  further  in  this  direction. 

Thus  far  our  Carniolans  have  failed  to  give  anything 
like  the  surplus  obtained  from  Cyprians,  Syrians,  Ita- 
lians, and  Blacks,  but  they  are,  undoubtedly,  most  amia- 
ble iu  temper,  so  much  so,  indeed,  that  '  a  little  child 
may  lead  them.' 

Entrances,  Manipulation,  Changing  Quilts,  &c. 
Frost-bound  as  the  country  is,  and  blocked  with  snow, 
it  seems  sadly  out  of  place  to  discuss  these  matters,  but 
when  the  thaw  comes,  and  the  sun  shines,  a  change  of 
quilts,  from  damp  to  dry,  will  be  advantageous.  En- 
trances aro  best  kept  at  summer's  width,  and  should 
occasionally  be  cleared  from  dead  bees  and  other  refuse. 

When  changing  quilts  the  amount  of  sealed  honey  near 
the  tops  of  the  frames  should  be  noted,  and,  if  required, 
food  must  be  supplied  in  shape  of  candy,  &c,  beneath 
the  renewed  quilts,  since  strong  colonies  will  be  breeding 
now,  and  the  consumption,  of  stores  will  increase  daily. 

But  examination  must  be  made  on  fine  warm  days 
only,  and  our  watchwords  must  still  be  rest  and  quiet 

After  long  frost  dysentery  will  appear  in  many 
colonies,  which  must  be  treated  as  previously  advised. 
Nothing  tends  more  to  keep  bees  healthy  than  an  occa- 
sional cleansing  flight.  On  Christmas  Day,  which  was 
bright  and  warm,  all  our  strongest  colonies  were  in  full 
flight,  and  their  cheering  hum  spoke  pleasantly  of  sum- 
mer days  to  come. 

Assuredly  a  sheltered  position,  with  sunny  southern 
aspect,  conduces  towards  the  healthiness  of  an  apiary. 
Beware  of  bluetits  and  mice,  keep  the  hives  snug  and 
warm,  with  plenty  of  covering,  disturb  as  little  as  possi- 
ble, and  make  all  necessary  preparation  for  the  busy  time 
coming,  and  when  at  last  the  harvest  arrives  you  will 
reap  the  due  reward  of  foresight  and  industry. 


The  last  of  the  Canadian  delegates,  Mr.  D.  A.  Jones, 
of  Beuton,  Ontario,  has  taken  his  departure  from  our 
shores.  Mr.  Jones's  time  at  the  last  was  (as  usual 
with  parties  sailing  for  the  West)  fully  taken  up,  but  the 
Lancashire  and  Cheshire  bee-keepers  were  fortunate  to 
have  him  spend  his  last  evening  in  England  (Wednesday, 
the  28th  December,  1886)  with  some  of  their  members 
at  the  Bear's  Paw  Restaurant,  Liverpool,  when  the  few 
members,  who  at  the  short  notice  Mr.  Jones  had  given 
them  of  the  exact  day  of  his  departure  had  been  gathered 
together,  spent  a  very  enjoyable  evening,  Mr.  Carr  en- 
tering into  a  very  interesting  discussion  on  the  merits  of 
the  improvements  in  the  Oarr-Stewarton  hive,  and  on 
the  best  means  of  putting  honey  up  cheaply  and  attract- 
ively for  sale. 

Mr.  Jones,  to  those  who  saw  him  off  at  the  steamer, 
expressed  himself  very  warmly  at  the  kindly  way  ho  had 
been  entertained  during  his  visit  to  England. 


All  who  take  interest  in  bee-literature  and  doings  will 
receive  with  regret  the  sad  tidings  that  Mr.  John  Lowe 
died  on  the  15th  December  at  his  residence,  Slateford 
House,  near  Edinburgh .  From  time  to  ti  mo  d  uring  the  last 
twenty-live  years  lie  lias  cnrichod  the  pages  of  the  Journal 
<>f  Horticulture  with  interesting  communications  on  bee- 
subjects.  He  also,  for  a  period,  contributed  weekly 
articles  on  the  same  subjects  to  the  Farmer. 

Mr.  Lowe  was  u  skilled  practical  bee-master,  and  first 
set  up  an  apiary,  within  Edinburgh,  near  the  Dean 
Bridge,  but  I  he  Egyptian  race  which  ho  introduced 
proving  offensive  to  tho  surrounding  inhabitants  coni- 
pellod  liim  in  remove  it. 

As  an  able  controversialist  and  elegant  writer  he  had 
few  equals.  He  held  his  opinions  with  great  tenacity, 
aud  to  his  skirmish  with  Mr.  Woodbury  iu  186-'!  on  the 
subject  of  foul  brood,  and  his  persistency  in  maintaining 
it  was  only  an  artificial  disease  created  by  experiment- 
alists, we  are  indebted  for  the  efforts  that  were  subse- 
quently made  to  discover  its  cause  and  cure.  The 
controversy  brought  into  the  field  the  testimony  and 
experience  of  the  highest  authorities  of  the  day,  such 
as  the  '  Renfrewshire  Bee-keeper,'  the  '  Hampshire,' 
the  '  Lanarkshire,'  '  B.  and  W.,'  &c,  &c.  The  result  of 
their  evidence  was  to  prove  that '  foul  brood '  was  a  real 
and  not  an  artificial  disease. 

As  a  man  and  member  of  society  Mr.  Lowe  was 
genial,  affable,  and  unwilling  to  offend,  being  animated 
by  a  true  Christian  spirit,  and  cherishing  the  kindliest 
feelings  towards  all.  It  was  his  lot  to  be  bereaved  of 
his  wife  and  children,  save  one  daughter  who  survives 
him,  but  with  fortitude  he  bore  the  loss,  and  meekly 
bowed  to  the  stroke.  Many  of  his  reflections  having 
reference  to  time  and  mortality  are  embodied  in  beautiful 
pieces  of  poetry. 

Mr.  Lowe  was  much  respected  by  the  circle  in  which 
he  moved,  and  to  show  their  appreciation  of  his  worth 
and  service  in  the  Clydesdale  Bank,  where  he  long  held 
a  responsible  position,  the  Directors,  on  his  being  attacked 
by  paralysis  three  years  ago,  generously  retired  him  on 
a  life  pension  of  15(K.  per  annum. 

The  death  of  such  a  man,  followed  as  it  was  on  the 
18th  by  that  of  Dr.  John  Mackenzie,  who  in  1860  wrote 
a  little  book  on  The  Management  of  Bees,  makes  a  great 
blank  in  the  bee-world. 


I  received  a  letter  this  morning  from  Mr.  W.  Chitty, 
of  Pewsey,  in  which  he  complains  that  in  the  B.  B. 
Journal  for  November  18th  I  used  words  that  go 
beyond  friendly  criticism.  I  very  much  wish  he  had 
called  attention  to  them  in  tho  Journal  the  following 
week,  as  it  would  have  given  me  an  earlier  opportunity 
of  tendering  him,  which  I  do  now,  my  humble  apology 
if  any  of  my  words  have  caused  him  any  annoyance. — 
Amateur  Expert,  January  1st,  1887. 


At  the  close  of  the  recent  meeting  of  the  'Socioto 
Centrale  d'Apiculture  et  d'Insectologie '  of  Paris,  a 
discussion  took  place  regarding  the  Bee  Association,  or 
'  Groupement  Apicole,'  so  designated,  to  be  formed  for 
Seine-et-Oise.  The  Chairman  pointed  out  that  it  was 
for  the  promoters  of  the  movement  to  explain  to  the 
members  present  the  basis  upon  which  this  new  organiza- 
tion was  to  be  brought  about.  Whereupon  Monsieur 
Asset  urged  that  in  the  articles  of  constitution  provision 
should  bo  made  for  the  establishment  of  a  practical 
apiary,  stating  that,  although  the  primary  object  of  the 
proposed  '  groupement '  was  that  of  opposing  certain 
municipal  regulations  which  were  considered  an  en- 
croachment upon  the  bee-keeping  interests,  the  apiary 
ho  advocated  would  serve  as  a  means  of  raising  funds  for 
the  Association . — L'Apicidfeur. 

According  to  tho  Apiculteur,  the  duties  payablo  upon 
bee-produce,  when  imported  into  France  bj'  sea,  are  as 
follows: — Wax — Brown,  yellow,  or  white,  in  admitted 
bulk,  1  franc  per  100  kilos,  except  Algerian,  which  is 
duty  free.  When  manufactured  into  candles,  10  francs 
per  100  kilos.  Wax  refuse  in  bulk  is  also  free.  Honey, 
when  imported  by  sea,  is  subject  to  a  duty  of  10  francs 
per  100  kilos  gross  weight,  which  brings  it  up  to  about 
I  1  frniics  por  100  kilos  net. 

January  6,  1887.] 


Windsob  Branch. 

The  above  branch  held  its  animal  general  meeting'  at 
the  Albert  Institute,  Windsor,  on  Thursday,  December 
16th.  The  meeting  began  with  the  hon.  secretary's 
report  for  the  year  1886,  and  then  followed  the  election 
of  officers  for  the  ensuing  year.  The  hon.  secretary, 
the  Rev.  R.  Ellington,  congratulated  the  society 
upon  its  satisfactory  condition.  In  January,  1886,  it 
became  affiliated  with  the  county  society.  The  number 
of  members  on  the  books  last  year  was  17.  During  the 
last  twelve  months  they  had  risen  to  42.  In  August 
the  branch  held  a  show  in  the  grounds  of  Clewer  Park, 
in  conjunction  with  the  Clewer  Horticultural  Society. 
Prizes  were  given  away  to  the  amount  of  about  Gl. 
The  manipulating  tent,  presided  over  by  Mr.  A.  D. 
Woodley,  the  expert  to  the  County  Association,  brought 
in  between  21.  and  31.  to  the  receipts.  There  were  some 
good  samples  of  comb  and  run  honey  shown,  and  one 
cottager  sent  over  100  lbs.  of  tilled  sections.  Considering 
the  size  of  the  branch  the  show  may  be  looked  upon  as 
very  successful.  The  receipts  amounted  to  11/.  15s.  0d., 
while  the  total  expenditure  was  9/.  Is.  lid.,  leaving  a 
balance  of  21.  13s.  Id.  The  hon.  secretary  was  invited 
again  to  take  office,  and  the  former  committee  were 
unanimously  re-elected. 

After  the  business  of  the  meeting  was  concluded  a 
social  gathering  of  friends  of  members  was  held. 
Admission  was  by  ticket,  each  member  receiving  two  for 
distribution.  Several  members  of  the  committee  gave 
short  addresses  on  various  subjects  connected  with 
bee-keeping,  and  a  discussion  followed.  There  was  a 
small  exhibition  of  appliances  by  Mr.  Sevenoaks,  and. 
honey  by  the  hon.  secretary.  Mr.  John  Minter,  of 
Clewer  Nurseries,  brought  a  microscope,  and  exhibited 
some  very  interesting  slides.  A  table,  presided  over  by 
Miss  Goring,  a  member  of  the  branch,  was  set  apart  for 
light  refreshments  in  the  shape  of  tea,  coffee,  and 
biscuits,  the  arrangements  having  been  carried  out  by 
Mr.  G.  Cartland.  After  a  very  pleasant  evening  the 
company  dispersed  about  ten  p.m.,  several  persons 
having  given  in  their  names  as  members  for  1887. 


The  Editor  does  not  hold  himself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed 
by  his  correspondents.  No  attention  will  be  taken  of  anonymous  com- 
munications, and  correspondents  arc  requested  to  write  or,  one  side  of 
the  paper  only,  and  give  their  real  names  and  addresses,  not  necessarily 
for  publication,  but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith.  Illustrations  should 
be  drawn  on  separate  pieces  of  paper. 

Communications  relating  to  the  literary  department,  reports  of 
Associations,  Shows,  Meetings,  Echoes,  Queries,  Books  for  Review, 
&c,  must  be  addressed  only  to  'The  Editor  of  the  "British  Bee 
Journal,"  cjo  Messrs.  Strangeways  and  Sons,  Tower  Street,  Upper 
St.  Martin's  Lane,  London,  W.  C  All  business  communications  relating 
to  Advertisements,  &c,  must  be  addressed  to  Mr.  J.  Huckle,  King's 
Langley,  Herts  (see'2nd  page  of  Advertisements). 

%*  In  order  to  facilitate  reference,  Correspondents,  when  speaking  of 
any  letter  or  query  previously  inserted,  will  oblige  by  mentioning  the 
number  of  the  letter,  as  well  as  the  page  on  which  it  appears. 

[753.]  As  the  time  approaches  when  the  members  of 
the  British  Bee-keepers'  Association  will  be  called  upon 
to  elect  the  Committee  for  the  ensuing  year  the  thought 
occurs  to  me,  as  indeed  it  has  on  previous  occasions,  that 
some  guidance  from  you  would  be  of  much  value  in 
regard  to  the  choice  of  the  candidates  who  may  offer 
themselves  for  the  coming  year.  In  venturing  to  broach 
the  subject,  let  it  not  be  thought  that  any  pretence  is 
made  by  me  to  stand  in  any  other  position  than  that 
of  an  ordinary  member  of  the  Association,  heartily 
desiring  its  welfare;  nor  more  particularly  let  it  be 
supposed  that  any  observation  of  mine  should  imply 
other  than  the  fullest  appreciation  of  the  invaluable 
services  which  the  Committee  has  devoted  in  the  past, 
and  notably  during  the  year  now  closing,  to  the  interests 

of  the  Association ;  but  my  feeling  is  that  gratitude  for 
these  services  should,  besides  securing  for  them  a  stereo- 
typed expression  of  thanks  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the 
members,  show  itself  in  endeavouring  to  make  the  Com- 
luitteo  more  perfect  in  its  individual  composition,  so 
that  the  work  performed  may  be  the  contributions  of 
all  its  members.  An  examination  of  the  reports  of 
Committee  meetings  in  the  British  Bee  Journals  shows 
that  a  certain  number  of  gentlemen  devote  a  large 
amount  of  time  and  labour,  not  to  mention  expense,  in 
promoting  the  interests  of  the  Association ;  and  it  may 
be  concluded  that  from  this  section  of  the  Committee 
the  numerous  sub-committees  are  also  drawn.  Now  as 
the  interests  of  the  Association  are  so  faithfully  guarded  ■ 
by  these  more  diligent  members,  it  seems  to  be  incum- 
bent upon  the  electing  body  that  no  imperfect  workers, 
or  drones,  shoidd  find  a  place  in  the  new  Committee.  It 
is  presumed  that  the  number  forming  the  Committee  is 
requisite  to  carry  on  the  work  of  the  Association ;  if, 
therefore,  any  gentleman  now  forming  one  of  that 
number  foresees  the  probability  of  his  not  being  able  to 
undertake  his  full  share  of  the  work,  it  becomes  his  duty 
to  abstain  from  offering  himself. 

You,  Mr.  Editor,  may  materially  assist  and  influence  a 
good  choice  by  placing  before  your  readers  a  record  of 
the  attendances  of  the  several  members  at  ordinary  and 
special  Committees  during  the  past  year,  and  by  bringing 
under  notice  other  eligible  persons  whom  it  would  be  to 
the  interests  of  the  Association  to  have  upon  the  Com- 

And  here  the  thought  strikes  me  that  desirable  as 
it  is  that  the  Committee  shall  be  within  easy  distance 
of  the  place  of  meeting,  one  exception  might  be  made  to 
secure  if  possible  an  eligible  member  residing  in  the 
district  in  which  the  Royal  Agricultural  Show  is  held, 
who  would  thus  be  able  to  render  valuable  assistance  to 
the  Committee  in  carrying  out  the  important  work  of 
the  bee  department  at  such  show.  I  merely  put  this 
forward  as  a  suggestion,  thinking  that  something  practical 
might  arise  out  of  it. 

In  venturing  to  open  the  subject  1  have  endeavoured 
to  avoid  giving  offence  to  anybody,  and  I  may  have  erred 
in  judgment  in  busying  myself  upon  it,  but  if  my  act 
results  in  bringing  assistance  to  the  harder-worked 
members  of  the  Committee  I  shall  be  rewarded. 

Wishing  you  a  happy  new  year,  and  prosperity  to 
the  Bee  Journal,  as  also  to  the  cause  it  aims  to  promote, 
I  am,  &c, — J.  Gahratt,  JECockenden,  St.  Mary  Cray, 
Dec.  28. 

[The  record  of  attendances  at  Committee-meetings 
would  only  partially  show  the  interest  taken  by  the  Com- 
mittee in  the  work  of  the  Association,  as  a  large  amount 
of  work  is  done  by  those  who  are  unable  to  attend  through 
means  of  the  post.  If  a  less  number  of  Committee-men 
were  elected  by  the  members,  and  the  Committee  were 
given  power  to  elect  the  remainder,  as  proposed  by  Mr. 
Stewart  at  the  last  annual  meeting,  many  eligible  mem- 
bers might  be  drafted  in,  and  the  large  amount  of  work 
would  be  more  easily  overtaken. — Ed.] 

[754.]  When  I  examined  my  hives  in  April  I  found 
all  very  flourishing  and  happy,  except  my  two  stocks  of 
Ligurianised  fiends,  who  had  some  honey  left  but  no 
brood.  I  had  removed  their  queens  in  October,  and 
substituted  two  British  princesses  in  their  room,  but  the 
demons  had  evidently  objected  to  the  prospect  of  a 
peaceful  reign,  and  had  repeated  the  crime  of  January 
30.  I  placed  in  the  midst  of  each  hive  a  comb  full  of 
brood  and  having  a  queen-cell  on  it  ;  one  stock  im- 
mediately left  the  hive  in  disgust  and  quartered  them- 
selves upon  their  next  neighbours,  leaving  the  brood  to 
perish  ;  the  other  reared  the  brood  and  then  left  the 
hive,  compelling  the  third  hive  from  their  own  to  make 


[January  6,  1887. 

room  for  them.  They  did  all  (and  more)  of  the  sentry 
work  required  in  the  two  hives  during  the  summer,  and 
just  because  my  gardener  chose  to  work  one  day  for  an 
hour  in  front  of  them,  they  sallied  forth  and  stung  some 
men  who  were  slating  the  roof  of  the  house,  a  hundred 
yards  off.  Several  were  still  alive  in  October  who  must  be 
more  than  a  year  old,  showing  that  the  common  idea  of 
the  working  bee  living  only  six  or  seven  weeks  in  the 
summer  is  incorrect.  Should  any  be  still  surviving  next 
season  I  will  let  you  know.  Virgil  gives  seven  years  as 
the  limit  of  a  bee's  life.  Doubtless  their  numerous 
enemies,  birds,  &c,  shorten  their  average  life  immensely, 
but  I  am  not  inclined  to  think  that  such  industrious 
creatures  die  of  premature  exhaustion. 

Upon  two  of  my  hives  I  placed  very  large  sections, 
12xox2  inches,  with  wooden  separators.  A  few  of 
these  were  filled  with  lovely  large  combs,  quite  even, 
of  about  4i-  lbs.,  but  in  most  of  them  the  bees  had  built 
from  top  to  bottom  four  large  lemon-shaped  combs, 
attached  merely  by  the  button  at  each  end ;  the  spaces 
between  these  were  filled  up  with  flounce-shaped  pieces, 
broad  and  wide  at  the  bottom  and  rising  up  to  a  point, 
built  on  to  the  dividers.  It  was  a  most  beautiful 
specimen  of  constructive  engineering,  but  not  very  con- 
venient for  unpacking. 

Two  swarms  in  succession  absolutely  refused  to  make 
themselves  comfortable  iu  one  of  the  hives  vacated  by 
the  queenless  Ligurians,  though  it  was  full  of  clear  last 
year's  comb.  In  each  case  they  deserted  it  the  next  day. 
I  suppose  they  knew  by  instinct  that  the  habitations  of 
the  wicked  could  never  be  blessed.  So  I  had  to  melt  all 
the  combs  down  and  purify  the  hive  thoroughly  before  I 
could  get  desirable  tenants  to  take  to  it. 

On  the  whole,  my  yield  of  honey  per  hive  this  year 
was  about  half  that  of  last  year,  which  I  think  pretty 
good,  considering  that  we  had  only  twenty-one  really 
fine  days  between  May  15  and  August  15. — C.  C.  James, 
Papworth  St.  Agnes  Rectory,  St.  Ives,  Hunts. 


And  His  Gleanings  fbom  some  Tbans Atlantic 


[755.]  Acting  on  your  suggestion  I  purpose  for  the 
benefit  of  our  fellow-apiarians  to  take  notes  of  such 
points  of  American  bee-keepers'  practice  as  are  most 
likely  to  cause  discussion  or  experiment  in  new  directions 
in  the  old  country,  omitting  all  mention  of  such  plans 
as  most  resemble  our  own.  My  object  in  this  journey 
being  chief!}'  connected  with  the  manufacture  of  ap- 
pliances my  visits  Will  generally  be  to  those  who  are  well 
known  in  connexion  with  that  industry. 

Db.  Tinkeb,  New  Philadelphia,  Ohio. 

A  pleasant  twelve  days'  sea  voyage  and  a  tedious 
twenty-four  hours  in  '  the  cars'  brought  me  at  8  p.m. 
within  a  few  minutes'  walk  of  the  doctor's  fireside,  where, 
though  unexpected  and  unknown,  a  letter  of  introduction 
from  my  father  and  an  explanation  of  the  object  of  my 
visit  immediately  procured  for  me  a  hearty'  welcome. 
Being  unable  to  inspect  bees  or  works  at  that  late  hour 
we  naturally  fell  to  talking  of  ourselves.  The  doctor 
had  been  suffering  for  some  years  from  a  slight  but  in- 
curable deafness,  which  he  found  to  be  such  an  impedi- 
ment to  his  obtaining  eminence  as  a  physician  that  he 
resolved  to  abandon  Ins  practice  in  favour  of  his  present 
occupation,  which  had  always  been  in  accordance  with 
his  natural  tastes.  In  his  new  vocation  he  has  been  so 
far  successful  that  though  of  comparatively  a  few  years' 
standing  lie  is  already  justly  considered  one  of  the  best 
authorities  on  bee  matters  generally  in  the  United  States. 
He  lias  chiefly  devoted  his  attention  to  the  perfection 

of  cellar-wintering,  queen-raising,  and  the  manufacture 
of  dovetailed  sections.  He  finds  that  if  kept  in  the 
dark,  bees  go  into  the  hibernating  condition  at  a  tem- 
perature of  50°  Fahr.,  and  that  their  slumber  (?)  becomes 
more  intense  and  the  consumption  of  food  less  as  this  is 
reduced,  until  41°  are  reached,  beyond  which  point 
activity  increases  and  more  food  is  consumed.  In  a 
cellar  kept  at  41°  a  stock  remains  quiet  and  without 
taking  food  for  seven  to  eight  days,  when  the  bees  wake 
one  another  up,  have  a  concert  and  a  feast,  and  again 
go  to  sleep  for  a  like  period,  consuming  only  an  average 
per  stock  of  one  pound  of  food  per  month,  and  when 
put  out,  after  two  and  a  half  to  three  months'  confine- 
ment, voiding  very  little  fa3ces.  Bees  kept  on  their 
summer  stands  usually  consume  four  or  five  times  as 
much  food,  and  are  always  much  weaker  in  spring.  He 
generally  puts  his  hives  into  winter  quarters  about  the 
middle  of  November,  and  on  the  first  fine  daj'  in 
February  he  prefers  to  take  out  all  stocks  and  give  one 
flight,  though  he  does  not  consider  this  necessary.  They 
are  then  replaced  in  the  cellar  and  the  temperature 
increased  to  48°,  when  breeding  commences  without 
feeding,  and  when  spring  weather  becomes  assured  they 
are  put  on  their  summer  stands.  He  is  convinced  that 
this  method  is  a  long  way  ahead  of  any  other,  and  his 
opinion  is  supported  by  the  fact  that  in  the  spring  of 
1884  he  was  the  possessor  of  the  only  live  bees  in  his 
county,  all  others  having  perished. 

For  queen-raising  he  much  prefers  the  '  grafting 
process.'  He  removes  the  queen  from  any  strong  stock, 
and  three  days  afterwards  examines  for  queen-cells.  All 
such  which  are  deficient  in  royal  jelly  he  destroys  as 
worthless,  while  from  such  as  are  well  supplied  with 
their  food  he  removes  the  larvse  only,  replacing  them 
with  others  from  worker-cells  of  the  stock  he  selects  to 
breed  from,  and  being  careful  not  to  introduce  any  larva 
of  over  iV  in  diameter  when  curled  up.  For  the  removal 
of  the  larva?  he  uses  a  thin  basswood  twig,  with  the 
bark  whittled  to  a  long  quill-pen-like  point,  and  finds 
that  by  selecting  small  subjects  a  failure  very  rarely 

He  thinks  that  queens  raised  from  more  mature  larva! 
are  generally  the  largest,  but  is  of  opinion  that  those 
raised  from  smaller  worms  generally  live  longer  and  are 
more  prolific. 

An  inspection  of  his  apiary  and  machinery  next 
morning  proved  most  interesting.  His  establishment  is 
not  a  large  one,  but  by  employing  a  special  machine  of 
his  own  invention,  and  by  giving  their  manufacture  his 
personal  attention,  he  produces  sections  which  for  white- 
ness, smoothness,  and  accuracy,  are  admitted  by  his  rivals 
to  be  unequalled.  He  uses  only  white  poplar,  which 
cannot  be  made  into  one-piece  sections,  but  in  spite  of 
this  drawback  the  beautiful  appearance  of  his  dovetailed 
boxes  causes  a  demand  which  he  finds  it  difficult  to 

A  brief  inspection  of  his  apiary  brought  a  very 
pleasant  visit  to  a  close,  and  I  started  on  my  road  to 
Medina  with  mixed  feelings  of  regret  at  leaving  one 
whom  I  already  respected  and  of  pleasure  in  the  prospect 
of  making  the  personal  acquaintance  of  the  well-known 
veteran,  Mr.  A.  I.  Root,  of  whose  establishment  I  intend 
writing  you  in  my  next.- — J.  A.  Addott,  Medina,  Ohio, 
U.S.A.,  Dec.  15. 


[75G.]  Mr.  C.  N.  Abbott's  interesting  letter  under  this 
heading,  in  5'our  last  issue,  will  have  done  much  to 
enlighten  English  bee-keepers  on  the  way  our  children 
manage  things  apicultural  in  Canada;  but  it  cannot  be 
regarded  as  complete  in  itself.  "With  characteristic 
modesty,  Mr.  Abbott' has  contented  himself  with  merely 
mentioning  the  qualifications  of  his  correspondent  as 
those  of  a  purely  negative  kind,  such  as  that  he  is  'a 

January  6,  1887.] 


young  friend  lately  arrived  at  Ontario,'  and  '  a  young 
man  who  is  not,  and  never  has  been,  a  bee-keeper.'  The 
letter  you  have  already  published,  however,  will  satisfy 
bee-keepers  that  any  short-comings  or  omissions  on  the 
part  of  the  correspondent  will  be  more  than  supple- 
mented by  the  graphic  and  humorous  pen  of  Mr.  Abbott. 
The  hives  and  sections  exhibited  over  here  by  our 
Canadian  friends  attracted  so  much  attention  among 
practical  bee-keepers  that  it  will  be  a  surprise  to  your 
readers  to  learn  that  they  have  not  been  adopted  in  the 
country  of  their  birth,  and  that  those  lovely  sections  we 
all  so  much  admired  at  the  Colinderies  were  produced 
in  hives  something  like  those  of  twenty  years  ago,  and 
not  such  as  Mr.  Abbott  has  at  Soivtb.aH,  Why  is  this  ? 
Mr.  Abbott  is  manifestly  prepared  to  discover  a  reason. 
I  hope  he  will  not  disappoint  us.  Let  him  be  careful,  at 
the  same  time,  to  indulge  in  charitable  criticism  only  of 
our  late  visitors,  and  not  lay  himself  open  to  the  charge 
of  speaking  unkindly  of  them  as  soon  as  their  backs  are 
turned,  after  they  had  received  every  kindness  and  hos- 
pitality during  their  visit,  which,  I  trust,  afforded  them 
as  much  pleasure  as  it  did  ourselves.  Apropos  of  such 
criticism,  and  in  reference  to  Mr.  Abbott's  postscript,  the 
Canadians  regard  their  country  as  an  integral  portion  of 
the  British  Empire,  and  you  can  hardly  offend  them 
more  than  by  calling  them  'Yankees.' — A  British  Bee- 


[755.]  Like  '  Amateur  Expert,'  '  Renfrewshire  Bee- 
keeper,' and  others,  I  must  add  my  protest  against  the 
theory  that  'nearly  all  of  the  appliances  have  been 
furnished  us  by  the  inventive  genius  of  the  Americans.' 
Take  one-piece  sections  of  the  present  day  as  an  example, 
and  undoubtedly  one  of  the  most  important  and  useful 

As  I  think  probably  very  few  bee-keepers  are  aware 
of  the  real  origin  of  folding-  sections,  a  short  history 
correcting  the  generally  accepted  opinion  that  they  are  an 
American  invention,  may  not  be  out  of  place  at  the 
present  moment. 

At  one  of  the  annual  exhibitions  held  at  South 
Kensington,  that  for  '  Agriculture  and  machinery  used 
in  connexion  therewith,'  and,  if  I  mistake  not,  held  in 
the  year  1872,  Messrs.  Colman,  of  Norwich,  had  on 
exhibition,  and  in  work,  a  machine  for  making  boxes  for 
packing  tins  of  mustard ;  these  boxes  had  V  grooves  cut  at 
the  required  distances,  just  in  the  same  way  as  the  present 
one-piece  folding  section.  To  make  these  boxes,  boards, 
about  5  ft.  long,  6  in.  wide,  and  i  in.  thick,  were  passed 
through  the  machine,  and  came  out  the  other  end  ready 
for  folding  together,  and  as  rapidly  as  the  attendant  there 
could  take  them  out  of  the  way.  I  think  all  will  agree 
that  this  was  the  first,  and,  perhaps,  most  important  step 
in  the  direction  of  one-piece  sections. 

As  sectional  supers  came  more  to  the  front  in  1875 
and  following  years,  I,  in  the  former  year,  having  in  my 
mind's  eye  the  machine  described  above,  could  at  once 
see  its  adaptability  for  turning  out  sections.  Losing  no 
time,  I  consulted  an  engineer  in  1875,  or  the  early  part 
of  the  following  year,  and  from  other  inquiries  found  it 
would  be  infringing  the  patent  of  Messrs.  Colman,  and 
was  advised  to  let  the  matter  drop. 

However,  not  to  be  outdone,  I  made  folding  sections 
as  follows :  —  The  two  ends  and  the  top  were  six 
or  eight  inches  wide,  in  these  longitudinal  saw-grooves 
were  made  every  two  inches,  cutting  through  the  wood 
within  one-thirtieth  of  an  inch,  and  when  filled  could  be 
rapidly  and  easily  subdivided  into  single  sections,  by 
simply  running  a  penknife  through  the  saw-groove.  The 
bottom  part  of  the  ends  were  grooved  to  receive  bottom 
rails,  and  being  accurately  made  to  drive  in  tightly,  kept 
the  section  in  position.  The  top  and  the  upper  part  of 
the  two  ends  were  cut  through  at  an  angle  of  45°,- and  on 

the  outside,  when  lying  out  flat,  end  to  end,  a  wide 
piece  of  tape  was  glued  on,  thus  forming  the  joints 
corresponding  to  the  thin  part  of  wood  left  uncut  in  the 
V  joints  of  sections  as  now  made. 

This,  then,  the  first  folding  section  ever  made,  was 
exhibited  at  the  Kensington  Show  of  the  B.B.K.A.  and 
was  awarded  first  prize  at  least  one  season  before  the 
American  one-piece  section  was  heard  of  in  this  country; 
and  I  have  no  hesitation  in  adding  that,  could  I  legally 
have  applied  the  above  machine  to  section-making,  they 
would  have  been  perfected  in  this  country  without  any 
assistance  from  our  American  friends.  I  think  there  can 
be  no  manner  of  doubt  this  was  a  step  two  in  the  same 
direction ;  and  up  to  this  time,  as  far  as  my  knowledge 
goes,  the  Americans  had  done  nothing  whatever  towards 
perfecting  a  folding  section. 

What  has  followed  since  the  time  my  exhibit  was 
awarded  a  first  prize  requires  no  explanation  further 
than  that  the  Americans  have  simply  followed  out  the 
idea  first  invented  by  Messrs.  Colman,  adapted  to 
section-making  by  me,  and  still  further  carried  out  and 
perfected  by  the  Americans  in  one-piece  sections  of 

In  the  face  of  these  facts,  I  most  emphatically  contend 
that  in  no  sense  can  the  Americans  claim  to  be  the 
inventors  of  the  sections  in  question.  It  must  be  highly 
gratifying  to  all  English  hive- makers,  in  the  Journal  of 
of  the  9th  December,  to  have  such  high  authorities 
agreeing  that  our  appliauces  are  far  more  substantial  and 
better  made  with  us  than  they  are  in  any  part  of 

I  note,  and  quite  agree  with  your  remark  in  the  same 
issue,  that  the  Americans  have  frequently  taken  ideas 
from  us,  which  they  do  not  credit  us  with,  flagrant 
instances  of  which  can  be  pointed  out  to  this  day. — ■ 
James  Lee,  December  23rd. 


[756.]  In  your  report  of  the  Irish  Bee-keepers'  As- 
sociation, on  page  583,  you  tell  us  that  '  Mr.  Sproule 
handed  round  a  bottle  containing  a  substance  mentioned 
in  Mr.  Cheshire's  new  book  for  rubbing  on  the  hands 
to  prevent  the  bees  stinging  while  manipulating.'  This 
was  called  methyl  salicylate,  but  in  Dublin  was  only 
known  and  sold  as  '  oil  of  whiter-green.' 

I  have  not  seen  the  second  volume  of  Mr.  Cheshire's 
new  book,  in  which  this  substance  is  named,  for  with 
the  second  volume  I  am  wise  by  experience,  having 
with  his  first  volume  patiently  waited,  month  after 
month,  for  the  separate  parts,  only  to  find  the  whole  of 
the  first  volume  published,  whilst  the  monthly  sub- 
scribers  had  arrived  but  halfway  through.  It  is  only 
fair  to  say  that  the  publishers  allowed  me  the  cost  of 
my  monthly  parts  on  returning  them  and  purchasing 
the  volume.  I  wanted  to  do  the  same  with  the  second 
volume,  but  they  didn't  see  the  affair  in  my  light, 
so  I  am  impatiently  waiting  for  the  second  volume 

As  one  who  has  taken  some  little  interest  in  the  true 
use  of  the  bee's  sting,  I  may  be  pardoned  for  having 
endeavoured  for  some  time,  by  experiments,  to  discover 
a  preventive  against  bees  stinging,  and  this  I  have  been 
doing  until  winter  suspended  my  experiments,  yet  not 
before  I  bad  achieved  success  satisfactory  to  myself.  I 
have,  however,  the  greatest  pleasure  in  hailing  Mr, 
Cheshire  as  the  discoverer  of,  perhaps,  the  most  useful 
article  in  the  apiary,  and  I  feel  sure  your  readers  will 
thank  him  for  generously  presenting  yet  another  dis- 
covery to  the  public. 

Will  you  allow  me  now  to  say  how  far  on  the  road 
I  had  gone  (a  different  road  but  with  the  same  goal)  j 
afterwards  to  make  some  new  remarks  on  the  discovery 
which  will  facilitate  the   miking  or  obtaining  it,  anbl 



[January  6,  1887. 

also  to  acquaint  our  fraternity  -with  another  substance 
which  I  believe  is  equally  efficacious  ? 

On  one  occasion  I  had  been  attacked  by  bees  on  ray 
hands,  from  which  1  could  not  remove  the  smell  of 
petroleum,  although  it  was  not  discernible  to  myself. 
I  had  tried  two  or  three  good  washings  with  soap  in 
vain,  so  determined,  as  they  were  so  susceptible  to  its 
odour,  to  use  vaseline  (the  jelly  of  petroleum)  as  the 
vehicle  or  basis  of  my  lubricant,  anticipating  that  when 
the  bee  came  to  sample  the  surface  of  skin  (preparing  for 
business)  with  its  too  highly  sensitive  palpi  or  feelers, 
placed  near  the  sting  aperture,  she  would  hud  the  ad- 
hesive and  sticky  slight  film  of  vaseline,  with  which 
I  had  rubbed  my  hands,  an  unsuitable  medium,  besides 
rendering  difficult  the  pincer-like  purchase  she  obtains 
with  her  claws,  by  which  to  insert  the  sting.  Scenting 
this  substance  successively  with  vanilla,  vervain,  berga- 
mot,  lavender,  thyme,  lemon,  &c,  separately,  and  in 
various  combinations  or  chords ;  rubbing  my  hands  with 
various  herbs  the  essential  oils  of  which,  residing  in  the 
hairs  of  the  leaves,  were  seized  by  the  vaseline  with 
which  my  hands  were  very  slightly  smeared,  I  had 
various  degrees  of  success.  We  must  bear  in  mind, 
en  passant,  that  perfumes  when  skilfully  mixed  are 
capable  of  producing  effects  totally  different  from  those 
of  their  separate  components,  that  they  may  be  tuned, 
so  to  speak,  into  harmonious  chords  or  blends,  just  as 
the  notes  of  musical  instruments,  or  the  colours  on  an 
artist's  canvas  may  be  so  arranged  as  to  produce  an 
agreeable  sensation  upon  the  eye,  the  ear,  or  the 

This  is  an  Art 
AYhieh  does  mend  Nature :  change  it  rather  : 
The  Art  itself  is  Nature. 



We  must  also  not  forget  (hat  the  slightuess  or  intensity 
alone  of  almost  every  odour  renders  it  agreeable  or  dis- 
agreeable to  us  (then  how  much  more  to  the  bee  whose 
olfactories  are  susceptible  to  an  incomprehensible  degree). 
The  scent  of  a  crushed  bee's  poison  in  a  hive  arouses 
their  anger,  but  the  same  chemical  substance  when 
'  like  linked  sweetness  long  drawn  out'  may  be  as  agree- 
able and  charming  to  them  as  the  aroma  of  queen  or 
home  to  a  lost  bee. 

To  resume  ;  I  came  to  the  conclusion  that  any  very 
slight  soupcon  of  myrtle,  olive,  savin,  bilberry,  barberry, 
or  dark  green  smooth-leafed  scented  sap  evergreens  pro- 
duced very  marked  effects  upon  bees,  to  us  favourable 
and  the  reverse,  but  this  latter  caused  by  intensity  of 
the  odour. 

I  might  have  wandered  about  long  enough  without 
'  striking  ile,'  but  you  will  admit  I  was  very  warm,  as 
we  used  to  say  at  the  game  of  '  hide-and-seek,'  very  near 
Gituitheria  procumbens,  partridge-berry,  tea-berry,  or 
winter-green,  of  New  Jersey,  from  which  is  extracted 
Gaultheria  oil,  or  oil  of  winter-green,  and  new  elixir. 
Any  way  I  had  got  into  the  family  when  I  was  amongst 
the  Ericacea3,  and  I  make  no  doubt  that  the  whole 
family  may  be  used  as  '  apif uges '  (may  I  coin  a 
word  ?),  provided  only  that  their  scent  be  used  weak 

Speaking  theoretically  (until  spring  comes),  I  have  no 
hesitation  in  saying  that  essence  of  spiroea  (meadow- 
sweet) '  will  charm  the  angry  insects  down  '  equally  with 
oil  of  winter-green.  True  oil  of  winter-green  is  very 
expensive,  some  2s.  per  ounce,  though,  like  charity,  a 
little  of  it  goes  a  long  way.  Being  so  expensive,  however, 
it  is  well  that  readers  of  the  B.B.J,  should  know  that 
oil  of  winter-green  and  essence  of  spiraea  may  be  pro- 
duced artificially  by  chemistry.  Many  chemists  even 
are  not  aware  of  this,  and  1  am  in  communication  with 
a  manufacturing  chemist  respecting  the  cost  of  artificially 
manufacturing  these  two  substances.  I  will  let  you 
know  the  result  so  as  to  facilitate  the  cheapening  and 

obtaining  of  them,  at  present  difficult.     Meantime  the 

following  may  be  of  interest:  — 

a  ,.    ,.        •  1  ,  to     j  „,i    ,.  I  =  Essential  oil  of  winter-green 
Salicylic  acid  +  Wood  ether -J         ,-    ,  .     ,     ■  -,     ,      f,    . 
J  I  orsalicylateofoxideofmethyle. 

c  ,.  ■  t,.  ,         .,       ,      ,     ,    )  =Essence  of  spinea,   or 

Sahcmc  +  Bicliromite  of  potash     Saiicvlic  acid  01fHyauret 
+  Sulphuric  acid  f  of  saiicyle. 

Oil  of  winter-green  gently  heated  with  an  excess  of 
of  potash,  adding  afterwards  an  acid,  deposits  salicylic 

Salicylate  of  oxide  of  ethyle  C4  H5  O  +  C14  H5  Os,  when 
purified,  has  the  same  smell  as  the  true  oil  of  winter- 
green,  imitated  by  methyl  salicylate  C„H30  +  014  H505, 

Now  comes  the  strangest  part  of  the  business:' — If 
methyl  alcohol,  or  wood  spirit,  or  hydra-ted  oxide  of 
methyl,  be  oxidised  by  means  of  a  platinum  wTire  heated 
to  redness,  and  suspended  in  the  same,  the  product  is 
formic  acid  and  water,  the  active  ingredients  in  the  bee- 
poison  itself.  Again,  if  salicyl  aldehyde  (syn.  essence  of 
spiraea  or  meadow-sweet)  be  oxidised,  salicylic  acid 
C7  H6  03  is  formed,  our  remedy  for  foul  brood. 

We  have,  therefore,  salicylic  acid  administered  at  the 
head  of  the  bees  as  part  of  its  food,  and  we  have,  alas  ! 
formic  acid  at  the  tail  of  the  bee  in  its  poison.  Inter- 
mediate we  have  two  apifuges  (bee-tamers,  subjugators, 
or  what  not),  oil  of  winter-green  and  essence  of  spira3a, 
strongly-scented  compounds  of  these  two  acids.  I  throw 
out  the  idea  that  bees  will  he  more  irascible  during 
feeding  with  salicylised  syrup  than  usual.  Can  we  not  now 
account  for  the  beautiful  scent  we  observe  on  opening 
some  hives  (especially  demons),  and  also  can  we  not 
account  for  the  varying  aromas  of  bees,  by  which  they 
recognise  their  queen  and  co-inmates  of  the  hive,  and  by 
which  guide  too  they  work  peacefully  in  the  dark? 

In  using  any  of  these  apifuges  it  will  be  well  to 
remember  that  failure  will  show  not  that  the  remedy  is 
wrong,  but  that  we,  the  dispensers,  have  probably  used 
too  much  of  it. 

Finally,  I  wish  to  tell  your  readers  that  Mr.  Cheshire 
has  opened  a  door  by  concentrating  our  attention  on 
Gaultheria,  and  I  shall  be  much  mistaken  if  before  long 
we  find  not  only  spiraea  equally  effective  as  a  protectant 
against  stings,  but  nearly,  if  not  all,  the  carbo-hydrates, 
the  volatile  odoriferous  essences  of  plants,  such  as  berga- 
mot,  carraway,  cassia,  cloves,  lavender,  mint,  rose, 
peppermint,  thyme,  lemon-grass,  and  even  turpentine. 
1  think  we  shall  find  the  very  slight  rubbing  of  hands 
with  any  pure  oil  or  vaseline,  using  not  more  than 
a  pin's  head  size,  afterwards  brushing  the  hands  care- 
lessly through  a  lavender  bush  or  scented  herb  bed, 
rnbbing  the  hands  together  afterwards,  will  prove 
effective. — It.  A.  H.  Giumshaw,  Crag  Hill,  Ilorsforth. 
near  Leeds. 


[756.]  On  the  larva  assuming  the  pupa  form,  has  it 
ever  been  noticed  its  relative  position  in  the  cells  when 
the  comb  is  in  its  normal  position  as  built  by  the  bees  ? 
"Will  inversion  be  in  any  way  detrimental  to  the  brood  ? 
These  questions  seem  to  arise  in  connexion  with  the 
untried  invortible  hives,  which  I  have  no  recollection  of 
ever  having  seen  alluded  to,  but  which  may,  perhaps, 
bo  more  curious  than  useful,  and  yet  it  is  a  point  worthy 
of  notice.  Some  of  our  leading  apiarists,  from  constant 
study  of  the  internal  economy  of  the  hive,  may,  perhaps, 
throw  some  light  on  the  question,  which  I  cannot  help 
thinking  will  not  only  bo  interesting,  but  prove  of  some 
benefit  also.  I  use  the  word  'untried'  advisedly,  and 
would  add  a  caution  to  all  but  the  skilled  to  take  this 
advice  of  'Amateur  Expert' — to  go  slow ;  and,  to  empha- 
sise the  caution,  would  beg  leave  to  refer  to  R.  1''.  Holter- 
mann's  communication  in  the  Journal  of  Dec.  9th       reply 

January  6,  1887.] 


to  a  question  at  the  late  conference  by  Mr.  D.  A.  Jones, 
one  of  the  respected  delegates  of  the  Ontario  Honey 
Exhibit ;  and  to  the  writer  of  the  very  valuable  series 
of  '  Useful  Hints,'  from  which  it  appears  the  Kansas 
and  Western  U.S.A.  bee-keepers  have,  after  a  season's 
trial,  thrown  the  system  overboard.  If  the  system  of 
inverting;  is  an  aid  to  success,  it  will  make  headway ; 
but  to  rush  to  such  a  conclusion  before  testing'  practi- 
cally would  be  simple  folly,  and  would  lead  many  to 
give  up  bee-keeping  in  disgust. — James  Lee,  Dec,  29£A. 

By  Thomas  B.  Blow,  F.L.S. 

[758.]  Whilst  greatly  obliged  to  Mr.  Benton  for  the 
slight  corrections  he  has  made  on  my  observations  in 
Carniola,  yet  I  take  exception  to  some  of  his  remarks,  as 
all  through  the  article  I  strove  to  state  facts  only  as  I 
found  them,  and  about  which  I  have  no  wish  or  intention 
to  enter  into  controversy. 

I  stated  no  reason  for  the  mixed  colouring  of  the  bees 
around  Trieste,  though  I  did  form  an  opinion  of  the 
cause,  which  is  not  the  same  as  Mr.  Benton's  opinion. 

The  block  that  Mr.  Dokoupil  uses  I  can  assert,  from 
my  dealings  with  him,  is  a  perfect  success ;  so  is  the 
candy  he  makes  and  uses  with  it ;  and  though  I  have 
only  his  word  that  he  was  successful  in  sending  bees  to 
America,  yet  I  have  no  doubt  whatever  that  he  has  done 
so,  for  all  the  bees  I  have  ever  had  from  him  have 
arrived  in  splendid  condition,  so  fresh  that  I  should  not 
have  hesitated  in  sending  them  on  to  America.  He  has 
entirely  discarded  the  use  of  comb-honey  with  his 
travelling-boxes,  using  nothing  but  candy,  and  I  certainly 
am  of  opinion  that  he  is  the  most  advanced  bee-keeper 
in  his  district. 

I  was  quite  aware  that  very  large  apiaries  were  to  be 
found  around  Laibach,  and  I  stated  '  that  the  district 
around  is  a  great  one  for  bees.'  I  knew,  too,  of  the  large 
hive-faetory  referred  to,  and  had  the  catalogue  of  its 
productions  in  my  pocket  all  through  my  journey,  but 
my  object  was  bees  rather  than  appliances,  and  I  did  not 
care  to  waste  time  in  visiting  it.  I  saw  a  number  of 
frame  and  other  hives  of  various  patterns,  but  for  ono 
frame-hive  I  saw  at  least  one  hundred  of  the  boxes  I 
spoke  of. 

I  am  quite  certain  about  the  statement  of  Mr.  Am- 
brozic.  He  said  he  bad  sent  many  queens  to  South 
America  by  the  plan  mentioned,  and  that  the  loss  per 
cent  of  queens  was  not  great.  He  mentioned  that  out  of 
one  lot  of  thirty  queens,  twenty-six  arrived  safely  and  in 
good  condition,  and  the  voyage  was  a  long  one,  too.  I 
am  sure  bee-keepers  would  be  glad  to  hear  of  Mr.  Benton's 
plan  of  sending  forty  queens  a  long  journey  safely  in  one 
stock.  Is  it  a  plan  only,  or  has  it  been  successfully 
practised  ?  I  must  still  stand  firmly  by  my  statement 
that  Carniolan  bees  have  not  the  restless  tendency  of 
other  races  when  travelling,  and  this  remark  I  apply  to 
all  other  races.  During  my  journey  from  Cyprus  the 
bees  I  had  with  me  never  ceased  to  worry  and  gnaw  at 
the  wires  that  covered  the  openings  in  the  boxes,  and 
this  caused  great  mortality.  I  shipped  Eastern  bees  on 
to  America  from  Cyprus  for  Mr.  Benton,  and  these 
arrived  here  in  just  the  same  state,  and  more  than  half 
the  bees  were  dead  in  each  nucleus  hive.  The  Italians 
have  similar  tendencies,  though  less  decided  than  the 
Eastern  races. 

I  have  imported  from  Carniola  during  the  past 
summer  dozens  of  full  stocks,  and  they  have  always 
arrived  in  the  most  tranquil  condition  and  with  hardly 
a  dead  bee. 

I  have  the  right,  I  believe,  to  speak  with  some 
authority  on  the  suitability  of  the  Eastern  races  of  bees 
for  this  climate,  as  I  have  handled  and  had  in  my  apiary 
a  far  larger  number  of  stoclts  of  these  bees  than  any 
other  individual  in    England.      I   have  raised   various 

crosses  from  them  and  studied  them  a  great  deal.  It  is 
hardly  likely  that  I  should  quietly  drop  these  bees  if  they 
had  had  any  good  qualities  after  the  trouble  and  expense 
of  taking  a  journey  to  Cyprus  and  Syria.  I  admit  that  the 
Cyprians  are  better  than  Syrians,  but  that  is  not  saying 
much,  and  I  now  unhesitatingly  condemn  both  fur  use 
here.  They  do  not  winter  well,  are  very  liable  to 
dysentery,  and  to  spring  dwindling,  and  on  an  average 
season  they  will  not  produce  as  much  honey  as  blacks. 
I  do  not  make  those  assertions  on  the  results  of  a  single 
stock  or  season,  but  from  many  stocks  oxtending  over 
some  years.  Mr.  Benton  has  bad  no  experience  what- 
ever with  these  races  in  this  country,  and  we  must  judge 
by  results  here.  With  regard  to  the  question  of  their 
irritability  and  robbing  tendencies,  the  less  said  the 
better.  They  have  a  reputation  in  this  country  that 
they  will  not  readily  lose. 

As  I  stated  before,  I  have  no  desire  to  enter  into  any 
controversy  or  to  charge  Mr.  Benton  with  change  of 
opinion  (as  I  changed  my  opinion  of  Cyprians  after  a 
year  or  two  experience  with  them),  but  if  we  read  his 
early  experiences  with  Syrians  they  were  then  far  ahead 
of  all  others,  and  now  are  despised.  I  do  trust  that 
Mr.  Benton  will  abandon  his  profitless  yearly  Eastern 
expedition,  and  settle  in  Carniola,  where  there  is  great 
need  of  a  scientific  queen-raiser  such  as  he,  and  1  can 
assm-e  him  that  he  will  have  an  unlimited  demand  for  all 
the  queens  he  may  raise  there,  as  no  better  bees  can  be 
had  and  none  more  suitable  for  our  climate. 


[759.]  I  should  think  about  the  last  thing  you  need 
have  done  in  a  recent  number  was  to  deprecate  the 
giving  up  of  the  Journal  by  any  one  whom  depressed 
apiculture  did  not  prevent  continuing  it,  or  to  offer  any 
'excuse'  for  writing  discursively  on  topics  of  general 
interest.  To  myself  they  were  all  very  interesting,  and 
I  was  glad  to  meet  with  the  derivation  of  '  topsy-turvy' 
in  a  paragraph  relating  to  a  matter  on  which  I  had  in- 
tended to  write  to  you.  As  we  shall  soon  begin  a  new 
year  let  us  by  all  means  start,  if  possible,  with  correct 
nomenclature.  This  was  advocated  some  months  ago  in 
the  matter  of  crates  and  racks,  dividers  and  dummies,  &c. 
I  quite  agree  with  you  about  the  use  of  the  words 
'  reverse '  and  '  invert,'  but  I  am  not  sure  that  I  agree 
with  any  one  as  to  the  sense  of  practising  the  plan  in- 
dicated. What  do  the  bees  think  of  it,  I  wonder  ?  Has 
any  one  tried  the  effect  of  an  entrance  at  top  of  front  of 
hive,  with  suitable  arrangements  for  movement  inside  ? 
Would  the  bees  put  the  whole  arrangement  '  top-side- 
t'other-way  ?' 

But  nomenclature.  I  don't  know  why  we  have  no 
right  to  use  apiarian  as  a  substantive.  Sucli  a  practice 
is  common  enough  with  moderns  and  the  man  who  wrote 
'  Eheu,'  &c.  But  as  I  was  once  denominated  an  aparian, 
or,  if  it  must  be  written,  apearian,  why  I  go  in  for 

But  I  have  not  got  to  my  object  yet.  It  does  not 
much  matter  whether  we  call  the  article  which  holds 
the  sections  a  crate  or  a  rack,  but  I  think  a  serious  error 
is  being  made  in  the  use  of  the  word  'rabbet.'  We 
could  not  on  any  ground  call  a  bottle  a  cork,  but  some- 
thing similar  to  this  is  being  done.  You  have  copied  it 
from  Neighbour's  advertisement  of  the  Sandringham 
hive  in  which  we  read  of  shifting  rabbets,  and  see  that 
they  are  oblong  pieces  of  wood  which  slip  up  and  down 
in  grooves.  Now,  surely  it  is  the  groove  which  may  be 
called  the  rabbet,  and  not  that  which  slides  in  it.  One 
dictionary  tells  me  that  a  rabbet  is '  a  joint  in  carpentery, 
a  groove;'  while  the  Glossary  of  Architecture,  informs 
me  that  it  is  '  a  rectangular  recess  or  groove  cut  in  a  piece 
of  timber  to  receive  the  edge  of  a  plank.'  Here  at  the 
edge  it  is  no  doubt  most  correctly  spoken  of,  but  I  do 
not  object  to  the  use  of  the  word  by  accommodation 



[January  6, 1887. 

elsewhere,  only  we  ought  certainly  to  keep  the  term  for 
the  hollowed  space,  and  not  for  that  which  fills  it.  This 
is  topsy-turvy  work  with  a  vengeance,  and  much  of  it 
would  prevent  our  communicating  intelligibly  with  one 
another.  The  fact  is  that  'rabbet'  is  a  corruption  of 
'  rebate,'  something  bated  or  beaten  back,  a  term  used 
in  knitting,  and  a  good  example  of  a  rabbet  is  the  notch 
cut  in  a  door-post  to  receive  the  door,— C.  R.  S.,  South 
Cornwall,  December  20th,  1886. 


[760.]  Our  friend  Simmins — and  all  bee-keepers  ought 
to  consider  him  as  such — seems  to  have  been  somewhat 
'riled'  at  'A.  H.  B,  K.'s  remarks  anent  queen  intro- 
duction, and  well  he  might.  But  hard  words,  you  know, 
take  a  long  time  to  smooth  down  again,  while  nothing  is 
gained  by  using  them.  '  A.  H,  B.  K.'s  '  law  '  is  sound  and 
practicable,  but  Simmins's  is  better,  not  in  its  efficiency, 
but  in  its  simplicity.  I  have  had  considerable  experience 
in  both  during  the  last  season,  and  have  been  eminently 
successful  with  each.  But  who  would  go  to  the  trouble,  in 
the  middle  of  the  season,  to  deprive  a  stock  of  every  means 
of  raising  a  new  mother,  when  by  simply  keeping  your 
fresh  queen  in  a  receptacle  by  itself  for  half  an  hour  the 
thing  is  done  ?  Here  you  only  handle  one  bee,  but  to 
deprive  a  populous  colony  of  eggs  and  young  brood  at 
such  a  time,  why,  it  will  not  bear  comparison.  Your 
stock  must  be  queenless  for  forty-eight  hours,  according 
to  '  A.  H.  B.  K.,'  Simmins  less  than  a  quarter  of  the 
time.  As  to  the  success  of  each,  they  are  about  equal ; 
neither  Mr.  Simmins's  plan  nor  '  A.  II.°B.  K.'s '  are  in- 
fallible, but  both  are  near  enough  to  infallibility  to  be 
considered  a  great  success.  Queen-cages  must  be  at  a 
discount ;  a  very  considerable  one  too.  I  would  not  give 
'  tuppence '  for  a  bushel. 

One  colony  of  bees,  occupying  two  skeps,  standing 
side  by  side,  as  seen  by  '  Engine-driver,'  was  observed  by 
myself,  and  noticed  some  two  years  ago  in  B.B.J. 

Our  American  friends  are  '  going  in  '  for  Mr.  Cheshire's 
'  foul-brood '  cure,  and  according  to  their  experience  there 
is  nothing  to  beat  it.  I  daresay  they  would  have  dis- 
covered this  before  if  it  had  been  an  American  that  had 
introduced  it. 

Professor  A.  J.  Cook  has  discovered  that  coffee  is 
about  as  pernicious  to  bacteria  as  water  would  be. 

Fancy  a  County  Association  giving  up  the  circulation 
of  the  Bee  Journal  in  the  place  of  the  county  expert ! 
They  say  opinions  differ.  I  should  hardly  think  that 
the  opinions  of  its  members  had  been  consulted  at  all. 

What  must  we  store  our  honey  in  ?  Mr.  0.  Hehner 
tells  of  elder-wine  becoming  poisonous  by  being  stored 
in  galvanised  receptacles,  and  honey  will  be  so  affected. 
I  know  an  instance  of  a  family  being  poisoned  by  elder- 
wine  stored  in  red  glazed  crocks.  Perhaps  we  had  better 
not  store  honey  in  these  likewise.  We  must  stick  to  tin, 
it  is  far  more  preferable,  if  only  for  its  cleanliness. 

Honey  at  \d.  per  pound  net  is  the  future  price  when 
'  S.  L.  B.'s  '  Mexicans  are  introduced.  Why,  bee-keeping 
then  will  lose  half  its  pleasures  (?).  No  more  gloves,  no 
more  veils,  but  what  a  glorious  time  for  the  bees  that  do 
sting!  Mexicans  will  collect,  Ligurians, Blacks,  &c.,will 
store,  and  we — well,  it  will  be  too  common  to  eat  honey 
then. — W.  B.  Wkijsteh. 


E.  W.  P. — Separating  Pollen  from  Wax. — Melt  the  wax,  and 
keep  it  just  melted,  but  not  boiling,  for  five  or  six  hours, 
then  let  it  cool,  and  the  separation  will  then  be  found  to 
have  taken  place. 

J.  C.  Merrick. —  Packing  Honey  for  Transport.  —  Please 
refer  to  page  303  of  previous  volume,  where  you  will  find 
full  and  clear  directions  for  packing  honey.  The  directions 
referred  to  were  issued  by  the  Irish  and  other  bee- 
keepers' Associations. 

business  ^Directory. 

For  the  use  of  Manufacturers  and  Purchasers  of  Bee- 
keeping Appliances. 

The  Name  and  Address  and  Business  of  any  Manufacturer 
will  be  inserted  in  this  List,  under  one  heading,  for  One 
Pound  per  annum.  Additional  headings,  Five  Shillings 
extra.  Advertisers  in  '  The  Bee  Journal,'  whose  orders 
amount  to  Five  Pounds  per  annum,  will  be  inserted  Free. 


Abbott  Bros,,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T,  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Boktt,  E.  J.,  Stroud  Road,  Gloucester. 

Edet  &  Son,  St,  Neots. 

Hole,  J.  R.  W.,  Tarrington,  Ledbury. 

Howabd,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 

Neighbour*  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

The  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,  23  Cornhill,  London, 

E.C.    . 
Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 
Wren  &  Son,  139  High  Street,  Lowestoft. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

British  Honey  Co.,  Limited,  17  King  William  St.,  Strand. 

Country  Honey  Supply,  23  Cornhill,  E.C, 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Benton,  F. ,  Munich,  Germany. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Simmins,  S.,  Rottingdean,  near  Brighton. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Lyon,  F.,  94  Harleyford  Road,  London,  S.E. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J. ,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

BEE-KEEPERS'  GUIDE;  or,  Manual  of  the 
Apiaby.    By  A.  J.  Cook.    14th  Thousand.   The  whole 
work  has  been  thoroughly  revised,  and  contains  the  very 
latest  in  respect  to  Bee-keeping.     Price  5s.,  postage  Gd. 

NOW      KE AD Y ! 

VOL.  XIV.  of 

IUhe  ^British  jBee  Journal 


THOS.  W.  COWAN,  F.G.S.,   F.R.M.S., 

Containing  upwards  of  COO  pages,  with  numerous  Illus- 
trations, and  Complete  Index. 

Bound  in  Cloth,  price  10s.     Cloth  Cases  for  Binding,  Is. 
each  ;  post  free,  Is.  3d. 



Special  prepaid  j££dvertisements. 

No  reduction  made  for  continuous  insertion. 

Exchange  Column.  —  Sales  of  Honey  arid  Second-hand 
Goods. — Intended  to  aid  Bee-keepers  in  the  disposal  of  Bee- 
produce  and  Appliances  for  which  they  have  no  further  use. 
Terms :  Twelve  words  and  under,  Fourpence  ;  for  every  ad- 
ditional Three  words,  One  Penny  extra. 

O    includes  also  other  subjects  of  the  first  importance 

to  all  who  hope  to  compete  successfully  -with  present  low 
prices.    2*.  &d.,  post  free. 

O    TRODUCTION,  6J<i.    Of  the  Authok,  Rottingdean, 

Brighton;  Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  Street,  and  127 
High  Holborn;  and  J.  Huckle,  Kings  Langley,  Herts. 

BEE-KEEPING,  Plain  and  Practical :    How  to 
Make  it  Pay.    By  A.  Rusbridge,  Is.  6d„  post  free, 
Is.  84     Address  J.  Huckle,  Kings  Langley,  Herts.       3932 

signed to  teach  the  Cottager  how  to  obtain  the  best 
results  at  the  least  possible  cost.  By  attention  to  its  teach- 
ings, Cottagers  will  be  enabled  to  make  their  Bees  a  more 
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Six  copies  and  upwards,  post  free.  J.Huckle,  KingsLangley. 

WANTED. — Copies  of  British  Bee  Journal  for  January 
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Apply  J.  Huckle,  Kings  Langley,  Herts. 

EXTRACTED  HONEY.— From  the  Right  Hon.  Lord 
Sudeley's  Bee  Farm  (situate  in  the  Fruit  Plantations), 
mostly  from  unfinished  Sections,  in  clear  glass  bottles,  with 
special  label,  or  in  bulk.  Prices  on  application  to  Estate 
Office,  Toddington,  YYinchconibe.  (156) 

CANADIAN  HONEY  TINS.— The  60-lbs.  empty  Honey 
Tins,  in  which  the  Extracted  Honey  was  brought  from 
Canada,  can  bo  had  at  Is.  2d.  each,  including  the  box. 
Also  the  10-Ibs.  Tins,  with  self-fitting  tops,  at  3s.  per  dozen. 
Apply  to  J.  Huckle,  King's  Langley,  Herts. 

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GUIDE-BOOK    PaM?HLETS.-lfo.   1. 



Extracted  and  Comb  Honey,  and  the 
Prevention  of  Swarming. 

By  T.   W.    COWAN,  F.G.S.,   F.R.M.S. 
Post  Free,  Threepence  Halfpenny. 

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the  Use  of  the  Extractor.  By  Tnos.  Wii.  Cowan,  F.G.S., 
F.R.M.S.,  &c.  With  numerous  Dlustrations.  Fcap.  8vo., 
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)  VVA^i/  AVU11A/11X1V11J 



rtSSTE-W      A.M:£!IS,ICiLM       SECTIONS. 

Clean,  white  Bass-wood,  V-groove. 

No.  Length.  Height.  Per.  100.  Per  500.  Per  1000. 

1.  — 4£    x    3|        |  3s.  |  lis.  |  21s. 

Six  of  these  just  fit  our  Woodbury  Frame. 
2  —  6|    x    3|       |        3s.  6d.        |  13s.  |  25s. 

Four  of  these  fit  our  Woodbury  Frame. 
3.  —  51    x    4i-        |         3s.  6d.        |  13s.  |  25s. 

These  fit  our  old  pattern  hives. 

4.-4    X    4^         |  3S.  |  lis.  |  21s. 

The  ordinary  1-lb.  Section. 

5.  —  6      x    5     ) 

5a.  -G|    x    5|        |         3s.  6d.         |  13s.  |  25s. 

56.  —  51    x    6|  ) 

These  are  the  2-lb.  Sections  in  most  general  use. 

6.  —  4i    x    4         |  3s.  |  lis.  |  21s. 

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7.  —  6|    x    4  |         3s.  6d.         |  13s.  |  25s. 

Four  of  these  fit  the  Association's  Frame. 

Special  .quotations for  large  quantities  on  application.  Weight  per  1 00,  from  6|  to  8^lbs 

COMB      FOUNDATIOJN.    GUARANTEED    pure    beeswax. 

1  lb 2s.  per  lb. 

3  lbs.  to  5  lbs.       ...      Is.  lOd.  per  lb. 

5  lbs.  to  25  lbs.   ...      Is.  9id.  per  lb. 
25  lbs.  to  50  lbs.   ...      Is.  9&.  per  lb. 

50  lbs.  to  100  lbs Is.  8id.  per  lb. 



Per  Gross. 

Original  Honey  Bottles    ...      15s.  9d. 
Screw-cap  Bottles     25s. 

Per  Gross. 

Opal  Honey  Pots 18s. 

New  Half-pound  Pots lOs. 

ABBOTT'S    PATENT    FRAMES,   27s.  6d.  per  Gross. 

ALL     THE     ABOVE     ARE     PACKED     AND     PITT     ON     RAIL     FREE. 




Communications  to  the  Editor  to  be  addressed  '  Strangeways'  Printing  Office,  Tower  Street,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  w.c. 

[No.  238.    Vol.  XV.] 

JANUAEY  13,  1887. 

[Published  "Weekly.] 

tentorial,  Harass,  #r. 


We  have  "been  frequently  asked  to  give  instructions 
for  making  an  extractor.  Although  we  do  not  think 
that  it  will  generally  pay  an  amateur  to  make  one  for 
himself,  yet  there  are  those  who  like  to  make  all  their 
own  appliances,  and  for  these  we  intend  to  comply  with 
the  request,  and  to  give  such  details  as  may  enable  any- 
one who  understands  working  in  tin  to  accomplish  his 

For  this  purpose  we  will  select  the  simplest  form  of 
cylinder  extractor,  that  known  as  'Cowan's  Amateur,' 
which  has  "been  the  type  for  most  of  the  extractors  made 
since  its  introduction  in  1875. 

In  our  experiments  on  extractors,  commencing  in 
1873,  we  made  no  less  than  thirteen  different  patterns, 
and  hy  constant  trial  and  alterations  were  able  to  decide 
on  the  best  forms.  Extractors  were  tried  with  four  and 
six  frames,  hut  we  found  these  as  unsatisfactory  as 
Mr.  Eoot,  who  says  in  his  A  B  C  of  Bee-culture  .— 
'  Experiments  have  been  made  almost  without  number, 
and  the  general  decision  now  seems  to  be  in  favour  of  a 
machine  made  entirely  of  metal,  with  everything 
stationary  about  it  except  what  must  he  revolved.  The 
momentum  of  heavy  metal  revolving'  cans,  or  of  honey- 
after  it  has  left  the  comb,  defeats  the  very  object  we 
have  in  view ;  and  nothing  will  so  effectually  convince 
one  of  the  difference  as  an  actual  trial  of  the  two 
machines  side  by  side".  With  the  light  all  metal 
machines  the  comb  is  revolved  at  the  speed  required 
almost  instantly,  and  as  soon  as  the  honey  is  all  out  of 
the  comb  the  operator  is  aware  of  it,  by  the  decrease  in 
the  weight  as  he  holds  the  crank  in  his  hand ;  but  with 
the  heavy,  unwieldy  machines  the  stopping  and  starting 
take  more  time  than  doing  the  work.  The  same  ohjec- 
tions  apply  to  making  machines  for  emptying  four 
combs  at  once.  They  require  to  be  made  much  iarger, 
and  are  correspondingly  heavy  and  unwieldy.' 

After  trying  extractors  with  revolving  cans  we  found 
them  so  unsatisfactory  that  they  were  also  given  up. 
Experiment  also  enabled  us  to  decide  the  distance  the 
combs  shoidd  be  from  the  spindles  ;  and  this  is  of  great 
importance,  because  if  the  combs  are  too  near,  as  in  some 
extractors  we  have  seen,  all  the  honey  is  not  extracted  ; 
and  although  it  may  be  convenient  to  have  a  can  as 
small  as  possible  in  diameter,  yet  there  is  a  limit  to  the 
minimum  size  for  securing  efficiency.  In  experimenting 
many  hundred  combs  were  extracted  and  carefully 
weighed,  the  hees  allowed  to  clean  them,  after  which 

they  were  again  weighed.  The  difference  in  the  weights 
enabled  us  to  determiue  the  amount  of  loss  in  honey, 
and  by  this  means  we  were  enahled  to  arrive  at  the 
most  suitable  measurements. 

Before  proceeding  we  must  here  remark  that  no  zinc 
or  galvanised  iron  should  on  any  account  be  used  for 
extractors,  or  for  any  utensils  for  the  reception  of  honey. 
The  acid  in  the  honey  acts  upon  the  zinc,  and  the  oxide 
of  zinc  quickly  poisons  the  honey.  The  same  applies  to 
galvanised  iron,  as  the  galvanising,  as  it  is  called,  is  only 
a  coating  of  zinc.  Nothing  but  tin  or  tinned  iron 
should  be  used,  and  all  iron  parts  coming  in  contact  with 
honey  should  be  tinned.  We  have  always  strongly 
insisted  upon  this,  and  have  several  times  given  our 
reasons  for  it  in  the  Bee  Journal. 

The  illustrations,  will,  we  hope,  assist  in  better  under- 
standing the  construction  of  one  of  these  extractors. 

As  we  have  a  standard  frame  we  will  give  dimensions 
suitable  for  this  frame,  and  anyone  having  another  size 
will  have  to  alter  the  proportions  to  suit  it. 


Fig._  1  gives  a  vertical  section  of  the  extractor,  and 
fig.  2  is  a  horizontal  section  through  the  comb  baskets. 

We  will  commence  hy  makiag  the  spindle  and  frame. 
The  spindle  A  is  made  by  rolling  up  a  piece  of  tin,  and 
making  a  tube  f  of  an  inch  in  diameter.  It  will  next  be 
necessary  to  make  the  grooves  for  the  cages  to  slide  in, 
and  these  will  also  form  the  uprights  at  the  angles  B. 
Cut  four  pieces  of  tin  1EJ  inches  long  and  3£  inches 
wide,  fold  a  seam  along  the  two  edges  £  of  an  inch 
wide,  then  turn  these  up  at  right  angles  J  of   an  inch, 

and  we  shall  get  a  trough  in  section  like  this  J ~\. 

At  one  end  cut  the  corner,  and  turn  up  the  edge  i  an 
inch  thus  |  ,  as  this  will  have  to  he  placed  to 



[January  13,  1887. 

the  bottom,  and  form  the  ledge  for  the  comb  baskets  to 
rest  upon. 
The  frame  for  keeping  these  together,  C  C  0'  C,  fig.  2, 

Fig.  3. 
edge  uppermost. 

ric  a 

being  12  x  10  inches,  we  shall  want  strips  of  tin 
If  inches  wide  with  a  seam  folded  on  one  edge  J  of  an 
inch  wide  and  an  |  of  an  inch  wire  folded  in  the  other 
edge.  These  strips  must  be  bent  at  right  angles,  so  that 
when  they  are  soldered  together  they  may  form  two 
square  bands  12  x  10  inches.  Fig.  3 
will  show  the  arrangement  of  these 
at  the  top  and  bottom  of  the  frame- 
work. The  four  uprights  can  now 
be  soldered  on  to  these  bands.  Place 
one  of  these  with  the  wired  edge 
down,  and  with  a  little  solder  tack 
the  uprights  m  their  proper  posi- 
tion. It  will  be  noticed,  by  referring 
to  fig.  2,  that  they  have  to  be  fixed 
to  the  long  sides,  C  C,  taking  care 
that  the  piece  turned  up  at  the  end 
of  the  slides  is  at  the  bottom.  Now 
tack  on  the  top  band  to  the  upper 
ends  of  these  slides,  with  the  wired 
Be  careful  before  finally  soldering 
that  everything  is  perfectly  square,  or  the  cages  will 
not  slide  in  properly.  When  it  is  found  correct  the 
whole  framework  can  be  laid  down  in  a  position  most 
suitable  for  finally  soldering  all  together.  On  the  two 
narrow  sides  solder  two  brace  wires  diagonally  from  the 
opposite  corners,  as  shown  in  fig'.  3.  One  will  lay  flat 
against  the  wire  cage  when  it  is  in  position,  and  the  other 
to  complete  the  X  will  have  to  be  bent  where  the  two 
wires  intersect,  so  as  to  make  it  also  lay  flat.  If  these 
wires  be  5  of  an  inch  thick  and  are  well  soldered  at  the 
ends  and  at  the  place  of  intersection  they  will  be  amply 
strong  enough  to  prevent  any  bulging,  even  with  the 
heaviest  combs  in  the  baskets.  For  fixing  the  spindle  to 
this  frame  we  must  make  two  pieces,  D  D,  in  the  form 
of  an  X.  These  can  be  made  of  strips  of  tin  If  inches 
wide,  with  wire  folded  in  the  edges  for  strength,  or,  if 
the  wire  is  not  used,  the  tin  should  be  a  little  wider 
and  folded  three  times.  They  should  be  when  finished 
not  less  than  lg  inches  wide.  Fix  them  as  shown  in 
fig.  2,  and  solder  them  where  they  cross.  Then  bore  a 
f  inch  hole  in  the  centre  of  each,  and  push  through 
the  spindle,  which  must  bo  firmly  soldered  in  its  place. 

"We  will  now  make  the  comb  baskets  or  cages.  These 
are  in  two  halves,  and  are  made  two  inches  wide  inside, 
so  as  to  take  combs  of  any  thickness  and  sections,  if  it 
be  desired  to  extract  the  honey  from  them. 

The  wire  cloth  used  for  the  purpose,  fig.  4,  is  made  of 
stiff  tinned  wire  four  to  five  meshes  to  the  inch.  Two 
pieces  are  required  15  x  9J  inches  and  two  pieces 
15  x  9j  inches.  Get  a  strip  of  tin  long  enough  to  go 
right  round  the  edges  E  E  f  of  an  inch  wide  and  turn  it 
up  at  right  angles,  thus  L  J  now  place  the  wire  cloth 
inside  this  and  solder  it  in,  being  very  careful  to  solder  each 
wire.  Next  hammer  down  the  turned-up  edges  flat  on 
to  the  wire  and  again  solder  each  wire  to  these.  They 
will  then  present  the  appearance  of  fig.  4.    We  now 

— m — 



have  to  make  frames  for  them.  The  frames,  however, 
have  only  two  sides  and  a  bottom.  Tin  2J  inches  wide  will 
do  and  turn  up  one  edge  at  E 

right  angles  for  j  of  an  inch. 
Then  bend  them  thus  J 

the  long  ends  F  F,  fig.  5, 
beingwhen  finished  15  inches 
an  I  the  short  one  Q  9f 
inches  for  two  of  them,  and 
the  other  two  must  be '  a 
little  smaller  so  as  to  fit 
into  these.    We  say  when  "  „.     '. 

finished  because  we  intend  °'    ' 

to  turn  in  a  bead  with  a  wire  to  strengthen  the  top  and 
give  something  to  take  hold  of.  The  wire-cloth  frame, 
fig.  4,  can  now  be  soldered  into  these  frames,  and  we 
shall  have  half  a  cage  as  seen  in  fig.  5,  which  shows  a 
frame  of  comb  in  position.  e 

We  then  put  a  wire  along 
the  top  II H,  turning  the 
tin  over  it  and  soldering 
the  wire  to  the  top  end  of 
the  tin  surrounding  the 
wire  cloth.  The  inner  bas- 
ket which  has  to  fit  into 
the  outer  one  need  only 
have  the  wire  fixed  along 
the  top  on  that  side  where 
is  placed  the  wire  cloth,  as  it  would  be  obviously  in  the 
way  if  it  were  also  at  the  ends.  The  baskets  when  put 
together  are  seen  in  fig.  6.  Should  the  frames  have  pro- 
jecting shoulders,  or  long  ends,  holes  must  be  cut 
in  the  bottom  of  the  cages  or  in  the  wire  cloth 
to  accommodate  them. 

The  advantage  of  these  baskets  is  that  any 
thickness  of  comb  can  be  put  in  for  extraction. 
Pieces  either  from  skeps  or  other  hives  can  also 
he  very  eadly  put  in  by  opening  the  cages. 

Fig.  5. 

Combs  containing  brood  can  also  be  laid  in  ■= 
without  damaging  them,  although  we  do  not  FIG  6 
recommend  any  but  the  experienced  to  extract  from  such 
combs.  The  combs  can  also  be  reversed  without  touching 
the  frames  by  merely  drawing  out  and  turning  the  cages. 
Fig.  3  shows  one  pair  of  cages  in  position  and  the 
other  being  withdrawn.  We  prefer  having  a  piece  of 
folded  tin,  1 1,  fig.  2,  fixed  across  where  the  crosses  end, 
and  this  prevents  any  springing  at  the  corners. 

The  can  has  to  be  made  lb  inches  in  diameter  and  24 
inches  high.  The  top  and  bottom  must  have  a  wired 
bead  and  against  it  a  strong  hoop  at  least  one  inch 
wide  and  of  T\  inch  wrought-iron.  This  may  be 
riveted  on  to  the  can.  There  is  no  difficulty  in  making 
any  part  of  the  can  except  the  conical  bottom,  J,  fig.  1. 
For  this  cut  a  circular  piece,  as  in  fig.  7.    It  must  be  19 

K     m 

no  7 

inches  in  diameter  and  a  piece  K  L  M  must  be  cut  out  of 
it  as  shown,  2\  inches  wide  at  K  M.  Turn  up  the  edges 
K  L,  M  L  half  an  inch  in  width  and  draw  the  opening 
together.    It  will  then  present  the  form  of  fig.  8.    Tack  on 

January  13,  1887.] 



temporarily  a  piece  of  tin  across  the  opening-  to  keep  it 
the  right  distance  apart.     Then  turn  down  the  edge  all 

Fie  8 

round  the  circumference,  and  try  this  bottom  in  the  can, 
and  if  it  is  too  tight  or  too  loose  untack  the  strip  of  tin 
across  the  opening  and  fix  it  in  the  right  place.  The  bottom 
can  now  be  laid  down  and  a  trough-shaped  piece,  fig.  0, 
soldered  over  the  opening  on  the  turned  up  edges  K  L, 
M  L.  This  must  be  cut  a  little  larger  than  the  wedged- 
shaped  piece  cut  out  of  the  bottom,  and 
will  form  the  channel  leading  towards 
the  honey  valve.  The  bottom  can  then 
be  soldered  from  the  inside  into  position 
as  shown  in  fig.  1.  Then  punch  a  hole  _._  c 
at  N  and  solder  in  the  honey  valve  0. 
Before  proceeding  any  further  test  the  can  by  pouring- 
water  into  it,  and  if  it  leaks  remedy  the  defects. 

The  tin  work  is  now  ready,  and  we  have  only  to  put 
the  machine  together  and  put  on  the  gearing.  The 
amateur  had  better  purchase  the  gearing  P  and  honey 
valve  0,  as  it  will  be  cheaper  for  him  to  do  so  than  to 
make  them.  The  bracket  Q  has  to  be  screwed  on  to  the 
can  and  the  small  gear  wheel,  which  has  a  short  length 
of  iron  rod  R  attached  to  it,  is  soldered  into  the  top  end  of 
the  hollow  tin  shaft  into  which  it  fits.  A  plain  piece,  S, 
carefully  tinned,  is  soldered  on  the  bottom,  and  this  must 
work  in  a  bearing  T  fixed  to  the  bottom  of  the  can,  as 
shown  in  fig.  1. 

Should  the  bee-keeper  prefer  it,  he  can  substitute  for 
the  gearing  a  cranked  handle  at  the  top  end  of  the  shaft, 
this  being  kept  in  its  place  by  a  wrought-iron  bar  placed 
across  the  can  and  screwed  to  it,  but  he  must  not  expect 
the  same  speed  with  this  as  with  the  multiplying  gear, 
nor  does  it  work  so  smoothly  or  evenly.  These  extractors 
are  also  made  with  an  extra  can  below  them  ;  and  in  this 
case  they  have  no  conical  bottom,  but  instead  there  is  a, 
bar  of  flat  iron  for  the  bottom  of  the  spindle  to  work 
upon.  The  bottom  of  the  extractor  is  made  to  fit  in  the 
top  of  the  can  and  a  wire  gauze  screen  is  used  through 
which  the  honey  is  strained.  Of  course  if  such  a.  can  is 
used  to  hold  about  50  lbs.,  both  the  conical  bottom  and 
the  honey  valve  must  be  fitted  into  it  instead  of  into  the 
body  of  the  extractor. 

We  hope  that  the  description  as  well  as  the  illustra- 
tions will  be  sufficiently  clear  to  enable  the  amateur  to 
make  his  own  extractor. 


The  next  Quarterly  Conversazione  will  be  held  at 
105  Jermyn  Street,  London,  S.W.,  on  Wednesday, 
January  19  th,  commencing  at  six  o'clock.  Mr.  R. 
A.  Grimshaw,  of  Horsforth,  near  Leeds,  has  kindly 
promised  to  read  a  short  paper  on  '  The  Vocal 
Organs  of  Bee,?.'  The  Secretary  will  be  glad  to 
receive  notice  of  additional  subjects  for  discussion 
from  other  members. 

The  annual  general  meeting  of  the  members  will 
be  held  at  105  Jermyn  Street,  S.W.,  on  Wednes- 
day, February  16th,  at  3.30  p.m.  The  chair  will 
be  taken  by  the  Baroness  Burdett-Coutts,  President 
of  the  Association.  Notices  of  motion  for  this 
meeting  should  reach  the  Secretary  not  later  than 
Monday,  January  31st, 



Our  bees  are  once  more  in  their  winter  quarters, 
and  bee-keepers  have  a  season  of  comparative  leisure 
before  them. 

Our  methods  of  wintering  in  Canada  are  various.  A 
few,  but  I  think  none,  of  our  most  advanced  bee-keepers 
winter  their  colonies  upon  their  summer  stands  without 
any  further  protection  than  the  summer  hive.  It  appears 
in  the  past,  when  the  old  box-hive  was  still  the  prevail- 
ing, if  not  altogether  the  hive  in  use,  colonies  were 
always  wintered  in  this  manner,  and  our  fathers  state 
winter  losses  were  rarely  heard  of.  It  may  be  that  the 
shelter  at  that  time  afforded  by  our  forests  aided  them, 
and  the  increased  manipulation  of  the  bees,  close  extract- 
ing, &c,  interfere  with  successful  wintering  now. 
Certain  it  is  that  forty  years  ago  great  winter  losses 
amongst  bees  in  Canada  were  rare. 

Two  great  methods  of  wintering  bees  are  resorted  to 
by  Canadian  bee-keepers,  they  are  wintering  in  reposi- 
tories and  outdoor  wintering  in  clamps  or  their  equivalent. 
Repositories  are  either  specially  made  for  the  purpose,  or 
consist  of  cellars  under  dwelling-houses,  which  have 
originally  been  built  for  household  purposes  and  are 
often  used  by  the  bee-keeper  for  both.  Repositories 
specially  constructed,  are  either  houses  double-walled 
and  packed  with  sawdust  between,  making  them  frost- 
proof cellars,  generally  with  a  workshop  above ;  these 
repositories  are  ventilated  in  various  w7ays,  the  houses 
generally  have  sub-earth  ventilation  by  means  of  a  tile 
pipe,  running  a  sufficient  length  and  depth  under  the 
soil,  to  enable  the  atmosphere  passing  into  it  from  the 
end  remote  from  the  bee-house  to  be  of  an  equal  tempera- 
ture by  the  time  it  enters  the  bee-house  at  the  other  end, 
and  this  irrespective  of  the  rise  and  fall  of  the  tempera- 
ture outside.  A  pipe,  often  a  wooden  box,  generally 
forms  the  other  and  upwards  ventilator,  and  this  ventila- 
tor can  be  opened  or  contracted  to  further  regulate  the 
temperature  of  the  repositor3'. 

The  colonies  are  placed  at  least  twelve  inches  above 
the  floor,  and  piled  one  above  another  with  the  lids  off, 
and  the  propolised  cloths  on ;  sometimes  the  latter  are 
replaced  by  clean  cotton  and  a  light  chaff-cushion. 
Opinions  vary  as  to  the  temperature  of  the  repository  ; 
all  agree  it  should  never  fall  below  85°  or  even  40°. 
The  tendency  has  been  for  the  last  year  or  two  to  raise 
the  temperature  in  wintering,  and  in  consequence  many 
favour  a  temperature  not  lower  than  50°  to  55°. 

Bees  are  generally  placed  in  these  quarters  the  latter 
part  of  November,  and  remain  there  until  the  bees  can 
gather 'pollen  and  natural  stores.  Some  will  carry  their 
bees  out  during  early  spring  for  a  cleansing  flight,  and 
return  them  to  the  repository ;  such  a  method  is  very 
generally  condemned.  Towards  spring  the  tempera- 
ture is  raised,  and  the  bees  commence  brood-rearing,  and 
all  conditions  being  favourable  when  placed  upon  their 
summer  stands  are  almost  quite  as  strong,  or  even 
stronger  than  when  placed  indoors. 

When  wintering  outside  in  clamps,  the  hives  have  an 
outer  case,  allowing  sufficient  packing  of  chaff  or  saw- 
dust to  keep  out  the  frost,  the  lid  is  removed,  passages 
bored  through  the  upper  half  of  the  combs  so  as  to 
permit  the  bees  to  pass  from  comb  to  comb  without 
going  around  them  (this  prevents  much  loss),  on  the  top 
bars  of  frames  are  placed  strips  to  raise  the  cloth 
sufficiently  to  permit  the  bees  to  pass  from  comb  to 
comb  over  the  frames.  The  entrance  is  left  open  to  allow 
the  bees  a  flight  when  desired.  We  have  a  number  of 
reports  where  hives  were  left  covered  entirely  with  snow 
for  some  time,  and  wintered  well.  We  have  also  reports 
of  colonies,  which,  buried  in  a  dry  soil  over  winter,  and 
coming  out  in  fine  condition;   but  such  practices  are 



[January  13, 1887. 

exceptional  as  yet,  however  satisfactory  the  results  may 
prove  to  be.  It  is  generally  admitted  that  bees  wintered 
on  their  summer  stands  and  packed  about  with  chaff  and 
sawdust  during-  the  cold  winter  and  spring,  are  less  liable 
to  spring-dwindling,  and  build  up  in  good  condition  for 
the  early  honey  flow. — R.  F.  Holtebmanx,  Brantford, 


In  passing  a  retrospective  glance  upon  the  main 
features  of  the  year  which  has  just  closed  from  a  bee- 
keeper's point  of  view,  the  Bulletin  d' Apiculture  de  la 
Suisse  Kormande  arrives  at  the  conclusion  that  in 
Europe  it  has  proved  exceptionally  unfavourable  to 

In  the  course  of  its  twelve  months,  adds  the  same 
Journal,  the  losses  of  prominent  members  of  our  com- 
munity have  been  very  severe.  Switzerland  deplores, 
among  others,  the  removal  by  death,  of  M.  Mona ;  Italy, 
Mr.  C.  Fumagalli,  the  author  of  a  hive  largely  in  use 
among  Italians;  France,  M.  Jules  Madare,  President 
of  the  Societe  de  la  Somme,  and  M.  Maurice  Girard,  a 
distinguished  entomologist  and  author  of  a  valuable 
book  on  bees ;  Scotland  has  lost  her  James  Anderson,  a 
veteran  of  Scotch  apiculture,  who  in  his  day  was  remark- 
ably successful  with  the  Stewarton  hive ;  and,  lastly, 
Russia  has  seen  the  passing  away  of  Dr.  A.  Butlerow, 
Professor  of  Chemistry  and  of  Medicine  at  the  St.  Peters- 
burg University.  Dr.  Butlerow  was  the  promoter  of 
modern  bee-keeping  in  Russia,  and  his  works  are  con- 
siderable, among  which  is  a  Russian  translation  of 
Berlepsch's  book.  The  deceased  doctor  was  also  founder 
of  a  school  of  apiculture. 


The  Editor  does  not  hold  himself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed 
by  his  correspondents.  No  attention  will  be  taken  of  anonymous  com- 
munications, and  correspondents  are  requested  to  write  or.  one  side  of 
the  paper  only,  and  give  their  real  names  and  addresses,  not  necessarily 
for  publication,  but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith.  Illustrations  should 
be  drawn  on  separate  pieces  of  paper. 

Communications  relating  to  the  literary  department,  reports  of 
Associations,  Shows,  Meetings,  Echoes,  Queries,  Boolcs  for  Review, 
&c.,  must  be  addressed  only  to  'The  Editor  of  the  "British  Bee 
Journal,"  c}o  Messrs.  Strangcways  and  Sons,  Tower  Street,  Upper 
St.  Martin's  Lane,  London,  W.  C  All  business  communications  relating 
to  Advertisements,  &c,  must  be  addressed  to  Mr.  J.  Ruckle,  King's 
Langley,  Herts  (see  2nd  page  of  Advertisements). 

%*  In  order  to  facilitate  reference,  Correspondents,  when  spcalcing  of 
any  letter  or  query  previously  inserted,  will  oblige  by  mentioning  the 
number  of  the  letter,  as  well  as  the  page  on  which  it  appears. 


[761.]  At  one  time  I  looked  upon  the  work  of  feeding 
in  large  apiaiies  as  one  of  the  greatest  annoyances,  and 
the  necessary  preparation  a  waste  of  valuable  time. 
Syrup  had  to  be  made  over  a  stove  before  it  was  thought 
possible  _  that  it  could  be  appropriated  by  the  bees.  I 
was  satisfied  that  all  this  labour  could  be  avoided,  and 
before  establishing  out-apiaries  I  determined,  if  possible, 
that  it  should  be  done.  The  result  of  careful  experi- 
ments was  the  present  system  known  as  'dry-sugar 
feeding,'  by  means  of  dummies  filled  and  arranged"  at 
the  side  of  the  brood-nest.  Though  the  term  applied  to 
the  new  process  was  not  exactly  correct,  as  the  sugar 
used  (Porto  Rico)  is  moist  and  soft,  it  is  thus  distin- 
guished from  syrup  feeding,  and  appears  appropriate. 

Though  invaluable  for  stimulative  purposes,  and  in 
some  cases  to  complete  storage,  at  times  it  was  still 
necessary  to  give  syrup,  when  desirable,  to  feed  rapidly, 
but  this  difficulty  has  been  overcome  by  my  self-acting 
syrup  feeders.  There  was  still,  however,  one  other  point 
to  be  overcome. 

Many  stocks  are  either  neglected  by  their  owner,  or 
happen  to  run  short  of  food  before  it  is  possible  to  feed 
in  the  ordinary  way.  Hence  the  use  of  'candy'  during 
winter,  than  which  there  is  no  more  troublesome  nor 
expensive  food  to  make ;  expensive  because  of  the  great 
waste  of  time  taken  in  its  manufacture  when  one  might 

be  profitably  employed  at  something  far  more  remunera- 

It  is  pretty  well  understood  by  practical  bee-keepers 
that  the  outy  suitable  candy  is  that  which  always  pre- 
sents a  moist  surface  to  the  bees,  without  wasting  too 
freely,  great  care  being  required  to  get  it  just  right,  as, 
if  too  dry,  the  bees  will  not  make  much  use  of  it  until 
they  can  obtain  water,  while  if  too  soft  the  whole  will 
run  away  in  waste,  making  everything  stick}-,  the  pooi 
bees  included,  and  thus  doing  more  harm  than  good. 

When  I  say  that  I  have  struck  the  '  happy  medium,' 
and  no  more  cooking  is  required,  even  for  winter-feeding, 
or  for  supplementing  the  stores  of  those  running  short 
before  spring  opens,  the  importance  of  the  following 
plan  of  giving  uncooked  sugar  without  the  expense  of  a 
feeder  will  be  acknowledged.  Porto  Rico  sugar  is  of 
exactly  the  right  condition  to  take  the  place  cf  candy, 
if  only  properly  applied.  There  is  only  one  way  that  I 
have  found  it  can  be  done  without  waste  where  the  bees 
are  admitted  to  the  sugar  from  the  bottom  of  the  lump, 
and  that  is,  when  placed  on  the  frames  just  over  the 
cluster,  and  pressed  down  tightly. 

First  lay  a  sheet  of  newspaper  over  the  frames,  on  this 
place  several  pounds  of  the  above-mentioned  sugar  and 
press  it  down  well  all  round.  It  then  forms  into  a  cake 
with  a  crust  that  I  have  known  to  support  the  weight  of 
clustering  bees  and  newly-built  combs,  after  the  bulk 
had  been  used  in  spring,  just  as  if  it  had  been  an  in- 
verted dish.  No  grains  are  wasted ;  first,  because  of  the 
pressure,  and  then  the  moisture  of  the  hive  causing  all 
to  adhere  closely  together.  No  liquid  appears,  and 
yet  the  sugar  is  always  in  the  best  possible  con- 
dition for  use.  The  body  of  sugar  adds  an  additional 
protection  to  the  bees,  and,  unlike  sticks  of  candy,  the 
crust  is  left  till  last,  forming  a  complete  air-chamber 
immediately  above  the  cluster. 

A  strong  colony  will  soon  open  a  way  through  the 
paper  where  it  bulges  down  between  the  frames.  For  a 
weak  lot  a  slight  tear  should  be  made  to  .give  them  a 
start.  Instead  of  paper  a  piece  of  cheese-cloth  can  be 
placed  first  on  the  frame,  and  would  be  preferable  if 
applied  in  mid-winter. 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to  say  that  this  sugar  can  be 
moulded  to  any  shape  to  suit  the  formation  of  roof  or 
quilting,  which  latter  should  be  very  warm.  For  slow 
feeding,  where  it  is  known  the  bees  have  some  stores  on 
hand,  or  for  brood  stimulation  later,  porous  cloth  only 
need  be  applied ;  but  where  the  case  is  urgent,  or  more 
rapid  feeding  is  necessary,  place  a  piece  of  oiled  cloth 
next  above  the  sugar,  with  smooth  side  to  the  same. 

In  cases  of  emergency,  where  bees  have  been  bought 
in  spring  short  of  food,  and  being  in  odd  hives,  1  have, 
placed  the  usual  dry-feeding  dummy  close  on  top  of  the 
frames,  with  the  slot  next  to  but  standing  across  them. 
The  hives  being  smaller  than  the  '  standard,'  no  other 
feeders  were  at  hand  suitable.  When  covered  up  warm 
the  sugar  soon  disappeared,  and  though  side  feeding  is 
at  times  more  convenient  to  the  bee-keeper,  without  a 
doubt  in  cool  weather,  there  is  no  place  so  suitable  for 
the  bees  wherefrom  to  take  their  food  as  that  immedi- 
ately above  the  cluster. 

I  do  not  suppose  every  one  will  discontinue  the 
preparation  of  bee-food  by  cooking,  but  at  my  own 
apiaries,  of  several  hundred  colonies,  no  time  is  now 
wasted  in  that  manner,  and  I  have  no  doubt  this  last 
application  of  '  dry-sugar  feeding '  will  be  welcomed  by 
many  who  are  now  getting  anxious  about  the  condition 
of  their  stocks. — S.  Simmins. 


[702.]     I  think  we  may  safely  come  to  the  conclusion 

that  camphor  is  useless  as  a  cure  of  foul  brood,  as  no 

one  in  reply  to  my  Query  G74  writes  in  its  favour,  and 

two  write  against  it,     I  certainly  expected  to  see  some 

January  13,  1887.] 



one  write  in  its  favour,  aftev  its  being;  recommended  in 
the  Journal  by  you,  Mr.  Editor,  although  you  did  not 
write  from  your  own  experience  ;  and  if  report  is  correct 
our  County  Expert  carried  a  stock  of  camphor  with  him 
on  his  tour,  so  as  to  supply  any  one  with  it  where  they 
had  got  foul  brood.  But  in  one  apiary  where  he  recom- 
mended its  use,  it  did  about  as  much  good  as  it  did  in 

In  reply  to  Mr.  Ward,  How  are  we  to  know  when  the 
disease  has  attacked  the  queen  so  as  to  displace  her  ?  If 
I  was  not  certain  about  the  queen  I  mentioned  in  my 
previous  letter,  I  certainly  should  not  have  any  faith  in 
any  other,  as  I  had  the  pleasure  of  driving  the  bees 
this  autumn  at  the  same  apiary  she  came  from,  and 
there  is  no  trace  of  foul  brood  there  at  that  time,  and  I 
don't  believe  there  is  within  three  miles  of  them. 

He  also  says  if  the  queen  is  healthy,  the  so-called 
Cheshire  cure  will  cure  a  hive  ;  my  experience  says  it 
won't.  When  I  first  found  out  that  I  had  got  foul 
brood,  I  at  once  sent  to  one  of  his  recognised  agents  for 
some,  so  as  to  have  the  right  article,  and  I  carried  out 
his  instructions  as  near  to  the  letter  as  I  possibly  could 
upon  the  two  hives  that  were  affected,  but  to  no 
purpose.  I  reduced  it  to  about  four  times  the  strength 
he  recommends,  and  then  they  would  not  take  it.  I 
then  tried  spraying-  the  combs  with  it,  but  they  gradually 
got  worse,  and  at  last  I  turned  them  out  and  put  them 
into  a  clean  hive,  and  before  I  would  go  through  that 
process  of  spraying,  &c,  again,  I  should  give  up  bee- 
keeping. I  certainly  mean  trying  one  of  his  recom- 
mendations in  the  spring  as  regards  putting  some  medi- 
cated syrup  out  for  them  to  steal,  and  if  it  answers  I 
will  publish  it  in  our  Journal.  Of  one  thing  I  feel 
certain,  that  there  is  no  occasion  to  destroy  your  hives ; 
that  they  can  be  disinfected.  Three  years  ago  I  sold  six 
hives  for  a  gentleman  who  makes  his  own  hives,  and 
who  was  adopting  the  standard  frame,  these  not  being 
standard  size.  Knowing  that  he  had  got  foid  brood,  I 
did  not  like  to  have  any  dealings  with  him  (and  if  I 
had  known  as  much  about  foul  brood  then  as  I  do  now 
I  certainly  should  not),  but  he  assured  me  that  the}'  had 
been  disinfected,  and  that  there  was  nothing  infectious 
about  them ;  they  had  all  had  bees  in  them  and  died 

I  did  not  feel  very  easy  about  their  coming  upon  my 
premises,  so  that  I  moved  them  as  near  direct  as  possible. 
Three  went  to  one  place,  and  the  other  three  went  to 
separate  places,  and  they  are  not  near  one  another  by  at 
least  two  miles.  I  examined  the  whole  of  these  hives 
last  autumn,  and  there  is  not  a  trace  of  foul  brood  in 
either  of  them ;  so  that  the  gentleman  was  candid  in 
saying  they  had  been  thoroughly  disinfected.  Further, 
I  don't  think  it  is  communicated  in  wax-foundation, 
as  I  have  supplied  these  four  parties  with  foundation 
bought  through  the  Journal,  and  they  have  now 
amongst  them  more  than  a  score  of  bar-frame  hives  all 

I  think  Mr.  Saddler  has  done  us  a  good  turn  in  pub- 
lishing his  experience  of  foul  brood.  I  quite  agree  with 
him  that  the  simplest  way  of  dealing  with  foul  brood  is 
to  destroy  the  affected  combs.  I  tried  putting  clean 
combs  into  the  centre  of  the  brood-nest  whilst  feeding 
with  salicylic  acid,  but  after  about  the  ninth  day  they 
took  the  disease  as  bad  as  the  others.  He  quite  bears 
out  my  opinion  that  you  may  have  the  disease  very  bad 
in  a  hive,  and  yet  the  queen  is  not  affected.  Mr.  Ward 
will  say  how  do  I  know  that.  Just  one  instance.  Two 
years  ago  a  stock  of  Ligurians  belonging  to  the  gentle- 
man I  have  previousfy  mentioned,  had  got  it  very  bad ; 
he  shook  them  off  the  bars  into  a  straw  skep,  intending 
to  keep  them  there  for  a  couple  of  days,  before  putting 
them  into  another  frame-hive,  but  not  agreeing  with  the 
change  they  took  flight,  and  went  straight  into  the 
weather  tileing  of  a  gentleman's  stable  about  half  a 
mile   off.    As  they  bad   become  such   an    intolerable 

nuisance  there,  I  was  asked  to  come  and  take  them  out, 
which  I  did  in  September  last,  and  there  was  not  the 
least  sign  of  foul  brood  anywhere ;  and  there  was  no 
mistaking  the  Ligurian  bees  and  the  old  queen;  they  had 
one  unbroken  piece  of  comb  over  five  feet  long. 

I  should  like  to  see  '  Knownothing '  give  us  his  recipe 
for  using  Calvert's  No.  4,  as  I  consider  Is.  Gel.  per  bottle 
for  such  a  small  bottle  as  Mr.  Cheshire's  agents  send 
out  is  far  too  dear,  and  then  carbolic  can  be  bought 
almost  anywhere. 

I  am  sorry  that  I  cannot  endorse  your  opinion  of  Mr. 
King's  article  on  Foul  Brood.  It  appeal's  to  me  to  be  a 
rare  piece  of  Yankeeism.  He  puts  one  small  measure  of 
the  dissolved  phenol  crystals  into  a  pail,  and  measures 
with  the  same  measure  490  parts  of  what  I  may  call 
syrup,  and  then  makes  a  mark  upon  the  pail,  so  as  to 
have  a  correct  measure.  I  should  call  that  anything  but 
a  correct  measure.  Only  fancy  filling  this  small  measure 
499  times,  and  I  cannot  make  anything  else  of  it !  The 
odds  are  if  he  tried  it  over  half-a-dozen  timei,  he  would 
not  make  his  measurements  agree  within  hah?  a  pint  on 
either  occasion  of  trying.  If  he  had  quoted  ounces  or 
pints,  I  think  any  one  could  have  understood  it.  And 
then  when  heated  up  to  150°  Fahr.  the  bees  would  eat  it 
with  avidity.  Let  him  try  drinking  his  coffee  heated  up 
to  that  heat,  and  see  how  fast  he  could  get  on.  And  I 
have  yet  to  learn  that  bees  can  take  anything  hotter  than 
we  bipeds  can. 

And  then  he  wants  us  to  believe  upon  hearsay 
evidence  that  he  has  cured  his  large  apiary  of  foul  brood 
in  less  than  twelve  months  by  using  phenol,  according  to 
his  formula,  not  Mr.  Cheshire's. 

I  should  imagine  that  the  manager  of  an  apiary  of 
400  hives  would  be  able  to  carry  out  Mr.  Cheshire's 
instructions  fairly  well.  And  yet  Mr.  King  says  that 
in  the  experiments  made  with  phenol  previous  to  his 
taking  them  in  hand,  the  solution  had  been  used  too 
strong,  too  sparingly,  not  half  sweet  enough,  nor  yet 
warm  enough.  And  then  to  finish  up,  asks  all  that  are 
interested  to  carry  out  Mr.  Cheshire's  formula  literally 
and  accurately.  That  last  sentence  has  put  me  into 
a  fog  altogether. 

It  seems  to  be  admitted  by  all  your  correspondents 
that  the  Cheshire  formula  is  too  strong,  and  that  bees 
won't  take  enough  of  it  to  do  them  any  good  until  it  is 
reduced.  '  Knownothing '  says  I  am  quite  right  in  sup- 
posing that  the  disease  is  not  propagated  readily  in  a 
neighbourhood.  I  don't  know  when  I  said  so  ;  at  least, 
my  opinion  is  quite  the  reverse,  but  there  is  something 
peculiar  about  straw  skeps  and  foul  brood,  of  which  more 
anon. — Man  of  Kent. 

p.S. — Win  '  Platelayer '  give  us  his  experience  of  the 
last  season,  and  whether  his  bottle  of  phenol  is  still  on 
the  shelf? 

[We  do  not  think  we  can  yet  come  to  the  conclusion 
that  camphor  is  useless  as  a  cure  for  foul  brood  unless  we 
disbelieve  the  statements  that  are  constantly  made  by 
competent  bee-keepers  of  complete  cures  by  its  means. 
We  know  it  has  not  been  successful  in  some  cases,  but  we 
have  no  personal  experience,  having  fortunately  succeeded 
perfectly  well  with  salicylic  acid  when  foul  brood  was 
raging  fearfully  in  our  own  apiary.  However,  we  see 
frequent  reports  of  cures  effected  by  means  of  camphor 
in  the  leading  Continental  bee-papers.  We  attended  a 
large  meeting  of  the  Societe  Komande  d' Apiculture  last 
October,  and  there  met  a  gentleman  who  had  successfully- 
cured  his  hives  with  nofhing  but  camphor.  We  have 
also  heard  of  others  who  had  succeeded  with  phenol, 
and  even  with  common  carbolic  acid,  as  recommended  in 
some  German  bee-books.  In  13S5  we  attended  a  meeting 
of  the  Italian  bee-keepers,  when  this  question  of  phenol 
treatment  was  discussed.  It  was  not  favourably  enter- 
tained ;  M.  Tartuferi,  one  of  the  largest  bee-keepers  in 
Italy,  and  owner  of  a  thousand  hives,  stating  that  he  did 



[January  13,  1887. 

not  want  anything  better  or  simpler  than  salicylic  acid, 
having  had  no  difficulty  in  curing  his  hives  with  it. 
Both  salicylic  and  phenol  have  now  been  in  use  for 
upwards  of  ten  years,  and  both  have  their  advocates. 
We  must,  however,  admit  that  although  we  have  seen 
large  apiaries  that  had  been  completely  cured  with  the 
former,  Mr.  King's  is  the  only  wholesale  treatment  with 
phenol  we  have  heard  of,  and  hope  it  may  be  as  suc- 
cessful as  he  states.  It  is  true  we  have  never  detected 
any  of  the  germs  of  foul  brood  in  honey  under  the 
microscope,  even  with  the  highest  powers ;  but  it  has 
not,  we  think,  been  conclusively  proved  that  the  virus 
of  the  disease  may  not  be  conveyed  in  it,  and  your  ex- 
perience, borne  out  by  that  of  others,  is  strong  evidence 
in  favour  of  the  theory  that  honey  may  be  the  medium 
through  which  foul  brood  may  be  promulgated.  Pure 
phenol  in  crystals  can  be  purchased  at  3s.  a  pound. 
There  is  no  difficulty  in  making  the  solutions,  see  page 
]53,  Bee-keeper's  Guide  Book,  where  the  proportions  are 
given. — Ed.] 


[763.]  Having  noticed  'Amateur  Expert's'  apology 
to  Mr.  \V.  Chitty  in  your  last  issue,  I  felt  interested  to 
examine  both  the  original  paper  in  the  Bazaar  and  also 
the  criticism.  Referring  to  these,  may  I  venture  to  say, 
in  the  first  place,  that  while  it  is  always  pleasing  to  see 
a  writer  willing  to  apologise  for  any  offence,  real  or 
imagined,  that  he  may  have  caused,  I  quite  fail  in 
this  case  to  see  how  any  reasonable  person  could  have 
taken  offence  ?  In  the  first  paragraph  relating  to  Mr. 
Chitty 's  paper,  'Amateur  Expert  points  out,  but 
certainly  not  in  an  offensive  manner,  an  error,  which  if 
uncorrected  might  have  led  many  bee-keepers  to  spoil 
all  their  sections  next  year.  Had  I  made  such  a  mistake 
I  should  have  felt  grateful  to  anyone  who  set  me  right. 

The  next  paragraph  appears  to  call  for  no  comment ; 
and  the  same  applies  to  the  first  part  of  the  third :  but 
if  Mr.  Chitty  chooses  to  '  fit  on  the  cap  '  as  to  mislead- 
ing instruction  in  gardening  and  other  journals— in 
which  undoubtedly  from  time  to  time  much  that  is  mis- 
leading has  appeared — I  do  not  see  that  he  need  com- 
plain of  unfriendly  criticism.  Had  he  complained  that 
'  Amateur  Expert '  wrote  under  cover  of  a  worn  deplume 
instead  of  boldly  signing  his  own  name,  I  should  fully 
sympathise  with  him. — J.  Lin  gen  Seageb. 


[764.]  Having  made  a  few  new  hives  this  winter, 
and  being  rather  fond  of  having  names  for  some  of  them, 
I  should  like  to  have  one  named  Mel  sapit  Omnia,  but 
as  I  fear  being  a  cause  of  offence  to  'Amateur  Expert,'  I 
should  like  to  get  his  permission  to  have  it  done,  as  in 
the  Journal  for  Sept.  2nd,  page  408,  he  threatens  pains 
and  penalties  to  anyone  infringing  his  trade-mark.  By 
the  bye,  I  was  wondering  what  had  become  of  him, 
thinking  perhaps  he  was  hybernating,  like  the  bees ;  but 
it  appears  in  our  last,  a  fitful  gleam  of  sunshine  fetched 
him  out,  but  only  to  reply  to  Mr.  Chitty,  and  apologise, 
— for  what  ? — what  I  think  was  a  justifiable  action  in 
pointing  out  some  discrepancies  in  his  (Mr.  Chitty's) 
description  of  Mr.  Cornell's  super  ?  I  hope  we  shall 
soon  hear  from  him  again,  as  we  cannot  afford  to  lose 
his  racy,  piquant  articles  which  enliven  all  around,  also 
his  remarks  and  experiences  have  been  very  instructive. 
I  hope  he  will  not  forget  to  give  us  his  experience  with 
bees  that  are  bred  from  that  Cyprian  or  Holy  Land 
queen  which  he  introduced  last  autumn. 

I  should  like  to  say  a  few  words  about  the  Standard 
frame.  I  think  it  is  a  pity  after  all  the  trouble  and 
bother  of  settling  on  a  certain  size,  that  a  few  are  think- 
ing and  advocating  changing,  what  to  me  appears  a  very 

suitable  size.  If  any  alteration  is  deemed  advisable,  I 
should  think  shallow  frames  would  be  the  most 
suitable,  like  those  advocated  in  the  Secord  by  Mr. 
Carr,  as  at  the  late  South  Kensington  show  we  had  a 
specimen  of  what  could  be  done  with  such  a  hive  in  a 
moderate  season. — John  Walton. 


[765.]  In  1868,  a  gentleman  of  Colchester  (Mr. 
Joslin)  found  in  his  grounds  a  monument  to  a  Roman 
soldier  (centurion).  An  interesting  description  of  it  was 
written  by  the  Rev.  B.  Lodge.  A  doubt  arose  as  to  the 
name,  &c,  of  a  small  sword  or  hanger  at  the  right  side 
of  the  figure.  And  in  a  note  we  read  that  Forcellini, 
quoting  Antonius  Augustinus,  says  that  the  weapon  was 
without  a  point,  to  intimate  that  the  superior  officer,  like 
the  queen-bee,  should  direct,  but  have  no  sting. 

Can  any  of  your  classical  readers  tell  us  anything 
about  Antonius  Augustinus,  date,  &c.  ?  —  J.  Lawson 

[In  1587,  Antonius  Augustinus  (or  Antonio  Agustin), 
archbishop  of  Tarragona,  published  a  work,  entitled, 
'  Dialoyos  de  Medallas,  Inscrwiones,y  otras  Antiyuedades. 
Ex  Bibliotheca  A.  A.  Plates,  4to.  Tarragona,  1587.' 
There  was  another  edition  in  4to.,  Madrid,  1744.  Of  the 
above  work  there  were  two  Italian  versions.  Also  a 
Latin  translation  by  And.  Schott,  Eol.  Antverpias,  1617, 
and  Autv.  1653-54,  3  parts,  68  plates. — Ed.] 


[766.]  May  I  be  allowed  to  endorse  Mr.  James  Lee's 
sound  advice  to  bee-keepers,  namely,  to  test  new  ideas 
practically  before  rushing  to  conclusions,  and  his  further 
caution  for  all  but  the  skilled '  to  go  slow'?  A  great  deal 
of  harm  has,  I  believe,  been  done  by  those  fertile 
workers,  who  have  put  forward  crude,  unfertilised  notions 
in  the  guise  of  proved  facts,  and  no  doubt  numbers  of 
beginners  have  thrown  up  bee-keeping  in  disgust  because 
they  have  failed  to  secure  the  impossible  results  these 
others  professed  to  have  obtained  and  promised  them. 
It  is  an  act  of  generosity,  more  or  less,  for  a  man  to 
publish  his  ideas  to  the  world;  but  what  I  complain 
about  is  that,  in  the  bee-world  especially,  many  writers 
forget  to  mention  that  their  ideas  are  nothing  more 
than  ideas,  and  that  they  have  never  really  been  put  to 
a  practical  test. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  unfair  to  condemn  a  system 
without  trial  merely  because  it  is  new,  or,  perhaps, 
because  in  a  single  instance,  and  under  unknown  con- 
ditions, it  has  not  proved  successful.  My  own  ex- 
perience of  the  system  of  inversion,  which  Mr.  Lee  is 
entirely  wrong  in  speaking  of  as  untried,  bears  out  this 

In  1885  I  got  some  reversible  frames  frcm  Messrs. 
Neighbour  and  others,  but  reversing  them  seemed  to 
make  no  difference  in  results,  as  far  as  I  could  see  ;  later 
on,  however,  happening  to  read  Mr.  Garratt's  very  in- 
teresting article  on  reversing  skeps,  I  determined  to  give 
the  plan  a  trial.  The  skep  on  which  I  experimented 
was  in  no  way  a  specially  selected  one,  but  one  of 
average  strength.  The  result  surprised  me.  It  gave  the 
earliest  sections  in  the  apiary,  and  a  number  far  in 
excess  of  the  average  per  stock.  A  single  trial  cannot 
be  conclusive,  but  this  one,  I  need  hardly  say,  has  very 
much  modified  the  opinion  formed  previously ;  and  I  am 
very  sanguine  that,  though  reversing  frames  with  its 
attendant  disturbance  of  the  brood-nest  may  do  more 
harm  than  good,  the  Ileddon  system,  so  well  spoken  of 
by  the  majority  of  those  who  in  Americ.i  have  tried 
it,  may  be  a  very  long  step  in  advance. 

Bee-keeping  on  modern  principles  is  in  its  infancy,  it 
is  hardly  out  of  the  experimental  stage,  and  I  trust 
English  authorities  on  bee  matters  will,  while  cautioning 

January  13,  1887.] 



novices  not  to  go  too  fast,  give  every  encouragement  to 
progress  and  experiment,  and  condemn  nothing  merely 
on  the  ground  that  it  has  not  been  tried,  or  that  it  is  of 
foreign  invention.— D.  A.  Thomas. 


[767.]  In  answer  to  your  correspondent  in  The 
British  Bee  Journal,  16th  December,  1886  (741),  page 
500, 1  drew  attention  to  the  beautiful  object  found  in 
the  honey-comb, '  pollen.'  A  paper  of  mine  was  read  in 
reference  to  this  object  at  the  Koyal  Microscopical 
Society  meeting  in  1865 — see  Quarterly  Journal  of 
Microscopical  Science,  1865,  page  163.  With  regard  to 
the  various  pollens  which  the  bee  collects  they  are  far  too 
numerous  to  name.  They  are  often  spores  of  different 
plants,  as  well  as  pollen,  thus  collected.  The  bee  in 
collecting  them  makes  up,  or  builds,  the  honey-comb, 
mixed  together  with  the  wax.  If  they  are  found  in 
honey,  it  is  by  accident,  or  by  pressure  of  the  honey- 
comb, which  is  gently  heated  by  the  trade  to  extract 
the  honey.  Thus  the  polleu  is  often  found  in  the  honey 
of  the  shops,  but  the  best  way  to  get  a  great  variety  is 
to  soften  by  gentle  heat  part  of  the  honey-comb  on  a 
slide  for  the  microscope ;  your  correspondent  will  find 
then  numerous  pollens  and  spores  of  plants.  A  better 
way  still  to  exhibit  the  pollen  is  to  gather  them  from 
various  flowers,  and  immerse  them  in  olive  oil  on  a  slide 
for  the  microscope.  I  have  mounted  many  very  suc- 
cessfully, having  made  it  a  study  for  some  years.  There 
is  a  difference  of  opinion  in  respect  to  the  food  of  the 
larva;  of  bees.  My  belief  is  that  honey  forms  the  chief, 
and  that  pollen  is  not  used  as  food. — Edmund  Gill, 
Linn  Villa,  Sutton  Hill,  Surrey. 


[768.]  I  notice  in  your  last  issue  that '  C.  R.  S.,  of 
South  Cornwall,'  calls  attention  to  the  word  '  rabbet ' 
being  improperly  used  in  your  columns.  Johnson's 
Dictionary  informs  me  that  a  'rabbet'  '  is  a  joint  made 
by  paring  two  pieces  of  wood  so  that  they  wrap  over 
one  another.'  Now  the  shifting  slide  mentioned  in 
describing  Neighbour's  Sandringham  hive  is  itself  com- 
prised of  several '  rabbets,'  so  that  it  really  ma)'  be  called 
a  rabbeted  slide.  Would  this  term  suit '  C.  R.  S.'  better  ? 
It  seems  to  me  a  not  very  important  matter  to  call  atten- 
tion to. — Alfbed  Neighbour. 


[769.]  Mr.  Editor,  permit  me  to  draw  your  atten- 
tion to  letter  759,  page  9  ('Nomenclature').  I  am 
much  obliged  to  'C.  R.  S.'  for  opening  up  this  subject. 
By  looking  over  the  dictionary  you  will  see  that  a 
'  rabbet '  cannot  be  any  way  but  on  the  edge,  or  at  an 
outside.  Such  a  rabbet  as  used  in  Neighbour's  adver- 
tisement no  one  can  understand.  The  English  language 
is  not  so  scarce  of  words  as  to  necessitate  the  use  of  one 
w-ord  being  used  for  two  such  different  operations  as  the 
two  mentioned.  A  rabbet  has  only  two  sides,  that  is,  a 
bottom  and  one  side.  Now  this  one  in  Neighbour's  adver- 
tisement has  three  sides,  a  bottom,  and  two  sides.  Our 
trade  name  for  the  latter  is  a  raggle,  although  I  do  not 
find  the  word  in  the  Dictionary. 

While  I  am  at  it  I  might  make  a  remark  about 
bumping.  [You  might  try  how  'jerk'  would  do  instead  of 
that  very  objectionable  word  '  bump.'  It  was  no  wonder 
that  Mr.  Johns  had  some  difficulty  about  what  was 
meant.  We  can  understand  the  crate,  but  the  rack  we 
must  try  and  keep  from  our  bees. — N.  P. 


[770.]  Though  a  new  member  of  the  B.B.K.A.,  I 
would  respectfully  make  a  suggestion  on  the  above 
subject  which  has  occurred  to  me  through  reading  Mr. 
J.  Garratt's  letter  (758)  with  the  Editor's  foot-note,  in 
the  B.B.J,  of  the  6th  January,  1887.  The  committee 
should  doubtless  be  chosen  from  members  who  live  at  a 
convenient  distance  to  attend  the  committee  and  sub- 
committee meetings,  but  why  not  allow  county  repre- 
sentatives, who  are  qualified  members  of  the  B.B.K.A.,  to 
be  ex-officio  committee-men,  so  that  the  county  repre- 
sentatives might  render  assistance  to  the  committee 
where  the  large  amount  of  work  arises,  viz.,  when  they 
are  undertaking  important  work  in  his  county  ? — Nota. 


[771.]  While  the  question  is  at  the  front  as  to  the 
Yorkshire  B.K.A.,  &c,  I  would  just  like  to  ask  you, 
sir,  if  a  bee  show  could  not  be  held  in  Saltaire  during  the 
great  exhibition  to  be  held  there.  The  Prince  of  Wales 
is,  I  believe,  going  to  be  there,  so  if  our  friend  Mr. 
Grimshaw  with  his  active  pen  could  only  stir  up  some 
of  the  bee-keepers  in  the  neighbourhood,  something 
might  be  done  as  regards  getting  an  assistant- secretary, 
seeing  the  whole  county  is  too  large  for  one,  or,  if  it  could 
be  done,  to  be  divided  into  parliamentary  divisions, 
which  is  very  feasible.  Hoping  something  will  be  done, 
as  to  the  show  to  be  opened,  I  believe,  in  May  next.— 
Samuel  Watson,  Brighouse. 

[The  Secretary  of  the  B.B.K.A.  informs  us  that  he  has 
had  some  correspondence  with  the  secretary  of  the  ex- 
hibition alluded  to  by  our  correspondent.  The  B.B.K.A. 
anticipate  no  difficulty  in  securing  such  an  exhibit,  pro- 
viding the  executive  of  the  Saltaire  Exhibition  will 
provide  the  necessary  attendance  during  the  time. — Ed.] 


[772.]  I  think  most  people  agree  that  prevention  is 
better  than  cure,  and  if  Mr.  Cheshire  has  discovered  a 
means  of  preventing  stings  while  manipulating,  he  has 
given  a  boon  to  the  majority  of  bee-keepers  by  making 
it  known  in  the  generous  manner  he  has  done. 

In  the  past  and  at  the  present  time  bees  are  looked 
upon  as  so  many  incorrigible  '  demons,'  or  '  fiends '  (see 
Journals),  and  we  have  therefore  employed  none  but 
drastic  measures,  believing  that  anything  of  a  mild 
character  would  be  incapable  of  coping  with  their 
terrible  diabolical  natures.  We  have  not  studied  their 
requirements,  their  rights,  their  claims,  their  feelings, 
but  have  driven,  coerced,  and  even  slaughtered  them. 
Patrotism  with  bees  is  a  crime.  To  defend  home  and 
stores  a  greater  crime  still.  They  must  be  subjugated. 
And  how  ?  Why,  like  unarmed  rebels  before  soldiers, 
bayonets,  sent  head  over  heels,  followed  by  volumes  of 
burning  smoke,  or  Mr.  Webster's 2>leasant  carbolic  fumes. 
But  with  all  our  subjugating  apparatus  we  get  stung. 
What  we  want  is  peace  and  no  coercion,  and  I  hope 
Mr.  Cheshire  has  found  the  remedy. 

I  consider  Mr.  Grimshaw's  new  coined  word  anything 
but  appropriate  for  the  '  family '  he  got  into.  '  Apif uges ' 
would  imply  something  to  drive  bees  headlong  in  terror 
and  confusion,  and  I  feel  sure  that  is  not  what  Mr. 
Grimshaw  wanted  to  discover  when  he  commenced 
experiments  last  summer. 

Now,  sir,  '  bee  subjugators '  have  been  used  for  many 
years,  and  have  not  proved  absolutely  infallible  ;  and  now 
we  are  going  to  try  another  '  law  '  I  would  suggest  that 
it  be  called  '  the  bee  conciliator.'  Let  us  take  advantage 
of  the  high  development  and  fine,  extreme  sensitiveness 
of  their  olfactories,  and  present  something  of  a  pleasing, 
enchanting  nature ;    something  to   move   into   activity 



[January  13,  1887. 

those  gentle,  amiable,  social  properties  they  possess,  and 
at  the  same  time  subduing'  all  pugnacious*  propensities. 
I  feel  certain  such  a  remedy  will  be  found,  if  it  is  not 
already. — A.  Geeen,  Selston,  Alfreton. 


(Extract  from  Natural  History  of  the  Bible.    By  H.   B. 
Tristram,  M.A.,  LL.'D.,  F.R.S.) 

The  honey-bee  and  honey  are  frequently  mentioned  in 
Scripture,  and  bees  were,  from  a  very  early  epoch, 
reclaimed  and  kept  in  hives,  as  well  as  sought  for  among 
the  rocks.  The  hive-bee  of  Palestine  much  resembles 
our  own  Apis  meltifica,  and  still  more  closely  the  hive- 
bee  of  Italy  and  Southern  Europe  (Apis  ligustica),  but  is 
decidedly  smaller,  and  of  a  much  lighter  colour.  The 
swarms,  or  colonies,  are  also  generally  more  numerous, 
and  the  cells  of  the  combs  are  of  course  a  little  smaller, 
while  the  combs  themselves  are  frequently  of  great  size 
and  weight.  It  is  the  Apis  fasciata  of  Latreille  ;  and 
now,  as  of  old,  is  quite  as  abundant  in  a  wild  state  as 
reclaimed.  Indeed,  the  wild  bees,  of  precisely  the  same 
species,  are  far  more  numerous  than  their  hived  relatives, 
and  the  greater  quantity  of  the  honey  sold  in  the  south 
of  Palestine  is  obtained  from  wild  swarms. 

Most  of  the  allusions  to  bees  in  Scripture  refer  to 
these  unreclaimed  stocks,  which  when  robbed  attack 
their  plunderers  with  great  fury.  Iu  some  parts  of  India 
so  enormous  are  the  swarm?  of  wild  bees,  that  there 
are  ravines  which  it  is  impossible  to  traverse,  owing  to 
the  fury  of  their  attacks.  '  The  Amorites,  which  dwelt 
in  that  mountain,  came  out  against  you,  and  chased  you, 
as  bees  do '  (Deut,  i.  44).  '  Thev  compassed  me  about 
like  bees '  (Ps.  cxviii.  12).  '  The  Lord  shall  hiss  for  the 
fly  that  is  in  the  uttermost  part  of  the  rivers  of  Egypt,  and 
for  the  bee  that  is  in  the  land  of  Assyria'  (Isa.  vii.  18). 
In  this  passage  allusion  appears  to  be  made  to  the  well- 
known  custom  of  arresting  bees  by  loud  sounds,  a  custom 
which  has  come  down  from  the  earliest  times,  and  is 
practised  among  ourselves  in  the  tinkling  and  jingling  of 
iron  utensils  to  induce  a  swarm  to  settle  when  it  has  left 
the  hive.  The  word  'hiss'  alludes  to  the  call  to 
attention  universally  used  in  Eastern  countries,  which, 
instead  of  '  hallo,'  or  '  hey,'  is  always  '  hist '  or  '  hiss.' 

The  abundance  of  bees  of  old  is  attested  by  the 
frequent  mention  of  the  Land  of  Promise  as  '  a  land 
flowing  with  milk  and  honey'  (Deut.  viii.  8).  Few 
countries  are  more  admirably  adapted  for  bees  than  this, 
with  its  dry  climate  and  its  stunted  but  varied  flora,  con- 
sisting, in  large  proportion,  of  aromatic  thymes,  mints, 
and.  other  labiate  plants,  as  well  as  of  crocuses  in  spring; 
while  the  dry  recesses  of  limestone  rocks  everywhere 
afford  shelter  and  protection  for  the  combs.  Thus,  the 
rocks  are  generally  spoken  of  as  the  treasure-houses  of 
the  bees :  '  With  honey  out  of  the  rock  should  I  have 
satisfied  thee '  (Ps.  lxxxi.  16).  Wild  honey  is  also  found 
in  trees.  Thus, '  All  they  of  the  land  came  to  a  wood ; 
and  there  was  honey  upon  the  ground.  And  when  the 
people  were  come  into  the  wood,  behold,  the  honey 
dropped  '  (1  Sam.  xiv.  25,  26). 

In  Judges,  xiv.  8,  we  read  of  a  swarm  of  bees  taking 
up  their  abode  in  the  carcass  of  the  lion  which  Samson 
had  slain,  upon  which  he  propounded  his  riddle:  'Out 
of  the  eater  cometh  forth  meat,  and  out  of  the  strong 
cometh  forth  sweetness.'  We  must  not  suppose  that  the 
carcass  was  a  putrid  and  corrupt  mass,  for  in  the  dry 
season  the  heat  will  speedily  render  a  carcass  in  that 
climate  a  mere  mummy  without  any  offensive  smell 
until  it  is  moistened,  and  the  ants  speedily  clear  away 
all  the  softer  parts  of  the  body,  if  any  are  left  by  the 
vultures,  so  that  merely  the  skeleton  and  hide  would 
remain.  Even  in  this  country,  wrens  and  sparrows 
have  been  known  to  make  their  nest  in  the  body  of  an 
exposed  crow  or  hawk. 

in  the  wilderness  of  Judrea,  bees  are  far  more  numerous 

than  in  any  other  part  of  Palestine,  and  thus  honey  was 
part  of  the  homely  diet  of  the  Baptist  in  the  desert,  as  it 
is  to  this  day  among  the  Bedouins,  who  squeeze  it  from  the 
comb  and  store  it  in  skins.  Such  stores  the  men  possessed 
who  petitioned  Ishmael  for  their  lives  on  that  account : 
'  Slay  us  not,  for  we  have  treasures  in  the  field  ....  of 
honey'  (Jer.  xli.  8). 

Honey  was  from  the  earliest  times  an  article  of  com- 
merce from  Palestine.  It  was  among  the  delicacies  sent 
down  by  Jacob  Math  his  sons  to  the  governor  of  Egypt 
(Gen.  xhii.  2),  and  is  mentioned  by  Ezekiel  among  the 
commodities  exported  to  Tyre :  '  Judah,  and  the  land  of 
Israel,  they  were  thy  merchants:  they  traded  in  thy 
market  ....  honey'  (ch.  xxvii.  17).  It  is  probable 
that  in  several  passages  honey  (Heb.  debash)  stands  for 
the  Arabic  'dibs,'  the  sweet  syrup  made  by  boiling 
down  the  juice  of  the  grape  to  the  consistency  of  treacle ; 
but  in  most  instances  bees'  honey  is  undoubtedly  in- 
tended. Wax  was  also  employed  for  various  purposes, 
but  not,  so  far  as  we  know,  for  candles.  It  was  an 
ingredient  in  various  ointments  and  perfumes. 

The  method  of  keeping  domesticated  bees  has  probably 
not  varied  from  the  earliest  times,  and  they  are  reared, 
especially  in  Galilee,  in  great  numbers.  The  hives  are 
very  simple,  consisting  of  large  tubes  of  sun-dried  mud, 
about  eight  inches  in  diameter  and  four  feet  long,  closed 
with  mud  at  each  end,  having  only  an  aperture  in  the 
centre  large  enough  for  two  or  three  bees  to  pass  at  a 
time.  The  insects  appear  to  frequent  both  doors  equalty. 
These  tubes  are  laid  in  rows  horizontally  and  piled  in  a 
pyramid.  I  counted  one  of  these  colonies  consisting  of 
seventy-eight  tubes,  each  a  distinct  hive.  Coolness 
being  the  great  object,  the  whole  is  thickly  plastered 
over  with  mud  and  covered  with  boughs,  while  a  branch 
is  stuck  in  the  ground  at  each  end  to  assist  the  bees  in 
alighting.  At  first  we  took  these  singular  structures  for 
orans  or  hen-houses.  The  barbarous  practice  of  destin- 
ing the  swarms  for  their  honey  is  unknown.  When 
the  hives  are  full  the  clay  is  removed  from  the  ends  of 
the  pipes,  and  the  honey  extracted  with  an  iron  hook  ; 
those  pieces  of  comb  which  contain  J'oung  bees  are 
carefully  replaced,  and  the  hives  then  closed  up  again. 
Honey,  wild  or  from  hives,  is  always  to  be  purchased, 
and  it  is  used  for  many  culinary  purposes,  and  especially 
for  the  preparation  of  sweet  cakes.  It  has  the  delicate 
aromatic  flavour  of  the  thyme-scented  honey  of  Hybla  or 

But,  however  extensive  are  the  bee-colonies  of  the 
villages,  the  number  of  wild  bees  of  the  same  species  is 
far  greater.  The  innumerable  fissures  and  clefts  of  the 
limestone  rocks,  which  everywhere  flank  the  valleys, 
afford  in  their  recesses  secure  shelter  for  any  number  of 
swarms;  and  many  of  the  Bedouins,  particularly  in  the 
wilderness  of  Judasa,  obtain  their  subsistence  by  bee- 
hunting,  bringing  into  Jerusalem  skins  and  jars  of  that 
wild  honey  on  which  John  the  Baptist  fed  in  the  wilder- 
ness, and  which  Jonathan  had  long  before  unwittingly 
tasted  when  the  couib  had  dropped  on  the  ground  from 
the  hollow  tree  in  which  it  was  suspended.  When  we 
see  the  busy  multitude  of  bees  about  the  cliffs,  we  call 
to  mind  the  promise :  '  With  honey  out  of  the  stony 
rock  would  I  have  satisfied  thee.'  Amidst  all  its  deso- 
lation the  Land  of  Promise  is,  even  to  the  present  day, 
'  a  land  flowing  with  honey.' 

The  Orientals  have  a  sweet  tooth,  and  are  in  the 
habit  of  eating  honey  to  a  degree  that  would  nauseate  a 
Western  stomach. 

The  Word  of  God  is  frequently  compared  in  Scripture 
to  honey  for  its  sweetness  (Ps.  xix.  10,  &c.)  Deborah 
(bee)  was  a  favourite  and  appropriate  female  name 
(Gen.  xxxv.) 

The  number  of  species  of  humble  bee  in  Palestine  is 
very  great,  and  mason  bees  are  especially  numerous,  but 
their  stores  of  honey  are  too  inconsiderable  to  have  been 
an  object  of  search. 

January  13,  188?.] 




Queries  and  Answers  are  inserted  free  of  charge  to  Correspondents 
Mlicn  more  titan  one  query  is  sent,  cac/i  should  be  on  a  separate  piece 
oj  paper. 

Oar  readers  will  greatly  oblige  us  by  answering,  as  far  as  their  know- 
ledge and  observations  permit,  the  Correspondents  who  seek  assistance. 
Answers  should  always  bear  the  number  and  title  placed  against  the 
query  replied  to.  Any  queries  unanswered  in  this  way  will  be  answered 
by  the  Editor  and  others. 

[773.]  Managing  Stock  on  an  Allotment  Garden. — As  some- 
time I  may  want  to  take  some  bees  down  into  an  allotment 
garden,  I  should  be  glad  of  the  opinions  of  others  as  to 
the  best  way  of  managing  a  few  stocks  so  as  to  run  the 
least  risk  of  losing  swarms.  I  should  not  be  able  to  go 
to  look  after  them  in  the  daytime,  and  only  occasionally 
in  the  evening,  as  most  of  my  spare  time  will  be  taken  up 
among  rny  bees  at  home.  I  do  not  particularly  mind 
whether  I  work  them  for  comb  or  extracted  honey  ? — 
John  Walton. 

[774.]  Separation  of  Wax  from  Pollen,  dc. — Can  any  reader 
of  the  British  Bee  Journal  inform  me  how  I  can  separate  the 
wax  from  old  combs,  pollen,  &c.  ?  Is  there  no  cheap  wax- 
extractor  to  be  got  that  would  be  useful  to  a  cottager  ? 
or  can  I  have  one  made,  and  what  about  the  price  ?  I 
have  tried  the  boiling  process  mentioned  in  your  last 
number,  and  find  it  a  very  tedious  job.  It  is  a  great 
waste  to  throw  all  old  combs  away,  and  I  am  not  able  to 
purchase  an  extractor  at  prices  advertised. — A.  S. 


All  queries  forwarded  will  be  attended  to,  and  those  only  of  personal 
interest  will  be  answered  in  this  column. 

J.  B. — Treatment. — In  the  first  place  we  think  you  erred  in 
putting  sections  on  your  swarm,  as  the  honey  flow  must 
have  been  nearly  over  at  the  time  of  putting  them  on. 
Secondly,  when  putting  into  winter  quarters  each  comb 
should  have  been  examined,  and  the  bees  confined  by 
division  -  boards  to  as  many  combs  only  as  they  could 
cover,  and,  not  having  sufficient  stores  for  winter,  should 
have  been  fed.  We  advise  you  to  leave  them  entirely 
alone,  i.e.,  not  to  disturb,  or  even  touch  the  hive,  until 
a  fine  warm  day  enables  you  to  raise  the  quilt,  and,  if 
food  is  required,  place  flat  cakes  of  soft  candy  on  the 
top  of  the  frames,  and  cover  up  with  dry  and  warm 
quilts.  We  think  you  will  find  the  bees  alive,  but 
probably  requiring  food.  The  few  dead,  of  which  you 
speak,  may  be  accounted  for  by  the  normal  winter 
mortality.  With  the  above  exceptions  your  treatment 
was  correct. 

S.  L.  B. — Carniolans. — You  can  prevent  these  from  swarm- 
ing by  giving  them  plenty  of  room,  and  carrying  out  the 
instructions  given  in  the  pamphlet.  If  you  refer  to  the 
article  you  allude  to,  yon  will  see  that  we  stated  that,  '  by 
giving  plenty  of  room  we  were  able  to  control  them,'  and 
that  we  did  not  given  them  up  solely  on  account  of  their 
swarming  propensities,  but  because  we  found  other  bees 
superior  to  them. 

W.  (Salisbury). — 1.  Distance  of  Frames. — We  place  our 
frames  wider  apart  for  winter,  so  as  to  get  a  larger 
number  of  bees  to  cluster  compactly  between  each  comb. 
It  does  not  matter  how  thick  the  store  combs  are.  Ours 
are  usually  1£  to  If  inches  thick.  2.  Doubling. — When 
doubling,  as  soon  as  the  two  lower  hives  are  filled  with 
bees,  and  before  they  become  too  crowded,  add  a  third 
or  a  fourth  if  necessary.  3.  Stands. — The  hives  are  on 
low  stands,  and  are,  when  piled  up,  much  too  heavy  to  be 
turned  over  by  the  wind.  4.  Empty  Combs. — If  you  have 
empty  combs,  you  should  use  these  in  preference,  to 
brush  the  bees  back  upon.  Failing  combs,  you  can  use 
foundation.  You  must  make  sure  of  brushing  the  queen 
into  the  hive.  5.  Position  of  Apiary. — Our  neighbour- 
hood is  a  good  one,  but  we  atti'ibute  our  uniform  harvests 
to  the  use  of  young  queens  only,  which  we  breed  by 
selecting  only  the  best,  and  destroying  all  those  not  up  to 
our  standard.  We  should  not  expect  black  bees  to  give 
us  quite  as  much,  but  even  these  can  be  improved  by 
selection  in  breeding. 

business  ^Directory. 

of  Bee- 

For  the  use  of  Manufacturers   and  Purchasers 
keeping  Appliances. 

The  Name  and  Address  and  Business  of  any  Manufacturer 
will  be  inserted  in  this  List,  under  one  heading,  for  One 
Pound  per  annum.  Additional  headings,  Five  Shillings 
extra.  Advertisers  in  '  The  Bee  Journal,'  whose  orders 
amount  to  Five  Pounds  per  annum,  will  be  inserted  Free. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Burtt,  E.  J.,  Stroud  Road,  Gloucester. 

Edey  &  Son,  St.  Neots. 

Hole,  J.  B.  W.,  Tarrington,  Ledbury. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

The  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,  23  Cornhill,  London, 

Walton,  E.  O,  Muskham,  Newark. 
Wren  &  Son,  139  High  Street,  Lowestoft. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

British  Honey  Co.,  Limited,  17  King  William  St.,  Strand. 

Country  Honey  Supply,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  *  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn 

Walton,  E.  O,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Benton,  F.,  Munich,  Germany. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Simmins,  S.,  Rottingdean,  near  Brighton. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Lyon,  P.,  94  Harleyford  Road,  London,  S.E. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 
Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 
Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 
Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 
Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 
Stotharb,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

BEE-KEEPERS'  GUIDE;  or,  Manual  of  the 
Apiary.    By  A.  J.  Cook.    14th  Thousand.   The  whole 
work  has  been  thoroughly  revised,  and  contains  the  very 
latest  in  respect  to  Bee-keeping.    Price  5s.,  postage  6d. 

HOfV       H  !ES  ^Sl  X3>  -52"   ! 

VOL.  XIV.  of 

T[he  ^British  jBee  Journal, 


THOS.  W.  COWAN,   F.G.S.,   F.R.M.S., 

Containing  upwards  of  600  pages,  with  numerous  Illus- 
trations,  and  Complete  Index. 

Bound  in  Cloth,  price  10s.     Cloth  Cases  for  Binding,  Is. 
each  ;  post  free,  Is.  3d. 


ADVERTISEMENTS  TO  THE  BRITISH  BEE  JOURNAL.         [Jan.  13,  1887. 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ - 

BEFORE  ordering  their  season's  requirements,  Bee-keepers  will  do  well  to  notice  prices  of  Hives, 
Sections,  Foundation,  &o.  &c,  supplied  by  THE  BRITISH  BEE-KEEPERS'  STORES,  23  Corn- 
hill,  London,  E.C.  This  Central  Depot  (opposite  the  Royal  Exchange)  will,  it  is  hoped,  prove  a  con- 
venience to  Bee-keepers  who  may  be  in  the  City  for  a  time,  or  in  business. 

Arrangements  have  been  concluded  with  Mr.  D.  A.  Jones,  of  Canada,  for  the  supply  of  the  celebrated 
'  JONES-HEDDON  '  HIVE,— the  Hive  of  the  Future,— and  the  various  improved  Half-pound  and  Pound 
SECTIONS,  as  exhibited  by  him  at  the  Indian  and  Colonial  Exhibition.  The  construction  of  these 
sections  is  such  as  to  enable  the  bees  to  pass  freely  from  one  section  to  an  adjoining  one,  and  experience 
has  shown  that  they  are  filled  more  rapidly  and  completely  than  the  old  sort  in  common  use  in  Great 
Britain.  The  sizes  of  the  sections  kept  in  stock  will  be — 4A  x  4|  x  2,  4^  x  4|-  x  1A,  4A  x  3A  x  1-|. 
The  old  kind,  with  closed  sides,  will  also  be  kept  in  stock  and  sold  at  the  same  prices  as  the  other  kinds, 
but  the  kind  advocated  by  our  Canadian  friend  are  strongly  recommended  by  us  to  purchasers.  Those 
who  intend  exhibiting  should  not  fail  to  use  the  new  kind.  These  Sections  are  made  of  the  best  bass- 
wood,  and  will  be  found  superior  to,  and  of  better  finish  than,  those  of  American  manufacture. 


Including  bottom-board  ;  queen-excluding  division  board,  made  of  wood  and  perforated  metal ;  cover ; 
two  six-inch  brood-chambers,  each  containing  eight  frames  ;  two  surplus  arrangements  filled  with  sections, 
both  with  wide  frames.     Made  of  good  sound  Canadian  Pine.     Price,  painted  and  complete,  17s.  6d. 

The  brood-chamber  is  in  two  sections  ;  also  the  surplus  arrangement,  which  may  be  interchanged  or 
inverted  at  will.  The  cover,  bottom-board,  and  top  and  bottom  of  each  sectional  case  has  one  half  of  a 
regular  bee-space,  so  that  the  surplus  cases,  with  the  sections,  may  be  placed  between  the  two  brood 
chambers,  or  the  latter  part  may  be  transposed  or  inverted — in  fact,  all  parts  of  the  hive  are  perfect!}- 


Double-walled,  of  good  Canadian  Pine,  planed  and  with  frames  ;  to  meet  the  requirements  of  Cottagers 

and  others.     Price,  5s. 
Surplus  arrangement  for  same,  combining  lift  and  super  for  sections.     Price,  Is.  6d. 

The  'IMPERIAL'    HIVE,  for  Doubling. 

This  hive  has  been  so  arranged  that  the  inner  walls  on  which  the  frames  in  the  upper  tier  rest,  can 
be  taken  out  and  the  hive  used  for  sections,  if  required.  For  wintering,  the  upper  storey  is  inverted  and 
slides  down  over  the  body  of  the  hive,  thus  forming  a  very  compact,  (practically)  treble-walled  hive. 
Price,  12s. 

The 'Jubilee' and  '  Imperial'  Hives  have  been  specially  designed  by  Mr.  D.  A.  JONES,  the  well- 
known  Canadian  Bee-keeper,  in  conjunction  with  leading  British  Apiarists.  We  hope  this  fact  in  itself 
will  be  a  sufficient  recommendation  of  the  goods  and  a  guarantee  of  their  quality. 


The  CANADIAN  Improved  One-pound  and  Half-pound  One-piece  V-cut  SECTIONS 

Of  best  basswood,  in  original  Cases  of  500  Sections,  at  lis.  3d.  per  Case. 

O  D  CT  /"^  I  A  I        — *"  or^er  to  faci^ate  0U)'  arrangements  for  supply  of  large  consign- 
^J  I      £2i  \J  I  #*  Lb  b     meiits,  and  thereby  reduce  the  cost  of  transport,  we  will  allow  a 

MISCOUNT  OF  FIVE  PER   CENT  on  all  Orders  for  HIVES  and  SECTIONS 

received  before  25th  March.     Orders  will  be  executed  in  rotation,  so  ptleasc  order   early. 

No  deposit  required  with  order,  but  payment  to  be  made  before  delivery,  when  purchaser 

receives  notice  of  the  goods  being  ready  for  despatch. 

The  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,  23  Cornhill,  London,  E.C. 

Communications  to  the  Editor  to  be  addressed  '  Stkangeways'  Pkintinq  Office,  Tower  Street,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  w.o.' 

[No.  239.     Vol.  XV.] 

JANUARY  20,  1887. 

[Published  Weekly.] 

(Sbttoral,  Julias,  $t. 


The  last  volume  of  the  Journal  contained  various 
inquiries  respecting  the  bees  to  be  found  in  Brazil, 
which  were  not,  however,  satisfactorily  answered. 
Some  light  has  been  thrown  on  this  subject  in  a 
work  recently  published  in  two  volumes  entitled, 
Three  Thousand  Miles  through  Brazil,  by  J.  W.  Wells 
(Sampson  Low).  Mr.  Wells  was  a  civil  engineer 
engaged  in  extensive  surveys  in  the  vast  country 
of  Brazil,  aud  these  volumes  record  the  story  of 
seventeen  years  of  his  life  passed  in  the  exercise 
of  a  profession  which  carried  him  over  a  very  con- 
siderable portion  of  the  country,  and  brought  him 
into  intimate  relations  with  all  the  phases  of 
Brazilian  life.  These  years  were  passed  in  farms, 
in  huts,  under  canvas,  or  with  only  the  starlit 
skies  for  a  canopy ;  riding,  tramping,  boating, 
canoeing,  or  rafting  on  many  streams  and  rivers. 
Great  varieties  of  climate  were  met  with  in  these 

The  volumes  do  not  record  a  specialist's  researches 
and  discoveries,  but  merely  an  engineer's  matter- 
of-fact  experiences.  In  his  life  in  the  woods,  the 
campos,  aud  the  marshes,  he  several  times  came  in 
contact  with  the  bees  of  that  country.  These 
are  generally  the  stingless  bees  (sp.  Melipona), 
which  are  so  frequently  met  with  in  Mexico  and 
other  parts  of  the  American  continent,  but  he  also 
describes  some  singular  bee -nests,  the  homes  of 
bees  which  are  '  terrible  stingers.' 

When  surveying  his  first  section,  in  the  Rio 
Pariiopera,  he  came  across  some  bees  which  are 
called  Mandrasia  bees.     He  says  : — 

'  There  are  many  varieties  of  small  black  bees,  not 
larger  than  a  common  house-fly — good  charitable  bees 
that  make  excellent  honey  and  do  not  sting  ;  rarely  a  day 
passed  hut  we  found  a  nest  of  the  mandrasia  bee.  It  is 
really  wonderful  how  the  men  found  them  out;  I  believe 
I  might  have  spent  a  week  in  the  woods  without  dis- 
covering a  nest.  It  is  only  done  by  watching  a  bee 
when  it  hovers  around  a  tree-trunk  without  apparently 
any  ostensible  purpose;  suddenly  it  will  disappear,  and 
an  accustomed  eye  may  be  able  to  distinguish  a  small 
hole  in  the  trunk  not  larger  than  a  pea,  and  on  tapping 
the  tree  it  will  be  found  hollow  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
hole  ;  if  the  tree  is  felled  and  the  hollow  excavated  with 
an  axe,  the  cavity  will  be  found  to  contain  a  mass  of 
balls  of  thin  brown  wax,  about  the  size  of  a  large  walnut, 

and  filled  with  deliciously  fragrant  honey  far  superior  to 
that  of  the  common  English  bee.  The  bees  fly  about  in 
myriads,  but  inflict  no  inconvenience  beyond  their  sticki- 
ness, for  they  are  so  sticky  that  they  seem  as  though 
they  have  just  emerged  from  a  honey-pot.' 

In  passing  from  Masquita  to  Picada,  while  sur- 
veying his  second  section,  he  encounters  others  of 
the  same  species  : — 

'  A  small  black  bee,  common  to  the  grass  districts,  is 
very  troublesome  and  annoying  ;  it  does  not  bite  or  sting; 
it  worries  one  by  its  persistent  creeping  and  crawling  by 
dozens  over  hands,  face,  and  neck,  into  eyes,  ears,  and 
gets  tangled  in  the  hair.  Brush  away  a  crowd,  others 
instantly  take  their  places.  Open  your  mouth,  a  number 
are  ready  to  explore  it.' 

In  certain  parts  these  been  are  very  trouble- 
some : — 

'  Out  in  the  open  chapador  there  existed  a  con- 
siderable annoyance  in  the  form  of  bees.  This 
insect  buzzes  not,  neither  does  it  sting  or  bite,  but  it 
alights  on  one's  flesh  in  myriads,  and  devotes  all  its 
energies  to  systematic  tickling  and  minute  exploration  ; 
it  gets  into  one's  ears,  eyes,  nose,  down  the  back,  into  the 
hair,  into  the  clothes ;  perpetual  slapping  availeth  not, 
for  if  a  dozen  of  the  sticky  things  are  smashed,  a  couple 
of  dozen  are  hovering  round  for  a  place  to  prospect  upon  ; 
the  nuisance  can  be  avoided  to  a  certain  extent  by 
wrapping  one's  head  in  gauze.  Fortunately  the  pest  did 
not  cover  a  considerable  area.' 

AVhen  passing  up  the  Valley  of  the  Sapao,  the 
author  finds  bees  in  ant-hills,  with  '  tons  of  honey  :' 

'  That  day's  march  was  up  the  valley  ;  a  notable  feature 
of  the  day  was  the  number  of  ant-hills  four  to  six  or 
seven  feet  high, — constructed  of  clay  originally  by  a 
species  of  white  ant,  but  then  occupied — certainly  one 
out  of  every  three — by  "the  bee  of  the  white  ants."  These 
bees  had  turned  the  ants  out  of  their  quarters  and  domi- 
ciled themselves  in  their  place.  Without  exaggeration 
I  believe  many  tons  of  honey  could  be  collected  from 
these  mounds ;  in  one  hill  alone  we  extracted  sufficient  to 
satisfy  the  appetites  of  every  one — even  the  mules  had 
their  share.  The  honey  is  found  in  little  compact  balls 
of  delicate  black  wax  about  one  and  a  half  inch  in 
diameter;  each  ball  is  separate  and  distinct  from  its 
neighbour,  and  the  honey  is  most  excellent  in  flavour. 
The  bees  of  course  flew  about  us,  but  were  perfectly 
harmless ;  they  are  small  and  black,  not  much  bigger 
than  a  house-fly.  The  mystery  is  how  they  can  conquer 
and  drive  off  the  white  ants;  perhaps  many  a  battle 
was  fought  before  they  gave  up  possession ;  now  the 
bees  were  evidently  masters  of  the  situation.  Several 
dozens  of  the  mounds  were  examined  and  more  than  a 
third  were  occupied  by  the  bees,  but  only  on  two  or 
three  occasions  was  the  same  mound  found  occupied  by 
the  bees  and  ants.' 



[January  20, 1887. 

On  the  Rio  do  Soniuo,  a  beautiful  stream  in  a 
lovely  country  and  climate,  Mr.  Wells  saw  some 
curious  bee-nests,  -which  are  built  by  another  species 
of  bee,  very  different  from  the  stingless  Melipona  : — 

'  The  cliffs  present  bare  smooth  surfaces  of  variously 
coloured  rocks,  on  which  a  very  curious  structure  often 
attracted  my  attention ;  in  a  full  view  it  resembles  a 
dark  bullock's  hide  stretched  and  nailed  to  the  wall  of 
rock,  averaging  eight  by  six  feet  in  length  and  width  ; 
sideways  it  appears  inflated  and  distended  and  culminates 
in  a  hanging  point  or  apex,  near  its  lower  side.  These 
curious  formations  are  the  nests  of  the  shupd,  a  bee  that 
produces  great  quantities  of  excellent  honey,  but  are 
terrible  stingers;  and  from  the  position  the  nests  are  in, 
half  way  up  the  smooth  surface  of  the  rooks,  are  difficult 
of  access  unless  the  gatherer  is  enveloped  in  leather  and 
lowered  down  by  ropes  from  above,  which  is  sometimes 

The  price  of  the  American  Bee-keepers'  Magazine  has 
been  reduced  to  25  cents  (one  shilling)  a-year,  and  it  is 
now  one  of  the  cheapest  bee  journals  in  the  world.  This 
paper  was  started  in  1870,  and  was  for  over  two  years 
edited  by  H.  A.  King,  assisted  by  Mrs.  E.  S.  Tupper, 
Professor  A.  Wood,  and  M.  E.  Williams,  during  part  of 
the  time.  It  subsequently  passed  into  the  bands  of 
A.  J.  King  &  Co.,  and  is  now  edited  by  Messrs.  Aspin- 
wall  and  Treadwell,  who  are  both  practical  bee-keepers, 
as  may  be  seen  from  their  articles.  The  Journal  has 
been  very  much  improved  since  it  was  first  started,  and 
now  contains  practical  articles  by  the  leading  American 
bee-keepers.  We  are  able  to  judge  of  the  improvements, 
as  we  have  subscribed  to  it  regularly  since  the  first 
number  was  issued.  Whilst  wondering  how  they  can 
print  and  circulate  a  journal  forming  a  volume  of  over 
400  pages  at  so  low  a  price,  we  congratulate  the  pro- 
prietors on  their  enterprising  policy,  and  wish  them  every 


Weather. — 'First  it  hailed,  then  it  blew,  Then  it 
friz,  then  it  snew,  Then  there  came  a  shower  of  rain, 
Then  it  friz  and  snew  again  : ' — are  lines  which  well 
describe  English  weather  during  the  last  five  or  six 
weeks;  and  although  we  have  now  a  decided  thaw, 
nevertheless  it  is  a  very  cold  one,  and  on  the  higher 
grounds,  under  hedges,  and  other  places,  the  wreaths  of 
snow  still  remain,  '  waiting  for  more,'  as  our  weather 
prophets  say.  We  scarcely  remember  a  winter  more 
calculated  to  try  the  various  systems  of  autumnal  pre- 
parations for  wintering ;  and  where  these  have  been 
faulty,  or  have  not  been  made  at  all,  especially  where 
the  supply  of  food  has  failed,  the  results  will  prove 
disastrous  in  the  extreme. 

Examining  Hives. — No  doubt  we  shall  all  he  anxious 
to  ascertain  the  Condition  of  our  colonies  at  the  earliest 
possible  suitable  moment,  but  we  must  put  in  our  caveat 
here,  and  deprecate  any  interference  whatever  with 
hives  or  colonies  until  that  moment  arrives.  There  is, 
perhaps,  no  kind  of  interference  more  injurious  to  bees 
than  too  early  examinations  after  long  and  severe  frost, 
when  the  abdomen  is  distended  with  faecal  matter,  and 
when  the  slightest  excitement  will  assuredly  cause  an 
outbreak'  of  dysentery,  which  if  the  bees  had  been  left 
to  themselves  might  never  have  occurred  at  all. 

What  to  do. — Until  mild  settled  weather  arrives — 
weather  in  which  bees  can  fly  freely — let  us  content 
ourselves   by   keeping    entrances  clear,  supplying  soft 

candy,  where  required,  under  quilts,  by  changing  quickly 
damp  quilts  for  dry  ones,  and  by  carefully  looking  to 
roofs  and  covers,  and  guarding  against  leakage,  or  snow 
penetration  ;  all  of  which  operations  may,  with  care,  be 
performed  without  the  least  jarring  or  disturbance. 
Where  moveable  floor-boards  project  beyond  the  hives, 
the  projections  forming  a  lodgment  for  snow  and  rain, 
and  causing  internal  dampness,  we  advise  a  change  for 
dry  ones. 

Ventilation  and  Dampness.  —As  regards  ventilation 
and  dampness,  however,  as  in  most  other  matters, 
opinions  vary.  Professor  Cook  tells  us  that  he  sealed  a 
large  colony  of  bees  with  ice,  frozen  solid,  at  the  entrance 
of  the  hive,  that  the  colony  remained  thus,  and  also  en- 
tombed in  a  snow-bank,  for  more  than  three  months, 
and  wintered  exceptionally  well.  As  the  hive  was 
glued,  or  propolised,  at  the  top,  he  remarks  that  the 
ventilation  must  have  been  slight  indeed,  and  hence  he 
draws  the  inference  that,  under  the  best  conditions, 
little  heed  need  be  given  to  ventilation.  He  tells  us  also 
that  even  during  terribly  disastrous  winters  bees  have 
wintered  in  many  cases  remarkably  well  in  very  damp 

From  Mr.  Heddon,  too,  we  have  the  statement,  '  In 
all  my  varied  experience  and  observation  I  have  been 
unable  to  discover  any  ill  effects  from  dampness,  of 
itself.  We  ourselves  are  wintering  all  our  colonies 
under  enamel-cloth,  which  allows  of  little  or  no  upward 
ventilation,  and  we  all  know  that  bees,  in  a  state  of 
nature,  so  propolise  the  interior  of  their  domicile  as  to 
render  it  impervious  to  air  or  moisture.' 

Crown-boards  v.  Quilts.  —  Dr.  Southward,  who 
possesses  a  large  apiary  in  Michigan,  U.S.,  and  has  been 
very  successful  in  out-door  wintering,  uses  the  old- 
fashioned  wooden  crown-board,  which  the  bees  propolise 
and  glue  down  tightly.  Over  this  he  places  chaff  packing ; 
and  in  the  very  severe  winter  of  1884-5  he  carried 
through  his  large  apiary  with  almost  no  loss. 

May  it  not  be  said  to  those,  therefore,  who  adopt  the 
practice  of  placing  absorbents  in  the  shape  of  pervious 
coverings  over  their  bees — Aquilam  volare  docetis,  which 
naughty  boys  translate  as  having  reference  to  grand- 
mothers and  eggs  P  We  have  repeatedly  noticed  that 
colonies  left  unmanipulated  in  the  autumn,  with  quilts  or 
crown-boards  well  propolised,  have  wintered  perfectly 
and  have  been  amongst  the  foremost  hives  at  spring. 

'  Packing.' — Those  who  are  in  favour  of  the  pervious 
quilt  will  no  doubt  be  able  to  bring  forward  advantages 
possessed  by  it,  but  wherever  it  is  used  successfully  we 
think  it  will  be  found  that  a  good  deal  of  outer  packing 
— of  sawdust,  chaff,  cork-dust,  or  even  boards — has  been 
called  into  requisition. 

Feeding  Skeps. — In  feeding  colonies  in  skeps  a  large 
feed-hole — say  of  four  inches  diameter — is  an  advantage, 
since  over  this  a  large  cake  of  warm  soft  candy  may  be 
placed,  and  will  be  taken  with  avidity  by  the  bees. 

The  quantity  of  food  contained  in  a  skep  may  generally 
be  pretty  accurate^  determined  by  its  weight,  when 
balanced  in  the  hands  of  one  who  knows  its  age  and 
history,  without  breaking  it  off  from  the  floor-board, 
which  should  never  be  done  during  the  winter,  as  skeps 
are  propolised  more  firmly  to  the  floor-board  than  are 
frame  or  box-hives  of  any  description  ;  and  it  is  best  that 
they  should  remain  so,  having  the  entrance  sufficiently 
large  to  admit  of  free  ventilation,  and  to  be  kept  clear  of 

Crossing  the  Various  Races. — Since  our  remarks 
on  this  subject  appeared  in  last '  Hints,'  we  have  received 
the  January  number  of  the  American  ApicuUurist,  in 
which  are  some  very  able  and  suggestive  papers  by  well- 
known  apiarists  on  the  methods  of  breeding  bees  in 
order  to  perpetuate  desirable  qualities. 

Breeding  for  Qualities. — Naturally  the  chief 
points  to  be  considered  in  the  solution  of  such  a  problem 
as  breeding  for  qualities,  are  the  prepotency  of  the  queen 

January  20,  1887.] 



or  the  drone  as  regards  certain  points  or  characteristics, 
such  as  working  qualities,  temper,  adherence  to  combs 
when  under  manipulation,  comb-building,  fecundity,  &c. 
Dr.  Tinker,  who  has  given  much  attention  to  breeding, 
gives  it  as  his  opinion  that  'the  drone  is  prepotent  in 
transmitting  working  qualities,  disposition,  and  the  form 
and  size  of  the  male  progeny ;  while  the  queen  is  prepo- 
tent in  transmitting  fecundity;  comb-building  faculty; 
peculiar  maternal  instinct ;  and  the  form  and  size  of  the 
female  progeny.' 

Heredity. — He  is  careful  to  state  that  no  rule  in  the 
heredity  of  bees  is  invariable,  but  exceptions,  which 
establish  rules,  occur  in  the  heredity  of  all  the  animal 
creation;  these  exceptions  are,  however,  so  few  that  the 
rules  can  be  depended  upon  in  developing  a  superior 
strain  of  bees.  He  also  goes  so  far  as  to  assert  that '  the 
coming  bee  will  be  a  cross-bred  bee,  developed  from 
Syrian  or  Cyprian  mother  stock :  the  cross  will  be  with 
Italian  drones.'  Mr.  Demaree,  writing  on  the  same  sub- 
ject, says, '  I  look  to  my  breeding  queens  for  the  peculiar 
type  of  workers  I  want,  and  to  the  drones  for 

When  in  last  'Hints'  we  stated  that  'the  cross  be- 
tween Cyprians  and  Italians  was  one  of  the  best,  if  not 
the  best,'  we  omitted  to  say  that  the  cross  alluded  to  was 
from  a  C}rprian  mother  and  an  Italian  drone.  Our 
Syrio-Italian  crosses  have  also  been  from  Syrian  queens 
mated  with  Italian  drones,  both  crosses  having  proved 
excellent  workers  and  of  gentle  disposition.  Under 
manipulation  they  are  very  quiet,  closely  adhere  to  the 
combs,  and  rarely  show  any  disposition  to  attack.  The 
cross  between  the  Syrian  queen  and  the  black  drone  is 
also  a  good  bee,  but  more  uncertain  in  temper  than  the 
two  former  crosses.  The  above  remarks  refer  only  to 
the.first  crosses,  but  we  have  no  doubt  that  their  good 
qualities  may  be  transmitted  to  their  progeny  by  careful 
breeding  and  selection. 

We  should  like  to  see  our  queen-breeders  advertising 
queens  thus  mated,  being  well  assured  that  no  better 
bees,  or  bees  better  adapted  to  the  English  climate, 
than  the  progeny  of  such  queens  exist.  It  must  be 
generally  conceded,  particularly  in  times  of  depression 
and  severe  competition  like  the  present,  that  attention 
should  be  given  to  producing  a  superior  race  of  bees  as 
well  as  to  improvements  in  appliances.  In  this  matter 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  other  nations  —  e.g., 
Germany  and  America — are  far  in  advance  of  us.  Is 
it  not  a  fact  that  there  is  not  a  single  isolated  apiary 
in  this  country  where  any  particular  race  of  bees  can 
be  bred  in  its  purity  ?  We  are  aware  of  the  various 
means  by  which,  without  complete  isolation,  queens  may 
generally  be  caused  to  mate  with  selected  drones,  but 
there  is  always  a  doubt,  hence  the  prevalence  of  the 
importation  of  queens  into  the  countiy,  many  of  which 
are  of  inferior  quality.  We  do  not  even  avail  ourselves 
so  far  as  we  know  of  the  best  appliances  for  procuring 
pure  fertilisation,  such,  for  instance,  as  'Alley's  drone 
and  queen  trap,'  which  ought  to  be  in  use  in  every 
apiary  professing  to  breed  queens  of  specified  races,  even 
if  possessed  of  an  isolation  of  a  two  or  three  miles 
radius.  Hence  the  constantly  recurring  complaints  of 
hybridised  queens  being  sent  out  as  pure.  Certainly 
there  is  room  for  improvement  here,  especially  in  the 
'selection  of  the  fittest'  both  as  regards  queens  and 
drones.  These  remarks  apply  not  only  to  one  race,  but 
to  all,  since  our  native  black  bees,  or  German  brown, 
ought  always  to  be  bred  by  selection. 

Dry  Hives. —  Our  previous  remarks  on  dampness  must 
not  be  misunderstood,  or  misconstrued  into  an  approval 
of  keeping  hives  in  a  state  of  perpetual  dampness.  We 
have  quoted  authorities  to  show  that,  under  certain  con- 
ditions, it  is  not  injurious  for  a  time  at  least,  and  this 
we  did  with  a  view  to  discourage,  too  early,  frequent, 
undesirable  spring  manipulations.  But  where  dysentery 
exists,  or  hives  have  become  saturated  with  moisture,  or 

combs  mouldy,  nothing  more  conduces  to  the  recovery 
of  the  bees  than  a  change  to  a  clean,  dry,  warm  hive,  with 
an  application  of  warm  porous  quilts  as  soon  as  weather 
will  permit ;  and  in  extreme  cases,  weather  failing, 
manipulation  should  be  performed  in  a  warm  room,  the 
hives  being  returned  to  their  stands  in  the  evening,  when 
it  is  too  late  for  the  bees  to  fly.  Tlris  is  much  better 
than  allowing  the  bees  to  perish  in  foul,  dysenteric, 
damp  hives.  In  such  cases  we  always  operate  indoors 
by  lamplight,  and  at  night,  when  scarcely  a  single  bee 
leaves  the  combs  or  becomes  excited. 

Syrui>-Feeding. — A  Warning. — Let  us  warn  our 
readers  against  syrup-feeding  for  some  time  to  come. 
The  only  admissiable  food,  before  the  end  of  February  or 
middle  of  March— according  to. the  weather — is  sealed 
comb-honey,  candy,  or  diy  sugar.  Several  cases  of 
destruction  of  colonies  by  syrup-feeding  have  already 
come  under  our  notice.  The  bees  become  excited,  and 
with  distended  abdomens,  perish,  or,  attempting  to  fly, 
never  return  to  the  hives.  If  the  food  is  consumed  in 
cold  weather,  befouling  and  besmearing  the  combs  and 
interior  of  the  hive  with  swollen  bodies,  they  fall,  and 
decomposition  increases  the  evil.  Frames  of  sealed 
honey  should  be  slightly  warmed  before  being  placed  at 
the  side  of  the  cluster,  a  centre  hole  being  cut  in  the 
comb  as  passage-way  for  the  bees. 

Preparations. — Again,  we  advise  all,  especially 
those  possessed  of  the  larger  apiaries,  to  make  prepara- 
tion for  the  approaching  campaign — hives,  sections  and 
cases,  foundation,  and  fixing  the  same  in  frames  and 
section  boxes — may  well  and  profitably  occupy  spare 
time  in  the  evening  or  otherwise.  Hives  which  have 
been  previously  in  use  should  be  scraped  thoroughly 
clean,  disinfected,  and  repainted.  Spare  quilts  and  floor- 
boards should  be  kept  dry  and  ready  for  use.  Removal 
of  hives  to  new  positions  may  be  made,  and  apiaries  set 
in  order,  and  kept  neat,  no  accumulation  of  '  odds  and 
ends '  being  allowed,  nor  refuse  of  any  kind.  Where 
not  objected  to,  sawdust  spread  around  the  hiye  is 
beneficial,  absorbing  moisture  and  preventing  the  chilling 
of  bees  which  settle  upon  it.  Many  other  little  matters, 
too  numerous  to  mention,  will  occur  to  those  who  give 
thought  and  time  to  their  bees. 


*  Mel  sapit  Omnia.' 

Hybemating!  'A.  E.'  hybernating  !  No,  no,  friend 
J.  Walton.  It  is  with  me,  as  it  was  with  that  immortal 
son  of  Vulcan, — 

'  Toiling,  rejoicing,  sorrowing, 
Onward  through  life  he  goes  ; 
Each  morning  sees  some  task  begun, 

Each  evening  sees  its  close  ; 
Something  attempted,  something  done, 
Has  earned  a  night's  repose.' 

And  then,  besides  that, 'Mel  sapit  Omnia 'with  me. 
And  so  you  wish  to  savour  your  new  hive  with  '  met.'  I 
thank  you  for  the  compliment ;  put  the  words  on,  by  all 

Since  I  'jotted'  last  I  spent  a  most  enjoyable  day 
with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jones  and  Mr.  Corneil,  who  came 
down  to  my  '  hive.'  I  showed  them  some  of  my  local 
'  lions,'  which  included  a  real  primitive  English  apiary,  a 
herd  of  shorthorn  cattle,  a  nobleman's  park  and  grounds, 
as  well  as  a  portion  of  the  inside  of  the  mansion,  one  of 
the  finest  private  collections  of  old  paintings  in  the 
kingdom,  a  real  live  Earl,  and — would  you  believe  it  ? — 
an  oak  with  the  largest  girth  round  the  butt  they  had 
ever  seen.  Chalk  that,  please;  that  is  one  point  for  the 
old  country. 

As  the  pheasants  flew  up  he  would  call  out  for  his 
shooting-iron,  for,  be  it  known,  a  mighty  hunter  is 
D.  A.  Jones,     Our  evergreens,  most  of  which  were  new 



[January  20,  1887. 

to  them,  gave  them  unbounded  delight ;  and  to  get  clear 
of  the  fogs  of  London,  and  see  the  clear  vault  above 
them  once  more,  gave  them  a  far  better  character  of  an 
English  winter  than  they  had  begun  to  entertain. 
I  packed  them  up  some  few  samples  of  seeds  of  things 
they  saw,  also  sprays  of  various  evergreens — holly,  ivy, 
and  mistletoe.  Even  the  old  people  over  yonder  will 
feel  young  at  the  sight.  One  who  left  here  when  twenty 
years  of  age  begged  that  a  spray  of  holly  with  berries 
might  be  brought  back  to  her.  How  one's  heart  goes  out 
to  them  at  the  thought !  The  Atlantic  now  rolls  between 
us,  but  space  can  never  divide  hearts  that  are  knit  to- 
gether. But  the  leave-taking  came  at  last — a  true 
Canadian  one — and  now  they  are  at  home  once  more, 
amongst  kindred  and  friends. 

I  have  heard  from  Mr.  McKnight,  who  is  full  of 
'  recollections  of  the  enjoyable  time  they  spent  in  dear 
old  England.'  May  none  of  us  say  a  word  that  shall 
mar  the  pleasure  of  those  recollections. 

Now  I  predicted  that  we  should  all  want  to  rush 
off  and  change  our  hives  and  appliances  that  we  have 
proved  for  those  that  we  have  not,  and  this  seems  very 
near  being  realised.  Let  us,  by  all  means,  'prove  all 
things,'  but,  at  the  same  time,  take  especial  care  to 
'  cleave  to  that  which  is  good.'  I  know  of  a  ploughman 
that  complained  of  his  plough,  and  the  farmer  sent  for 
the  maker,  who  could  not  only  make  a  plough,  but  guide 
it  as  well  as  a  few  men.  Having  gone  a  few  furrows 
with  it  himself  he  told  the  farmer — a  modern  one,  seated 
on  his  hunter — the  plough  had  a  serious  fault,  but  it  was 
all  behind  the  handles.  Well,  it  is  much  like  that  with 
our  hives.  Capable  of  improvement  they  are,  but  the 
chief  fault,  speaking  metaphorically,  is  '  behind  the 

I  am  highly  delighted  to  see  our  esteemed  friend,  Mr 
J.  Lee,  keeps  his  pen  from  getting  rusty. 

You  will  not  give  me  much  more  room,  but  I  am 
inclined  to  think  if  I  wanted  to  work  an  '  off  '  apiary  as 
Mr.  J.  Walton  suggests,  I  should 'clip  the  queen's  wings,' 
put  the  hives  on  very  low  stands,  and  have  alighting- 
boards  right  down  on  to  the  ground. 

As  to  that  Holyland  queen,  thereby  hangs  a  tale.  I 
am  not  quite  sure,  but  when  I  closed  up  in  October  there 
seemed  every  probability  of  my  having  a  case  for  Mr. 
Cheshire,  probably  of  arrenotokia.  (What  words  these 
men  of  science  find  for  us!)  I  have  not  yet  quite  shaped 
all  my  '  burning  deeds  and  thoughts,'  but  must  bring 
these  discursive  '  Jottings '  to  a  close  by  wishing  you  all 
'  A  very  happy  new  year.' — Amatetjr  Expert. 

In  a  letter  addressed  to  the  Bulletin  d' Apiculture  de  la 
Suisse  Romande,  Mr.  Fr.  Andreu,  of  Mahon,  Minorca, 
writes  as  follows :— '  The  bee  flora  of  this  island 
is  rich  in  honey  and  in  variety.  The  only  enemy  which 
bees  have  to  contend  with  are  the  northerly  winds, 
which  are  terrible.  There  are  plenty  of  old-fashioned 
apiaries  ranging  from  forty  and  a  hundred  hives  each, 
but  only  a  very  small  profit  is  derived  therefore,  the 
hives  being  very  much  neglected  and  the  cottagers 
ignorant  of  the  art.  The  introduction  of  the  new  hives 
will  revolutionise  Spanish  apiaries,  particularly  in  these 
parts  of  the  country.  Then  will  the  good  quality  of 
our  honeys  be  appreciated  abroad,  which  deserve  to  be 
better  known  than  they  are  at  present.  When  we  first 
imported  new  hives  from  England,  a  few  years  ago, 
they  proved  to  be  a  new  article  to  everybody ;  but  the 
earliest  results  obtained  with  them  were  so  good  that 
they  soon  became  a  subject  of  general  conversation  and 
of  articles  in  the  press.  Several  bee-keepers  adopted  our 
hives  as  soon  as  they  had  seen  the  advantages  they 
offered  and  the  results  we  obtained  from  them.  ° 

'We  have  every  reason  for  being  satisfied  with  the 
results  obtained  last  season,  one  hive  having  brought  in 
125  francs,  or  say  an  average  of  90  francs  per  hive, 
although  a  great  many  of  them  had  only  been  stocked  of 
late.  At  present,  however,  they  are  all  well  provisioned 
witli  plenty  of  br«od,  so  that  better  things  are  to  be 
expected  from  them  next  season. 

'  Our  hives  are  mostly  square  in  shape  and  on  the 
supering  system. 

'  Generally  speaking,  everything  new  here  in  Spain  is 
criticised,  particularly  anything  relating  to  agriculture, 
but  thanks  to  the  good  results  we  are  obtaining  and  our 
offers  to  assist  in  anything  we  can,  bee-keeping  is  attract- 
ing more  attention  than  heretofore.  There  are  already 
a  number  of  small  apiaries  in  this  island,  where  the  new 
system  of  hives  predominates,  and  many  are  projected 
on  the  mainland.' 

Torquay  Branch. 
The  annual  meeting  of  the  above  took  place  on 
Thursday  evening,  January  loth,  in  Wood's  Rooms, 
Torquay.  The  report  and  statement  of  accounts  were 
read  and  adopted,  the  accounts  showing  a  balance  in 
hand  of  nearly  41.  Mr.  Masters  proposed  and  Mr. 
Vallance  seconded  that  the  following  should  form  the 
Committee  for  this  year  :  Messrs.  R.  Kitson  (chairman), 
H.  Bradshaw,  W.  Winget,  Rev.  W.  B.  Davis,  Messrs. 
G.  Pullen,  J .  Coombes,  J.  Erench,  and  G.  Vail,  Hon.  Sec. 
It  was  resolved  that  the  meetings  be  held  quarterly. 
Mr.  Winget  proposed  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Kitson 
for  all  his  work  during  the  past  year,  which  was 
seconded  by  Mr.  French. 

The  Editor  does  not  hold  himself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed 
by  his  correspondents.  No  attention  will  be  taken  of  anonymous  com- 
munications, and  correspondents  are  requested  to  write  ok  one  side  of 
the  paper  only,  and  give  their  real  names  and  addresses,  not  necessaHly 
for  publication,  but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith.  Illustrations  should 
be  drawn  on  separate  pieces  of  paper. 

Communications  relating  to  the  literary  department,  reports  of 
Associations,  Shows,  Meetings,  Echoes,  Queries,  Books  for  Review, 
&c,  must  bo  addressed  only  to  'The  Editor  of  the  "British  Bee 
Journal,"  c/o  Messrs.  Strangeways  and  Sons,  Tower  Street,  Upper 
St.  Martin's  Lane,  London, W.C  All  business  communications  relating 
to  Advertisements,  &c,  must  be  addressed  to  Mr.  J.  Huckle,  King's 
Langley,  Herts  (see  2ndpage  of  Advertisements), 

***  In  order  to  facilitate  reference,  Correspondents,  when  speaking  of 
any  letter  or  query  previously  inserted,  will  oblige  by  mentioning  the 
number  of  the  letter,  as  well  as  the  page  on  which  it  appears. 


[775.]  Bee-keeping  is  still  carried  on  in  the  old-fashioned 
style  in  Spain,  and  amongst  the  bee-keepers  there  are 
very  few  indeed  who  use  modern  hives.  The  hives  in 
general  use  are  most  varied  in  form  and  in  the  materials 
from  which  they  are  constructed.  Some  are  round, 
others  square  or  long  and  are  made  of  cork,  basket-work 
covered  with  mud,  straw  and  wood,  and  even  hollowed 
trunks  of  trees  are  commonly  used. 

In  all  Spain  there  are  only  three  or  four  provinces 
where  bee-keeping  is  carried  on  largely  as  a  business, 
more  especially  in  the  Alcarria,  where  almost  every  village 
of  any  importance  possesses  from  ten  to  twelve  cohnen- 
ares,  each  of  these  containing  from  thirty  to  forty  hives 
(colmenas).  A  colmenar  [what  we  should  understand 
as  a  bee-house. — Ed.]  is  a  small  structure  of  brick.  Up 
the  centre  of  this  building  is  a  passage  into  which  open 
the  doors  on  either  side  of  it  of  the  fifteen  or  twenty 
compartments  which  contain  as  many  hives.  Outside 
are  generally  placed  two  or  three  common  hives  to  receive 
any  of  the  swarms  that  may  leave  the  hives  in  the  col- 

In  the  Alcarria  the  laws  for  the  protection  of  hives 

January  20,  1887.] 



are  very  stringent.  The  bees  are  also  frequently  moved 
from  one  locality  to  another  to  lengthen  the  honey 
harvest.  In  the  other  provinces  landed  proprietors  and 
farmers  generally  keep  from  two  to  six  hives,  but  this  is 
principally  either  for  their  own  use  or  for  amusement. 

Bee-keeping  is  still  in  a  primitive  condition,  and  not 
much  attention  is  given  to  the  bees.  They  are  selected 
and  purchased  and  their  surroundings  are  kept  clean,  but 
they  are  then  left  entirely  to  themselves.  They  are  in 
no  way  assisted,  and  are  allowed  to  work  in  their  hives 
just  as  they  like  without  any  interference  on  the  part  of 
the  bee-keeper. 

Lately  a  few  Spanish  gentlemen  have  purchased  from 
abroad  modern  hives  made  on  the  improved  systems;  but 
this  has  been  more  for  curiosity  and  for  their  own  amuse- 
ment than  with  the  object  of  their  general  application. 

lake  most  of  our  large  landowners,  Mr.  M and  his 

brother  Count  de  B are  amateur  bee-keepers;   but 

as  a  member  of  several  agricultural  societies  Mr.  M 

takes  a  very  great  interest  in  such  matters,  and  having 
read  the  French  translation  of  your  excellent  work  (the 
British  Bee-keeper's  Guide-book)  thought  it  might  be  very 
beneficial  to  propagate  the  new  methods  and  sound  teaching 
it  contains  amongst  our  agriculturists. — C.  Wellen- 
kAmp,  Ckaflan  Mallorga. 

[The  Spanish  translation  is  already  in  the  press,  and 
will  be  ready  in  time  for  the  work  of  the  spring  season. 


[776.]  A  lady  correspondent  is  in  trouble  about 
melting  her  old  combs,  and  no  one  of  our  many  gentle- 
men bee-keepers  seems  to  have  sufficient  chivalry  to 
help  her.  I  have  not  time  just  now  to  write  much, 
but  will  tell  her  what  I  can  in  a  few  words. 

If  }rou  are  fastidious  don't  take  the  job  in  hand,  it  is 
'  messy  '  from  beginning  to  end ;  but  if  you  do  not  mind 
a  little  mess  you  will  like  the  wax  when  you  have 
clarified  it.  Get  a  large  saucepan  and  boil  all  your  old 
combs  in  it,  until  all  the  wax  has  left  the  pollen  and 
other  debris.  Next  get  a  piece  of  cheese-cloth,  or  other 
strainer  that  you  do  not  much  value,  tie  it  rather 
'  baggy  '  over  a  pan,  and  pour  the  contents  of  the  sauce- 
pan on  to  it;  you  will  then  get  the  water  and  wax  in  the 
pan  and  the  debris  on  the  top  of  the  strainer.  If  the  bees 
are  not  flying,  burn  the  latter  out  of  the  way  or  bury  it, 
which  you  prefer;  when  the  contents  of  the  pan  are  cold 
the  wax  will  be  on  the  top,  and  you  can  remove  it  from 
the  liquor,  and  of  course  throw  the  latter  away.  I  have 
a  tin  baking-dish  that  holds  about  a  quart,  into  this  I 
put  some  water  and  also  the  wax,  first  removing  any  im- 
purities that  might  have  settled  on  the  underneath  side 
of  it.  I  now  place  this  vessel  inside  a  saucepan  with 
some  water  in  the  latter,  but  not  sufficient  to  make  the 
tin  containing  the  wax  to  float  about.  Now  make  the 
saucepan  hot,  but  not  boiling,  and  keep  it  hot  as  long  as 
you  can,  but  do  not  let  it  boil,  and  the  longer  you  keep 
it  hot,  and  the  slower  you  allow  it  to  cool,  the  clearer 
your  wax  will  get.  You  may  stand  the  tin  dish  and  its 
contents  in  the  oven  if  you  have  a  kitchener  ;  but  it  is 
risky  :  you  must  watch  the  heat,  and  be  sure  to  keep  it 
covered  or  you  will  spoil  the  colour  by  making  it  dark. 
The  impurities  will  again  have  settled,  which  you  must 
remove.  I  wanted  to  say  something  about  foundation 
malting  and  spoiling,  but  have  not  time,  and  perhaps 
some  would  vote  me  a  nuisance  and  meddler ;  but  if  this 
is  any  help  to  '  A.  S.',  or  any  in  trouble  like  her,  it  will 
have  answered  the  purpose  of — Amateur  Expert. 


[777.]  It  is  very  probable  that  in  the  course  of  a  few 
weeks  I  shall,  for  business  reasons,  be  obliged  to  remove 
my  place  of  abode  from  this  my  native  county  (York- 
shire), to  the  southern  one,  Sussex,  and  shall  feel  obliged 

if  any  reader  of  this  Journal,  who  is  acquainted  with 
the  neighbourhood  of  Petworth  in  that  county,  would 
give  me  some  information  under  the  following  heads  : — 
(a)  Nature  of  bee  flora  in  the  district.  (6)  Time  of 
honey  harvest  in  an  average  season,  (c)  Prevailing 
winds,  (d)  Is  there  any  heather  near  and  at  what 
distance  ?  Any  other  remarks  likely  to  be  useful  would 
be  gladly  welcomed. 

Now  a  few  words  as  to  Yorkshire.  I  regard  it,  Mr. 
Editor,  as  a  blot  upon  the  reputation  of  this  county  of 
broad  acres  that  its  Association  should  be  so  inactive,  to 
put  it  mildly.  I  have  heard  of  the  County  Secretary 
once,  and  then  it  was  only  casually  through  a  friend  who 
had  heard  of  a  visit  he  paid  to  an  apiary  or  apiaries  in 
Ryedale.  The  district  round  here  is  a  very  good  one  for 
bees,  and  bee-keepers  are  multiplying  yearly,  until 
sections,  which  before  the  Royal  Show  of  188o  were  an 
unknown  commodity  here,  are  now  getting  difficult  to 

When  I  first  heard  of  County  Associations  some 
three  years  since,  I  naturally  expected  that  Yorkshire 
would  possess  a  good  one,  but  was  disappointed  to  find, 
after  some  inquiry,  that  it  existed  '  somewhere  in  the 
West  Riding.'  Its  existence  must  be  infinitesimally 
microscopical,  seeing  that  our  energetic  friend,  Mr. 
Grimshaw,  cannot  'spot'  it.  I  hope  he  may  be  successful 
in  galvanising  it  into  life,  and  may  he  be  elected  district 
adviser. — Old  Ebor. 

[778.]  I  quite  endorse  that  portion  of  Mr.  Thomas's 
remarks  when  he  says  that  '  many  writers  forget  to 
mention  that  their  ideas  are  nothing  more  than  ideas, 
and  that  they  have  never  really  been  put  to  the  practical 
test.'  As  '  it  is  unfair  to  condemn  a  system  without  trial 
merely  because  it  is  new,  or,  perhaps,  because  in  a  single 
instance,  and  under  unknown  conditions,  it  has  not 
proved  successful,'  so  also  is  it  unfair,  and  even  wicked, 
to  advocate  the  use  of  a  certain  hive  for  the  purpose  of 
selling  it,  or  a  certain  system  of  management,  with  the 
experience  of  a  single  season,  and  with  one  or  two  hives 

1  am  sure  that  the  readers  of  the  Journal  as  well  as 
myself  will  be  much  obliged  to  Mr.  Thomas  if  he  will 
give  us  his  '  own  experience  of  the  system  of  inversion  ' 
in  detail,  and  will  also  give  the  names  of  '  the  majority 
of  those  who  in  America  have  tried  it,'  and  have  '  so  well 
spoken'  of  '  the  Heddon  system/  and  in  what  periodicals 
they  have  written,  and  when. 

A  friendly  discussion  on  the  advantages  or  disad- 
vantages of  this  hive  and  system  in  the  Journal  will  be 
at  any  rate  as  useful  as  the  long  discussions  as  to  the 
latest  fashion  of  introducing  a  queen,  and  may  be  the 
means  of  obtaining  information  useful  to  those  who  think 
with  Mr.  Lee  and  others  that  it  is  '  best  to  go  slow  '  in 
adopting  radical  changes  in  bee-keeping,  especially  for 
beginners,  and  that  '  the  old,  experienced  bee-keepers 
should  thoroughly  test  these  novelties  first,'  is  the  sound 
advice  of  Mr.  H.  R.  Boordman,  an  experienced  American 

Although  I  quite  agree  with  Mr.  Thomas  that  '  bee- 
keeping on  modern  principles  is  in  its  infancy,'  I  also 
think  that  if  a  profit  or  income  is  desired  from  the 
pursuit,  that  simple,  inexpensive  hives,  with  standard 
frames  and  walls  at  least  f  inch  thick,  are  all  that  are 
necessary  to  obtain  success,  providing  always  that  the 
seasons  are  favourable  and  that  the  bee-keeper  has  fairly 
mastered  the  rudiments  of  the  subject,  and  does  not  over- 
manipulate  his  bees,  as  in  my  opinion  is  generally  done. 

There  are  not  a  few  of  us  bee-keepers  who  cannot  look 
back  with  regret  at  useless  bee  furniture,  &c,  that  we  in 
our  novitiate  have  spent  our  money  on. 

I  cannot,  as  an  old  bee-keeper,  close  these  few  remarks 
without  a  word  of  caution  as  to  the  purchase  of  the 



[January  20,  1887. 

Jones-Heddon  hive  of  the  substance  exhibited,  I  will  not 
at  present  say  anything  as  to  the  system,  as  I  do  not  feel 
that  sufficient  time  has  elapsed  since  it  was  introduced 
to  enable  English  bee-keepers  to  form  a  sound  opinion. 
It  also  appears,  from  the  statement  of  Mr.  Ilolterman, 
of  Brantford,  in  Canada  (in  the  Journal,  724),  who  says, 
'  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge,  and  I  am  pretty  well 
posted  as  to  apiculture  in  Canada,  that  there  was  not 
one  colony  in  the  Heddon  hive  last  winter,'  that  the 
Canadians  have  not  any  more  experience  in  these  partis 
cular  '  invertible  '  hives  than  we  have  in  England  ;  and  I 
venture  to  say  that  not  one  pound  of  the  Canadian  honey 
at  the  Exhibition  was  obtained  from  bees  in  a  Joncs- 
Heddon  hive. 

There  is  one  thing  that  I,  as  a  practical  bee-keeper  of 
thirty-five  years'  experience,  feel  bound  to  say,  that  f  of 
an  inch  in  thickness,  as  in  the  Jones-Heddon  hive 
exhibited  at  the  Conversazione  at  South  Kensington,  is 
not  sufficient  for  the  external  walls  of  hives  that  are 
wintered  out-of-doors  in  this  country. 

In  Mr.  Ileddon's  book,  Success  in  Bee-keeping,  he 
describes  the  thickness  of  his  hives  thus : — '  The  end 
pieces  being  g,  and  the  side  pieces  of  J  inch  lumber  after 
being  dressed  on  both  sides,  the  long  pieces  being  nailed 
into  the  short  ones.' 

I  would  suggest  to  those  English  manufacturers  who 
propose  making  hives  on  this  plan  that  they  should  not 
use  less  than,  at  the  least,  f-inch  stuff  for  the  outside  of 
these  single-walled  hives.  This  will  be  just  double  the 
thickness  of  the  hive  exhibited  by  Mr.  Jones,  one  of 
which  I  hope  to  try  next  season  with  an  outer  case. — 



[770.1  The  '  Man  of  Kent'  is  amusing  in  his  way  of 
slashing  about  a  scientific  subject,  and  in  the  second  and 
third  paragraphs  of  his  last  letter  he  jumbles  up  my 
name  with  that  of  Mr.  Cheshire  in  a  very  funny  manner. 
I  beg  to  inform  him  I  have  no  agents  recognised  or 

As  regards  his  replies  to  my  question  which  he 
puts  into  paragraphs  two  and  five,  I  do  not  consider 
either  attempt  any  reply  at  all.  If  the  'so-called 
Cheshire  cure'  failed  him  because  the  bees  would  not 
take  it  'four  times  stronger  '  than  recommended  by  Mr. 
Cheshire,  nobody  will  blame  the  bees  or  Mr.  Cheshire 
either,  but  when  he  says  in  his  last  paragraph  that  all 
admit  the  Cheshire  formula  is  too  strong,  I  find  myself 
in  '  a  fog'  as  he  is. 

No  wonder  his  experience  differs  from  mine  and 
others,  and  that  he  can  agree  with  Mr.  Saddler  that  it 
is  simpler  to  destroy  the  combs— and  I  should  add  the 
bees  too— but  even  that  he  has  tried  without  success, 
and  the  net  result  of  his  experience  really  is  that  when 
the  bees  themselves  take  the  matter  in  hand  and  fly 
away  to  a  gentleman's  stable  the  disease  is  cured — 
probably  by  ammonia. 

If  the  '  Man  of  Kent'  will  kindly  inform  me  how  to 
distinguish  a  diseased  queen  from  a  health}'  one  without 
reference  to  her  brood,  I  shall  be  ever  grateful  to  him. — 
Thomas  F.  Ward,  Church  House,  Highgate,  Middlesex, 
Januarg  14,  1887. 

[780.]  For  the  satisfaction  of  others  I  can  endorse 
Mr.  Simmins'  plan  of  dry  sugar  feeding  for  or  in  winter, 
so  far  as  regards  skeps.  It  is  not  my  own  experience, 
but  that  of  a  life-long  bee-keeper  in  Seascale.  If  he 
fears  the  bees  are  likely  to  run  short  of  stores  in  mid- 
winter or  early  spring.  Ilis  plan  was  to  fill  a  hand 
basin  with  raw  sugar,  tightly  pressed  down  ;  damp  the 
face  of  sugar,  then  reverso  the  basin  and  place  the 
same  over  the  crown  of  hive,  first  removing  the  cork  or 
plug  in  the    eed-hole,  covering  all  well  up  afterwards, 

and  on  next  inspection  always  found  the  sugar  taken 
clean  up.  I  had  this  some  four  years  ago,  but  never 
tested  it.  These  skeps  were  within  a  quarter  mile 
of  the  sea-shore,  and  exposed  to  storms  from  the  west. — 
W.  G.,  Rastrkk. 


[781.]  Having  seen  it  stated  in  the  British  Bee 
Journal  that  we  bee-keepers  in  Yorkshire  keep  very 
quiet  about  our  doings,  perhaps  you  will  give  me  space 
in  the  Journal  to  make  a  few  remarks  as  to  my  doings  in 
the  bee  line  during  the  last  nine  years,  as  I  have  been  a 
bee-keeper  for  a  little  over  that  time,  and  perhaps  keep 
bees  on  a  different  system  to  most  of  )'Our  correspondents, 
I  ma)-  first  of  all  state  that  I  have  tried  most  plans  of 
keeping  bees,  and  am,  I  may  say,  a  good  amateur  car- 
penter, so  that  I  can  go  into  the  profit  part  of  the 
business  as  a  guide,  at  all  events,  to  the  Yorkshire 
working  man. 

I  find  that  a  hive  with  ten  Woodbury  frames  is  the 
largest  that  should  be  used  for  this  county,  and  I  also 
think  that  if  any  one  has  used  Abbott's  wide-shouldered 
frames  they  have  no  wish  to  try  any  others.  I  made  a 
hive  on  Mr.  Simmins'  plan  last  year,  but  find  the  frames 
simply  detestable,  and  I  am  sorry  to  have  to  say  that,  as 
I  so  heartily  agree  with,  I  may  say,  everything  else  that 
Mr.  Simmins  states.  During  all  these  years  I  have 
wintered  a  few  single-walled  hives,  and  find  them  just  as 
good  as  those  with  double  walls  if  the  outside  frames 
(two  on  one  side  and  one  on  the  others)  are  removed  and 
dummies  put  in  their  place.  This  makes  the  hive  double- 
walled  on  two  sides,  and  I  find  seven  frames  the  bees 
number  to  winter  the  bees  on,  as  when  confined  to  that 
space  you  require  no  chaff-cushions,  slips  at  the  ends  of 
the  frames," or  winter-passages. 

My  first  swarm  last  year  was  from  a  single-walled 
hive,  although  I  had  four  skeps  and  seven  double-walled 
hives.  I  have  never  found  the  slightest  difference 
between  the  single  and  double,  if  only  the  bees  are 
confined  on  seven  combs.  I  use  the  ordinary  summer 

On  looking  at  my  accounts  I  find  that  at  the  end  of 
1870  I  was  4QI.  Vis.  4rf.  on  the  wrong  side,  but  I  then 
kept  a  good  many  bees  and  had  a  large  stock  (for  me)  of 
hives  and  appliances.  At  the  end  of  last  season  I  was 
■jOI.  7s,  7d.  to  the  good  for  the  nine  years.  I  have,  of 
course,  put  down  all  the  honey  as  having  been  sold, 
although  I  have  given  a  good  deal  away,  &c,  but  I  am 
putting  myself  in  the  place  of  a  working  man,  in  which 
case,  perhaps,  nearly  all  would  have  been  sold.  A 
working  man,  however,  would  not  have  got  his  account 
so  much  on  the  wrong  side  to  start  with,  as  I  have 
always  tried  anything  new  that  came  out  that  I  thought 
worth  trying. 

One  year  I  had  mora  than  twenty  hives  and  did  not 
get  a  single  pound  of  honey,  and  had  to  spend  71.  on 
sugar  in  the  autumn  to  keep  them  alive.  I  never  knew 
such  a  season,  and  hope  I  never  shall  again.  There  was 
not  a  single  bee  alive,  the  following  spring,  in  the  whole 
district,  except  my  own. 

My  plan  of  keeping  bees  is  as  follows  : 

Supposing  I  winter  eight  hives,  and  they  each  swarm 
twice,  I  put  two  swarms  together,  in  every  instance,  on 
seven  or  eight  frames  only  (according  to  size  of  swarms), 
and  put  a  super  on  at  once.  This  is  supposing  I  have 
been  able  to  give  them  old  combs.  If  they  have  founda- 
tion, I  put  them  on  ten  frames,  feed  for  a  few  days,  and 
then  remove  two  or  three  frames  and  super  them.  This 
I  have  done  for  many  years,  and  I  can  quite  endorse 
what  Mr.  Simmins  says  about  it  at  once  crowding  the 
bees  into  the  supers. 
In  1884  I  wintered  8  hives,  and  took  550  lbs.  of  honey. 

1885  „  7  „  600  lbs.        „ 

1886  „         15  „  350  lbs.        „ 
Last  season  was  only  a  moderate  one  all  over  England, 

January  20,  1887.] 



The  stocks,  after  they  have  swarmed,  I  always  extract 
from,  and  I  do  not  see  that  it  does  much  harm  disturbing 
the  brood-nest. 

I  have  an  idea  that  the  swarms,  being  young  bees, 
take  better  to  supers.  In  the  autumn  I  bring  them  up 
into  pairs  and  join  them,  so  that  I  always  keep  m}'  bees 
strong  in  both  summer  and  winter,  and  am  never 
bothered  with  having  worn-out  queens.  Yorkshire  is 
not  a  very  first-rate  county  for  bee-keeping,  so  that  we 
do  not  look  for  very  great  results,  although  I  have  taken 
more  than  SO  lbs.  in  sections  off  one  hive. 

Last  year  I  tried  Mr.  Blow's  Si  x  4j  sections,  which 
work  with  a  row  of  4j  x  ±\  sections. 

In  every  case  the  bees  started  first  with  the  large 
sections,  and  a  most  beautiful  shape  they  are.  I  should 
like  them  better  if  they  were  two  inches  wide,  as  I  never 
am  able  to  get  sections  built  out  the  right  weight  with 
dividers  unless  they  are  two  inches  wide,  which  is  the 
only  width  I  shall  ever  use,  and  I  shall  certainly  always 
use  dividers. 

As  one  of  your  correspondents  remarked,  '  We  never 
hear  anything  of  the  Yorkshire  Bee-keepers'  Associa- 
tion.' I  am  not  a  member  of  it  myself  and  do  not 
think  I  should  ever  become  one.  I  have  often  induced 
cottagers  to  start  bees  in  frame-hives,  but  have  always 
found  them  go  back  to  the  old  skep :  and  with  prices  as 
low  as  they  have  become  I  do  not  think  the  average 
working  man  would  make  anything  out  of  bees,  and 
certainly  not  unless  he  was  a  good  carpenter. 

If  I  ever  joined  an  Association  it  would  be  for  the 
pleasure  I  should  have  in  talking  over  matters  with 
brother  bee-keepers,  and  not  from  any  advantage  I 
should  expect  to  get  from  it.  What  greater  pleasure 
can  one  have  than  talking  with  Mr.  Abbott,  say,  for  a 
couple  of  hours,  over  a  good  cigar  ? — as  I  have  had  the 
pleasure  of  doing.  I  fear  this  letter  has  grown  longer 
than  it  ought  tc  have  done,  but  as  I  am  letting  off  nine 
years'  ideas  in  it,  it  seems  to  me  miserably  short,  as  I 
could  go  on  indefinitely  on  such  an  interesting  subject ; 
but  perhaps  at  some  future  time  you  will  allow  me  a 
little  more  space,  Mr.  Editor.  May  I  recommend  bee- 
keepers, during  this  stormy  weather  when  the  snow  is  on 
the  ground,  not  only  to  shade  the  entrances,  but  to 
spread  some  loose  hay,  or  straw,  or  leaves,  all  about  the 
front  of  their  hives.  This  will  save  hundreds  of  bees 
which  would  otherwise,  if  the  sun  came  out,  perish  in  the 

I  fear  some  may  think  that  I  am  rather  dogmatic  in 
my  views  and  have  written  as  if  I  was  able  and  wishful 
to  lay  down  the  law  to  others ;  but  such  is  not  the  least 
my  desire,  and  my  excuse  must  be  that  it  is  most  difficult 
to  condense  a  great  deal  into  a  small  space  without 
appearing  to  dictate.  I  do  not  altogether  think  it  un- 
desirable for  a  cottager  to  keep  bees  in  frame-hives,  but 
with  present  prices  very  few  would  make  it  pay,  and 
they  must  be  pretty  good  carpenters. 

I  forgot  to  say  that  I  only  keep  black  bees.  Are  they 
hardier  than  other  breeds,  or  would,  say,  Italians  winter 
as  well  on  my  plan  without  chaff-cushions,  &c.  ?  Per- 
haps some  one  of  more  experience  can  tell  me.  How  is 
it  that  people  will  go  in  for  extractors  with  gearing  ? 
Mine  is  one  of  Abbott's  without  gearing,  and  if  I  so 
desired  I  [could  throw  out  all  the  brood  with  it.  Very 
few  turns,  and  the  honey  is  out.  Why  get  up  unnecessary 
speed? — Abthur  J.  H.  Wood,  Bellivood,  Ripon. 

P.S.— I  ought  to  state  that  in  1886  I  bought  some 
skeps  cheap  in  the  spring  (about  March),  so  that  I  did 
not  actually  winter  fifteen  hives.  If  I  did  not  explain 
this  it  woidd  look  as  if  I  had  not  followed  my  plan  of 
always  doubling  in  the  autumn. 

In  1885  I  also  had  a  skep  in  addition  to  the  seven 
frame-hives,  but  as  I  sold  the  swarm  from  it,  I  did 
not  count  it  in  stating  the  amount  of  honey  I  took. 
-A.  W.  J 


[782.]  I  am  sorry  that  truth  compels  me  to  confirm 
the  statement  of  Mr.  Walton,  that  toads  are  very 
destructive  to  bees.  The  hive  of  a  very  strong  stock  of 
blacks  had  a  small  alighting-board,  so  that  during 
the  late  honey  season  incoming  bees  collided  against 
those  that  were  leaving  the  hive  and  frequently  both 
fell  to  the  ground.  To  overcome  this  fault  I  placed  a 
board  sloping  up  from  the  ground  to  the  edge  of  the 
alighting  board,  the  hive  being  on  nine  inch  legs.  One 
night  in  June  on  visiting  this  hive  writh  a  lantern  I 
found  a  toad  seated  close  to  the  edge  of  the  alightiug- 
board.  He  apparently  attracted  the  bees  in  some  way 
(I  heard  no  noise),  remaining  quite  still  until  the  bees 
were  within  his  reach,  when  he  pounced  upon  them  and 
bottled  one  after  the  other  most  rapidly,  taking  several 
while  1  watched  him.  I  removed  the  toad  to  a  distant 
part  of  the  garden,  and  altered  the  board  so  that  it  no 
longer  touched  the  ground.  On  several  other  occasions 
I  have  found  toads  near  the  hives  at  night  and  have 
observed  them  pick  up  the  bees  that  have  been  recently 
killed  (such  as  robberd)  and  devour  them.  I  have  never 
observed  them  stand  on  their  hind-legs  to  reach  the  bees. 

I  find  that  a  very  good  surface  for  hives  to  stand  upon 
can  be  made  by  first  spreading  a  layer  of  brick  rubbish 
or  stones,  then  a  layer  of  fine  cinder  sittings  mixed  with 
a  small  quantity  of  gas  tar,  and  then  again  a  layer  of 
sittings.  This  after  wetting  forms  a  solid  smooth  sur- 
face in  which  no  weeds  will  grow  and  in  which  nothing 
will  burrow.  If  four  square  tiles  or  bricks  are  let  into 
the  surface  (taking  care  they  are  level)  the  leg's  of  hives 
resting  upon  them  are  preserved  from  decay,  and  there 
is  no  harbour  for  insects  such  as  ants  or  earwigs. 

Curious  Mistake  of  a  Bee. — A  lad)'  ■  was  sitting  at 
needlework  in  June,  18S6,  near  an  open  window,  upon 
the  sill  of  which  she  placed  her  reel  of  cotton,  the  end  of 
the  reel  that  was  uppermost  (it  was  standing  on  end) 
had  no  label  upon  it.  The  reel  had  not  been  in  this 
position  many  minutes  before  a  bee  with  its  legs  laden 
with  pollen  alighted  upon  it  and  deposited  its  load  of 
pollen  in  the  hollow  of  the  reel.  After  a  few  minutes 
it  again  returned  with  a  second  load  and  so  continued 
for  about  two  hours,  during  which  time  it  had  made  a 
number  of  journeys,  always  returning  loaded  with  pollen 
which  it  deposited  as  at  first.  Unfortunately  the  reel 
was  removed  and  its  contents  thrown  away  without  the 
result  of  the  numerous  journeys  being  observed.  I 
should  be  glad  to  know  if  any  of  your  numerous  readers 
have  observed  similar  behaviour  in  a  bee. — Harold 
Adcock,  Middleton,  Northampton. 


[783.]  There  must  always  be  different  opinions  as  to 
the  amount  of  accuracy  desirable  in  treating  of  any 
given  object.  I  am  not  too  particular,  I  think,  but 
sometimes  I  find  it  difficult  to  follow,  as  I  strive  to  do, 
the  descriptions  of  designs  figured  in  your  useful  paper. 
Even  if  we  accept  Johnson's  definition  a  '  rabbet '  as  a 
'  joint  made,'  &c,  I  do  not  think  Mr.  Neighbour  is  in  a 
better  position.  He  says  '  the  shifting  slide  is  itself 
comprised  of  several  rabbets.'  What!  a  block  of  wood 
comprised  of  joints?  Impossible.  Fitted  to  others  in 
its  place  by  joints,  but  surely  it  cannot  be  made  up  of 
them,  any  more  than  the  well-known  '  trimmings '  in 
Pickieick  could  have  been  the  leg  of  mutton.  Strictly, 
I  take  a  rabbet,  or  a  scarf,  &c,  to  be  no  thing  at  all,  but 
only  a  form ;  but  waiving  this  I  do  not  object  to  the 
groove  in  which  the  piece  of  timber  slides  being 
called  a  rabbet,  though  it  is  not  strictly  so,  or,  what 
is  more  like  it,  the  piece  taken  out  of  the  top  of  these 
moveable  ends  (of  top  hive),  but  if  I  understand  aright 
that  E  E  are  the  blocks  of  wood  then  I  do  think 



[January  20,  1887. 

the  right  use  of  terms  forbids  to  call  them  rabbets.  I 
quite  see  Mr.  Neighbour's  position,  and  I  assure  him  that 
I  have  no  desire  to  act  the  part  of  the  captious  critic. 
He  wants  a  handy  word  to  designate  his  ingenious 
device,  but  he  must  not  use  one  which  is  already 
applied  to  a  form  of  juncture  of  two  pieces  of  wood, 
and  it  is  not  for  me  to  suggest  one,  which,  in  truth,  I 
find  not  easy,  for  'ends'  and  'carriers'  and  'blocks' 
are  already  appropriated. — C.  R.  S. 


[784.]  A  reference  is  made  in  the  last  issue  of  the 
Journal  by  '  Man  of  Kent '  to  my  '  Agents  '  calling  at- 
tention to  the  price  charged  for  phenol  as  excessive. 
Since  I  have  no  agents,  and  stated  so  in  the  Journal 
now  quite  two  years  since,  I  ask  who  are  representing 
themselves  so  to  be  ?  When  my  experiments  and  dis- 
coveries were  first  promulgated,  I  agTeed  to  guarantee 
phenol  and  give  directions  through  Messrs.  Holland  and 
Lyon,  receiving  a  royalty  of  id.  per  bottle  which 
royalty  was  to  supply  a  sum  to  be  devoted  to  further 
experiments.  As  a  result,  I  have  not  received,  as  I 
before  stated,  sufficient  to  pay  the  postage  of  the  letters 
I  have  been  called  upon  to  write  in  connexion  with  this 
subject.  It  is  simply  preposterous  that  I,  who  have  not 
been  excelled  by  any  living  bee-keeper  in  the  amount  of 
time  and  energy  I  have  devoted  without  any  thought  of 
reward  beyond  that  of  following  research  and  aiding 
my  fellows,  should  be  not  once  or  twice,  but  frequently 
in  your  Journal,  addressed  as  though  guilty  of  extortion. 
I  have  sought  no  man's  silver  or  gold,  but,  on  the  con- 
trary, have  expended  and  am  expending  my  own  freely, 
in  my  devotion  to  scientific  apiculture.  I  trust  that  care 
will  be  in  future  exercised  that  such  statements  as 
those  made  by  '  Man  of  Kent '  may  not  appear,  and  that 
you  will  in  justice  publish  this  disclaimer.  —  F. 
Chbshiee,  Avenue  House,  Acton,  W. 

[It  seems  to  us  just  possible  that  the  phenol  might 
have  been  purchased  by  'Man  of  Kent'  while  the 
agencies  were  still  in  force.] 

In  the  Bienenzeituny,  Major  V.  Mann  gives  his  ex- 
perience with  regard  to  drones  having  white  eyes. 
He  refers  to  what  Baron  V.  Berlepsch  says  respecting 
them  in  the  Bienenzeitung  in  1885,  p.  169 :  '  I  possess  a 
Cyprian  colony,  in  which  there  are  several  hundred  such 
drones;  only  one  single  drone  has  eyes  of  the  usual 
colour.'  Major  V.  Mann  says  that  in  all  his  experience 
he  never  saw-  a  drone  with  white  eyes  return  to  a  hive 
when  once  it  left  it.  He  has  seen  them  in  numbers  in 
front  of  his  bee-house  crawling  about  in  the  grass,  and 
saw  them  rise  fifty  or  sixty  cm.,  but  always  to  drop 
down  again.  He  also  saw  them  come  out  of  the  entrance 
and  crawl  about  on  the  alighting- board.  Some  were  put 
into  a  box,  taken  into  a  room,  and  placed  on  a  table, 
with  the  lid  slightly  opened.  The  drones  did  not  leave 
quickly  as  other  bees  do,  but  came  out  languidh-,  crawled 
on  the  table,  and  dropped  on  the  floor.  None  flew  to- 
wards the  window.  He  concluded  that  these  abnormal 
drones  are  blind.  They,  however,  have  a  keen  sense  of 
smell.  He  placed  half  a  ripe  pear  on  the  window-sill, 
and  they  crawled  out  of  the  box  towards  it,  and  re- 
mained upon  it,  but  none  of  them  attempted  to  go 
towards  the  light  of  the  window.  During  the  slaughter 
of  the  drones  he  observed  those  with  white  eyes  were 
driven  out  much  sooner  than  the  normal  drones.  Six 
days  after  these  albinos  were  driven  out  he  examined 
the  hive,  and  could  not  discover  one,  although  there  were 
plenty  of  others.  "When  he  took  hold  of  them  a  yellowish 
liquid  f;eces  was  ejected,  which  does  not  occur  if  an 
ordinary  drone  is  grasped.  He  is  of  opinion  that  these 
albino  drones  are  diseased. 

In  a  note  F.  M.  Vogel,  who  has  examined  them  micro- 
scopically, says  the  eyes  are  quite  transparent,  the  pigment 
being  absent,  and  the  hairs  at  the  corners  of  the  facets 
are  also  colourless.  The  simple  eyes  were  also  white. 
The  lower  of  these  simple  eyes  projected,  and  shone  like 
a  fine  crystal.  He  agrees  with  Major  V.  Maun  in  con- 
sidering them  blind. 

In  the  Chemical  News  A.  B.  Griffiths,  who  has  been 
studying  the  action  of  salicylic  acid  on  ferments,  states 
that  a  solution  containing  02  grains  of  salicylic  acid 
per  1000  c.  cm.  of  water  quickly  destroys  some  micro- 
organisms,[such  as  Mycoderma  aceti,  Bacterium  lactis,  and 
other.  It  seems  to  act  upon  and  to  dissolve  the  cell- 
walls  of  these  organisms.  Although  living  torula;  are 
not  destroyed,  their  activity  is  impeded  by  the  solution 
of  salicylic  acid.  Saliva  does  not  exert  its  fermentative 
faculties  in  the  presence  of  this  acid. 

Replies  ta  (Jimies. 

***  In  their  answers,  Correspondents  are  respectfully  requested  to 
mention  in  each  instance  the  number  and  the  title  of  the  query  asked. 

(773.)  Managing  Stock  on  Allotment  Garden. — I  have 
for  several  years  managed  stocks  on  allotment  gardens 
half  a  mile  away,  and  have  had  excellent  results  from 
the  following  plan.  I  use  a  hive  containing  twelve  standard 
frames,  having  another  the  same  size  full  of  empty  combs, 
which  I  place  on  the  top  when  the  first  is  full  of  brood, 
and  when  doing  so  (about  the  end  of  June)  I  take  one 
comb  of  brood  from  the  bottom  hive,  placing  in  the  top  one 
among  the  empty  combs,  and  place  an  empty  frame  with 
narrow  strips  of  guide,  not  in  the  place  of  the  brood 
extracted,  but  immediately  over  the  entrance  and  in  front. 
This  frame  will  not  be  filled  with  comb  before  the  harvest 
closes,  and  the  top  hive  will  contain  80  lbs.  of  honey  in 
a  good  season,  and  swarming  is  prevented.  I  have  taken 
in  this  way  over  100  lbs.  from  one  stock. — T.  F.  Ward. 

[773.]  Managing  Stock  on  an  Allotment  Garden. — I 
should  go  to  work  on  the  non-swarming  system,  as  bees 
always  work  better  for  sending  off  a  swarm.  Make  it  as  ' 
soon  as  there  are  any  drones  in  the  hive.  It  is  very  easy 
to  prevent  after-swarming  by  giving  them  room  to  work  in. 
Place  two  empty  frames  with  comb  starters  in  the  front 
part  of  the  hive  next  the  door.  As  soon  as  they  are  drawn 
out  replace  them  by  others.  Cut  those  drawn  out  to  fill 
the  sections.  The  best  way  to  cut  the  combs  is  to  have 
a  box  just  to  hold  the  comb  with  saw-cuts  4J  x  4J,  or  the 
size  of  the  inside  of  section,  and  with  the  comb  so  cut  fill 
the  sections. — E.  L.  Richardson,  Grcsham  House,  Corbridge. 

xx  cries. 

Queries  and  Answers  arc  inserted  free  of  charge  to  Correspondents 
When  more  than  one  query  is  sent,  each  should  be  on  a  separate  piece 
oj  paper. 

Our  readers  will  greatly  oblige  us  by  answering,  as  far  as  their  know- 
ledge and  observations  permit,  the  Correspondents  who  seek  assistance. 
Answers  should  always  bear  the  number  and  title  placed  against  the 
query  replied  to.  Any  queries  unanswered  in  this  way  will  be  answered 
by  the  Editor  and  others. 

[785.]  Clover  for  front  of  Hives. — A  lady  has  a  plot  of 
ground  in  front  of  her  half-dozen  bee-hives  which  is 
generally  full  of  weeds  all  summer,  owing  to  her  gardener 
being  shy  of  the  bees.  Can  any  one  advise  her  what 
mixture  of  white  clover  and  other  seeds  to  sow  it  with  so 
that  it  will  grass  itself  over? — Mrs.  Sumner. 

[786.]  Specimens  of  Honey. — I  have  been  hunting  up 
for  some  time  now  all  the  specimens  of  honey  I  can  get 
hold  of,  and  am  anxious  to  make  it  as  comprehensive  as 
possible  ;  and  I  noticed  at  a  recent  meeting  held  in  London 
that  the  following  exhibited  samples  of  honey  which  I 
would  like  to  have  the  address  of,  viz.,  Messrs.  Haw, 
Gardner,  &  Co.,  Liverpool  (Chilian,  Cuban,  &o.,  honey),  Mr. 
Liddell,  Lancaster  (English  heather),  and  Mr.  Carr,  Higher 
Bebington  (white  clover).     If  any  bee-keeper  can  give  me 

January  20,  1887.] 



the  addresses  of  any  others  who  could  possibly  assist  me  in 
this  matter  I  would  deem  it  a  great  favour. — Altos. 

[787.]  Would  any  of  your  readers  give  instructions  for 
making  an  unicomb  observatory  hive? — Castle  Douglas. 

[788.]  Would  some  experienced  bee-keepers  kindly  give 
treatment  for  bees  badly  troubled  with  dysentery  ?  Also, 
the  most  suitable  coverings  for  hives  '  kept  in  a  bee-house,' 
for  spring,  when  breeding  is  at  the  height ;  for  summer, 
during  the  honey-glut ;  and  also  for  winter  ?  Is  the 
American-cloth  so  often  mentioned  in  the  B,  B.  Journal  the 
same  material  as  is  often  called  oil-cloth  ? — Fab  North. 

<2Mj0£S  ixom  %  Hiboes. 

Port  Mohan-,  Minorca,  Dec.  27. — On  Nov.  1st  we  looked 
over  the  eleven  hives  in  our  apiary.  My  best  hive  had  ten 
combs  full  of  brood,  and  the  rest  four  or  five  each.  (I  had 
stimulated  them  just  a  little  after  the  summer  heats.)  On 
the  loth  of  this  month,  profiting  by  a  very  fine  day  or  two, 
we  looked  them  over  again.  Best  hive  had  brood  in  only 
six  combs,  the  rest  in  two  to  four.  Shall  not  handle  them 
again  till  the  middle  of  February,  when  I  intend  to  begin 
stimulating.  We  calculated  they  had  2  ewt.  of  honey  for 
winter,  which,  though  not  sufficient  in  a  cold  climate,  I 
consider  all  that  is  necessary  in  a  country  where  they  can 
pasture  all  the  winter  long  when  the  weather  permits  it. 
One  of  my  transferred  hives  occupied  five  storeys  last 
summer,  though  it  was  transferred  so  late  that  only  a 
fortnight's  honey-flow  fell  to  its  lot  (from  May  1  to  15), 
and  only  50  lbs.  of  honey  were  got  out  of  it.  By  November 
we  had  reduced  it  to  two  storeys.  On  examining  it  this 
month  we  found  the  lower  storey  empty  of  brood  and  honey, 
and,  as  the  combs  were  new,  I  thought  constant  passage 
through  them  to  the  upper  storey  would  soil  them,  and 
reversed  the  order  of  things,  putting  the  lower  and  empty 
storey  on  top.  Now  what  I  wish  to  inquire,  Mr.  Editor,  is 
whether  I  did  right  in  so  changing  the  two  storeys  ?  for 
evidently  the  bees  had  not  intended  to  winter  in  the  lower 
storey.  I  preferred  to  leave  the  empty  combs  on  to  taking 
them  off,  thinking  the  bees  would  at  times  occupy  them 
and  thus  keep  them  clear  of  moths,  &a.  Our  climate  being 
comparatively  mild  (thermometer  generally  ranges  about 
55°  to  65"  Fahrenheit,  and  never  goes  below  40°)  I  do  not 
anticipate  any  bad  results,  but  may  be  mistaken  for  all 
that.  Two  or  three  months  ago  I  wrote  a  couple  of  articles 
on  modern  bee-keeping  for  one  of  the  most  influential  of 
Spanish  journals  published  in  Barcelona,  the  Diario,  which 
caused  quite  a  sensation,  and  overwhelmed  me  with  letters 
of  inquiry  from  all  parts  of  Spain.  I  have  hopes  that  next 
spring  will  witness  many  attempts  at  bee-keeping  in  frame- 
hives  on  the  part  of  amateurs.  Whether  success  will  attend 
their  efforts  is  at  best  problematical,  though  under  proper 
teaching  much  might  be  done  in  this  beautiful  climate. 
I  am  sorry  I  have  succeeded  in  obtaining  but  a  few  sub- 
scribers to  the  British  Bee  Journal,  as  the  generality  do 
not  understand  the  English  language.  French  is  more 
generally  spoken,  and  I  have  therefore  given  course  to 
many  copies  of  Cowan's  Guide  in  that  language,  also  to 
the  Swiss  Bulletin  d' 'Apiculture  of  Mr.  Cowan's  friend, 
Mons.  Bertrand. — F.  C.  Andreu. 

[We  should  not  have  changed  the  hives  in  the  way  you 
have  done,  but  would  have  preferred  to  have  left  only  the 
one  containing  stores.  The  stores  should  be  at  the  top  of 
the  hive  where  the  heat  is  greatest. — Ed.] 

Honey  Cott,  Weston,  Leamingion,  January  10(7;,  1887. — 
Since  my  last  echo,  written  at  the  beginning  of  December, 
the  weather  has  not  been  suitable  for  bees  getting  out  in 
any  considerable  numbers,  but  as  we  have  had  a  fall  of 
snow,  I  have  found  a  few  brought  out  by  the  reflection. 
On  Saturday  last  snow  fell  to  the  depth  of  nearly  a  foot, 
and  so  made  plenty  of  work  in  clearing  the  roofs  of  the 
hives,  and  putting  blocks  and  boards  to  shade  the  entrances 
to  prevent  the  bees  being  enticed  out — to  their  deaths ; 
for  I  find,  as  a  rule,  when  once  they  are  on  the  wing  they 
never  get  back  to  their  hives  when  snow  is  on  the  ground. 
— John  Walton. 


All  queries  forwarded  will  be  attended  to,  and  those  only  of  personal 
nterest  will  be  answered  in  this  column. 

W.  C.  C— 1.  Wax.— In  No.  186,  Vol.XIV.,we  gave  statistics  of 
the  amount  of  wax  imported  and  exported  during  the  year 
1884,  from  which  it  appeared  that  we  imported  in  that 
year  28,258  cwts.,  value  105,8132.,  and  re-exported  10,378 
cwts.,  value  36,4672. ;  in  188.3  we  imported  38,295  cwts., 
value  140,253/.,  and  re-exported  10,328  cwts.,  value 
26,7062.  The  value  of  the  honey  imported  in  1885  was 
61,344/.,  but  we  are  not  in  a  position  to  say  the 
amount  or  the  value  of  the  honey  re-exported.  — 
2.  Uses  of  Honey.— The  Rev.  V.  H.  Moyle,  who  has 
devoted  much  time  and  attention  to  this  subject,  has  pub- 
lished a  leaflet  showing  the  chief  manufactures  in  which 
honey  is  an  ingredient,  which  would  render  you  much 
assistance.  2.  Uses  of  Wax. — Wax  is  valuable  for  many 
purposes  in  this  country,  but  it  is  of  still  more  im- 
portance in  parts  of  Europe  and  America.  It  forms  a 
considerable  branch  of  trade  and  manufacture  as  an 
article  of  extensive  use  in  the  religious  ceremonies  of  the 
inhabitants.  Humboldt  informs  us  that  wax  to  the  value 
of  upwards  of  83,0002.  was  at  one  time  annually  exported 
from  Cuba  to  New  Spain,  where  the  quantities  used  in 
the  festivals  of  the  Church  are  very  great,  even  in  the 
smallest  villages.  The  value  of  that  exported  from 
Cuba  in  1803  was  upwards  of  130,0002.  At  the  Zurich 
Exhibition,  in  the  year  1883,  there  were  no  less  than 
twenty-two  distinct  uses  of  wax  exhibited,  among  which 
were, — painting  in  wax  colours,  wax  modelling,  wax  salve, 
wax  plaster,  wax  tapers,  moulds  of  teeth,  anatomical 
preparations  in  wax,  meerschaum  tubes,  wax  matches, 
comb  foundation,  candles,  medals,  photographs,  &a. 
Wax  is  applied  extensively  in  the  arts  and  manufactures. 

T.  P. — Transferring  Combs  from  large  frames  to  Standard. — 
Do  not  attempt  it  until  the  weather  is  warm,  or  you  will 
so  check  the  prosperity  of  your  stock  as  to  render  it 
useless  for  the  season.  You  need  not  fear  loss  of  brood ; 
even  if  you  have  to  cut  off  some  parts  of  the  comb  con- 
taining it  you  can  give  the  cuttings  for  the  bees  to  hatch 
out,  the  only  loss  being  the  few  cells  actually  divided 
by  the  knife.  In  a  strong  colony  this  will  soon  be 

O.  T. — 1.  Combs  Built  Irregularly. — From  your  letter  you  do 
not  appear  to  have  been  sufficiently  careful  in  spacing 
your  frames,  and  probably  your  hives  did  not  stand 
level.  Hence  your  difficulty.  In  your  new  hives  keep 
your  frame  1^  inches  from  centre  to  centre,  preferaby  by 
metal  ends. — 2.  Supers  not  accepted. — There  are  so  many 
reasons  for  this  that  without  fuller  particulars  we  cannot 
name  the  special  one.  The  colony  which  deserted  the 
lower  liive  for  the  super,  and  made  that  its  home,  did  so 
from  the  absence  of  queen-excluder,  allowing  the  queen 
to  ascend  and  make  her  brood-nest  there.  A  conversation 
with  some  experienced  bee-keeper  would  do  more  good 
than  much  reading.  We  hope  you  will  suceed  in  future 
as  well  as  you  appear  to  have  done  in  your  first  season. 

D.  Shaw. — Langstroth  Hive. — You  cannot  do  better  than 
use  the  Langstroth  hive  as  you  have  done,  but  we  should 
prefer  having  an  outer  casing,  and  the  space  between  the 
two  filled  with  chaff,  for  winter.  When  using  the  Carr- 
Stewarton  we  did  not  get  more  honey  than  we  have  done 
with  the  ordinary  frame-hive,  in  which  the  bees  developed 
much  faster.  Shallow  hives  were  tried  long  before  the 
moveable  frame-hive  was  invented,  and  are  still  used  in 
some  places,  but  they  have  not  been  found  profitable. 
We  should  advise  you  only  to  try  one  or  two,  and  com- 
pare results  before  you  go  in  largely  for  the  Heddon  hive. 
In  this  hive,  the  frames  are  always  kept  at  a  certain 
distance  apart,  by  wide  ends,  and  are  kept  in  their  places 
by  means  of  screws ;  but,  having  tried  such  frames,  we 
should  not  care  to  use  them  again.  We  hope  to  be  able 
to  give  a  description  and  illustration  of  Shuck's  invertible 
hive  shortly. 

M.  H. — Dysentery  in  an  Observatory  Hive. — We  advise  you 
to  procure  a  small  box,  sufficiently  large  to  receive  the 
two  frames — side  by  side — from  the  observatory  hive,  and 
to  transfer  frames  and  bees  to  this  box.  The  frames 
should  be  transferred  in  the  room  in  which  the  obser- 
vatory stands,  and  the  sides,  bottom  and  top  bars  of 



[January  20, 1887. 

the  frames  (while  the  bees  are  upon  them)  should  be 
scraped,  or  sponged,  clean  and  a  little  salicylic  acid 
solution,  or  Condy's  fluid,  applied,  so  as  to  wet  the 
frames  as  little  as  possible.  A  cake  of  soft  candy — 
[.finely  powdered  loaf  sugar  mixed  with  liquid  honey  to 
the  consistency  of  putty)— should  be  laid  upon  the  tops 
of  the  frames  in  the  box,  covered  with  thin  paper  and 
pressed  closely  down  upon  the  frames.  Cover  over  with 
Eeveral  thicknesses  of  flannel  or  woollen  cloth  of  loose 
texture,  and  over  all  a  board  to  keep  the  material  close 
to  the  frames.  Place  the  box  in  the  position  which  the 
observatory  hive  occupied,  providing  an  exit  for  the  bees 
to  fly  outside.  It  was  an  error  to  feed  with  syrup,  and 
this  has  probably  caused  the  mischief,  but  it  is  very 
difficult  to  winter  bees  in  an  observatory  hive,  especially 
small  colonies,  and  it  is  doubtful  whether  yours  will 
recover.  Failing  the  box  recommended,  it  will  be  best 
thoroughly  to  disinfect  and  clean  the  observatory  hive 
and  to  return  the  bees  to  it.  When  transferring  disturb 
the  bees  as  little  as  possible.  An  expert  would  perform 
the  operation  in  five  minutes. 

Enquirer. — Soft\Candy. — We  can  recommend  Good's  candy, 
a  kind  of  food  much  used  in  America,  which  ismade  by 
mixing  together  liquid  honey  and  very  finely  powdered 
loaf-sugar  until  the  consistency  of  dough,  or  stiff  putty, 
is  attained.  The  paste  is  then  laid  on  the  frames  over 
the  cluster  in  the  form  of  a  cake,  and  covered  with  the 

A  Hawes  Bee-keeper. — We  have  forwarded  a  sample  of 
your  honey  to  Mr.  0.  Hehner,  and  trust  to  be  able  to 
insert  his  report  thereon  in  our  next  issue. 

Dry  Sugar  Feeding. — Referring  to  Mr.  Simmins's  letter 
on  dry-sugar  feeding,  in  last  Journal,  will  he  kindly  state. 
Will  the  usual-size  hole  for  syrup  feeding  cut  in  quilts,  say, 
1J  x  J,  be  sufficient  to  pile  the  sugar  over,  or  must  there  be 
a  larger  hole  made  ?  1  mean  to  have  ticking  next  frames, 
the  sugar  placed  on  that,  and  then  the  thick  quilts  over  the 
sugar,  or  American-cloth  next  the  sugar  if  preferred,  and, 
Will  the  sugar  so  placed  do  for  stimulating  feeding  in  the 
spring? — F.  J. 

Croaking. — May  I  say  that  on  several  occasions  I  have 
heard  such  a  sound  coming  from  the  hives  as  a  correspon- 
dent called  '  croaking  ? '  I  could  hardly  believe  it  came 
from  a  hive  at  first,  but  I  have  no  doubt  now. — Br.  W. 

Hedges. — I  also  saw  in  the  Journal  a  correspondent 
making  inquiries  about  a  hedge  for  the  protection  of  hives. 
I  would  say  that  a  willow  hedge  answers  the  purpose 
admirably.  I  planted  such  a  hedge  three  years  ago,  by 
putting  in  willow  sticks  about  four  feet  long,  crosswise, 
and  the  first  year  it  certainly  protected  the  hives.  Now  it 
is  seven  feet  high,  and,  although  my  apiary  is  in  a  very 
exposed  situation,  during  the  recent  gales  my  hives  and 
covers  were  not  displaced  in  the  least.  It  seems  the  best 
time  to  plant  is  early  spring,  and  it  requires  constant 
clipping  to  keep  it  within  bounds,  but  repays;the  labour  by 
making  a  thick,  bushy  hedge.  My  hedge  is  made  up  of 
several  varieties  of  willow  —  I  think  six  or  seven  —  the 
bloom  of  which  in  spring  is  very  pretty,  besides  supplying 
the  bees  with  pollen.— Br.  W. 

Erratum.— Pago  16,    colmun   1,  lino  16,  for   promulgated   read 

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July  11-13. — Royal  Agricultural  Show  at  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne.  Entries  close  May  12.  Sec.  J.  Huckle,  Kings 

August  3-5. — Yorkshire  Agricultural  Society  at  York, 
Secretary,   H.  L.  Rickards,   Poole,  near  Leeds. 

^Business  ^Directory. 

For  the  use  of  Manufacturers   and  Purchasers  of  Bee- 
keeping Appliances. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Appleton,  H.  M.,  Dowry  Works,  256a  Hotwell  Road, 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 
Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 
Burtt,  E.  J.,  Stroud  Road,  Gloucester. 
Edey  &  Son,  St.  Neots. 
Hole,  J.  R.  W. ,  Tarrington,  Ledbury. 
Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 
Meadiiam,  M.,  Huntington,  Hereford. 
Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 
Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 
Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 
The  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,  23  Cornhill,  London, 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 
Wren  &  Son,  139  High  Street,  Lowestoft. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

British  Honey  Co.,  Limited,  17  King  William  St.,  Strand. 

Country  Honey  Supply,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn 

Walton,  E.  C. ,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Benton,  F.,  Munich,  Germany. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Simmins,  S.,  Rottingdean,  near  Brighton. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herta. 

Lyon,  F.,  94  Harleyford  Road,  London,  S.E. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J. ,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B„  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 

BEE-KEEPERS'  GUIDE;  or,  Manual  of  the 
Apiary.    By  A.  J.  Cook.    14th  Thousand.   The  whole 
work  has  been  thoroughly  revised,  and  contains  the  very 
latest  in  respect  to  Bee-keeping.     Price  5s.,  postage  6d. 

Iff  O  -W      15.  3ES  A  I>  "5T  I 

VOL.  XIV.  of 

Jlfhe  ^British  JBee  Journal, 

edited  by 

THOS.  W.  COWAN,  F.G.8.,   F.R.M.S., 

Containing  upwards  of  600  pages,  with  numerous  Illus- 
trations, and  Complete  Index. 

Bound  in  Cloth,  price  10s.     Cloth  Cases  for  Binding,  Is. 
each  ;  post  free,  Is.  3d. 


Communications  to  the  Editor  to  be  addressed  '  Sthanoeways'  Printing  Office,  Tower  Street,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  w.c' 

[No.  240.     Vol.  XV.] 

JANUARY  27,  1887. 

[Published  Weekly.] 

Bingham  Smoker. 

€tnxtaxwlf  Sottas,  #r. 


A  good  smoker  is  an  indispensable  implement  in  the    ' 
apiary.     One  of  the  best  is  the  Bingham,  and  although 
there  are  many  sold  as  Bingham 
smokers,  some  of  these  are  only 
very    inferior    imitations    of    it. 
There  is  nothing  more  trying  to 
the  patience  than  to  find,  during 
an  operation,  that  the  smoker  one 
is  using  will  not  work  and  will 
not  send  forth  the  needed  smoke  ; 
and  yet  it  has  been  our  lot,  not 
unfrequently,  to  come  across  such 
a  smoker  when  assisting  a  brother 
bee-keeper  in  his  manipulations. 
We  have  seen  some  made  in  this 
country  that  worked  quite  as  well 
as  the  originals,  but  the  majority 
are  made  with  a  view  to  cheap- 
ness, and  not  efficiency,  and  quite 
regardless  of  the  principles  upon  which  a  smoker  should 
be  constructed. 
The  usual  defects  consist  in  using  unsuitable  springs, 
and    leather   for   bellows,   and   in   not 
making  the  entrance  in  the  barrel  above 
the  blast-pipe  in  the  shape  of  a  funnel. 
This  defect,  if  the   pipe  and  the  hole 
above  it  are  not  exactly  in  a  line,  causes 
a  great  deal  of  air  which  ought  to  be 
driven  into  the  smoker  to  pass  on  one 
side,  and  the  full  power  of  the  bellows 
is  not  utilised.    The  spring  being  of  steel 
instead  of  brass,  and 
the  wrong  shape,pre- 
veuts    the    bellows 
working      smoothly 
and     closing     suffi- 
ciently, so  that  the 
whole  volume  of  air 
in  the  bellows  can- 
not  be  driven   out. 
The    only    drawing 
and  description  of  a 
Bingham  smoker  we 
know     of     is     that 
given  lately  by  Mr. 
Cheshire,  but  from 
his    drawings   it   is 
evident  that  he  has 
either  never  seen  a 
*=■'  genuine  one,  or  else 

he  has  never  dissected  one  to  ascertain  its  mechanism, 
and    has    not  understood  the    principles    upon   which 

Fis.  3. 

it  is  constructed.  We  need  hardly  say  that  if  any 
one  made  a  smoker  from  the  drawing  given  by 
him,  it  would  only  resemble  the  Bingham  in  outward 
appearance,  and  would  be  no  better  than  many  of  the 
imitations  at  present  in  the  market.  The  illustration  he 
gives  ou  page  13  of  the  prac- 
tical part  of  Bees  and  Bee- 
keeping, and  which  appears  to 
be  an  exact  facsimile  of  the 
illustration  given  in  the  first 
and  second  editions  of  our 
Guide-book  (see  illustration  in 
previous  column),  with  the 
smoke  added,  is  that  of  an  old 
pattern  discarded  in  1883 ;  but 
even  in  this  the  interior  is 
similar  to  the  one  we  are 
about  to  describe,  and  which  has  been  the  only  pattern 
sent  out  by  Mr.  Bingham  since  1883. 

The  illustrations  we  give  are  drawn  one  quarter  of  full 
size,  or  a  scale  of  3  inches  to 
a  foot,  except  Fig.  9,  which 
is  2  inches  to  the  foot. 

Fig.  1  is  a  vertical,  and 
Fig.  2  a  horizontal  section, 
through  the  blast  pipe  and  top  board  of  the  bellows. 
Fig  3  is  a  section  of  the  bottom  board  through  the  valve. 

We  will  first  make  the  tin  work  of  the  smoker. 

The  barrel,  A,  is  2^  inches  in  diameter  and  6J  inches 
long.  No  solder  should  be 
used,  as  the  heat  would  soon 
melt  it  and  the  smoker  would 
come  to  pieces  ;  therefore  all 
the  joints  in  the  tin  work 
must  be  made  without  it.  The 
lower  edge  of  the  barrel  is 
turned  outwards,  and  the 
bottom  has  its  edge  turned 
over  this,  as  shown  at  B.  The 
nozzle,  C,  is  5§  inches  long, 
and  fits  over  the  top  end  of 
the  barrel,  tapering  to  the  top, 
at  which  the  opening,  D,  is 
half  an  inch  in  diameter. 

Three  quarters  of  an  inch 
from  the  bottom  of  the  barrel 
bore  a  half-inch  hole,  E.  Then  get  a  piece  of  wood 
an  inch  in  diameter,  and  cut  one  end  to  the  shape  of  a 
cone.  Place  the  pointed  end  in  the  hole  and  drive  in  the 
tin  until  you  have  a  funnel  as  seen  in  the  illustration. 
This  funnel,  although  apparently  of  trifling  importance, 
and  is  omitted  in  nine  out  of  ten  smokers  as  well  as  in  the 
illustration  above  alluded  to,  adds  greatly  to  their 
efficiency.  If  the  blast-pipe  does  not  correspond  exactly 
with  the  hole  in  the  barrel,  without  the  funnel,  part  of 
the  air  is  blown  on  to  the  round  surface  and  is  lost, 
whereas  when  it  impinges  on  the  inner  sides  of  the  funne, 
it  is  propelled  forward,  in  the  direction  of  the  arrows, 

Fia.  4. 



[January  27, 1887. 

1                      1 

i    ! 



!     i 






1      "1 



Pig.  5. 

through   the   opening,  E,  and  not   a  particle  of  air  is 

We  have  next  to  make  the  support,  F  G,  -which  carries 
the  barrel  and  the  hand-guard.  This  should  be  a  piece  of 
tin  7i  inches  long  and  If  inches  -wide.  At  1J  inches  from 
one  end  cut  in  f  of  an  inch 
■with  a  pair  of  shears,  on  each 
side,  and  turn  these  edges 
over  and  hammer  them  down 
flat.  Do  the  same  thing  at 
the  other  end  and  turn  down 
the  edges  of  the  centre  part  at 
at  right  angles,  thus  :  I  I . 
Turn  up  the  end,  F,  at  right 
angles,  and  the  end,  G,  at.  an 
angle  of  forty-five  degrees, 
as  seen  in  Fig.  1.  The  dis- 
tance between  F  and  G  should 
be  4|  inches  from  angle  to 

For  the  hand-guard,  cut  a 
piece  of  tin  6J  inches  by  4 
inches  and  bend  it,  as  shown  at  I,  Fig.  2.  Then  get  a 
short  piece,  H,  and  turn  up  the  end  at  right  angles, 
thus :  ]_•  £ke  top  end  must  be  shaped  as  shown  at  H, 
Fig.  2,  as  it  is  intended  to  support 
the  barrel.  This  piece  as  well  as  the 
hand-guard  can  now  be  riveted  to  the 
support,  F  G.  At  |  of  an  inch  from 
the  end  corresponding  to  the  hole  in 
the  barrel,  punch  a  |-inch  hole  to 
allow  the  blast-pipe  to  pass  through. 
The  support  is  now  ready  to  be  fixed 
to  the  barrel  by  means  of  two  rivets, 
seen  in  Fig.  1.  The  grating,  L,  is  of 
sheet-iron,  with"g-inch  holes  punched 
closely  all  over  it.  Two  strips  of 
sheet-iron,  j$  of  an  inch  wide,  are 
riveted  on  in  the  shape  of  a  cross 
and  turned  down  right  at  angles  to 
form  legs,  M,  which  must  be  1|  of  an 
inch  long.  Before  putting  in  the  grating,  spring  the  legs 
out  a  little,  so  that  when  pushed  down  the  barrel  it  will 
be  kept  in  position. 

"We  will  next  make  the  springs.  There  is  nothing- 
better  for  this  purpose  than  No.  16  brass  spring  wire ; 
and  this,  together  with  the  shape,  is  what  makes  the 

Bingham    bellows    work 
p      '       H  )n    so    smoothly    and    plea- 

santly,  without    fatigu- 
ing   the    hand    of    the 

Fig.  6. 

Fig.  7. 

operator.  The  best  way  to  make  them  is  to  drive  into 
the  edge  of  a  piece  of  inch  board  two  iron  pins  W  of  an 
inch  in  diameter,  and  projecting  about  f  of  an  inch. 
Cut  your  wire  14  inches  long  and  lay  it  on  the  board 
against  the  iron  pins,  so  that  both  ends  project  the  same 
length  beyond  them.  By  referring  to  Fig.  6  it  will  he 
seen  that  the  end,  P,  is  turned  to 
the  right  over  pin  «,  and  the  end  0 
to  the  left  over  pin  b.  Each  end 
must  have  two  complete  turns  and 
part  of  a  third  turn  until  the  ends 
P  and  U  stand  at  right  angles,  in 
the  position  shown  in  Fig.  6.  The 
•wire  is  then  taken  off  the  pins  and  bent  at  N,  until  the 
two  spirals  meet  and  the  wires  P  and  O  are  brought  in 
contact  with  each  other,  as  shown  in  Fig.  7.  Close  to 
the  coils  give  the  wires  a  slight  bend,  seen  in  Fig.  8, 
which  shows  the  spring  when  it  is  slightly  pressed  down, 
as  it  would  be  when  between  the  two  boards  of  the 
bellows.  The  springs,  however,  are  stronger  if  left  at 
right  angles.  The  only  metal  work  remaining  to  be  made 
is  the  spring  Q,  of  which  a  side  view  is  seen  in  Fig.  1, 
and  a  plan  in  Fig.  5.  This  consists  of  a  piece  of  No.  22 
brass  spring  wire  3  inches  long  bent  into  the  shape  shown 

in  Fig.  1,  so  as  to  allow  the  valve  sufficient  play,  and  an 
eye  is  turned  at  the  end  through  which  it  is  fastened  by 
means  of  a  tack  to  the  bottom  board  of  the  bellows. 

We  will  next  proceed  to  make  the  bellows.  For  the 
wood-work  we  can  have  nothing  better  than  well- 
seasoned  yellow  pine  free  from  knots,  as  lime-wood,  which 
is  usually  used,  is  not  so  common  with  us  as  it  is  in 

The  pieces  of  wood  necessary  will  be  : 
Two  pieces  5\  x  5  x  f  inchesj  planed  on  both  sides.  _ 
Two  pieces  4£  x  J  x  TV  inches  at  one  edge,  and  i  inch 
at  the  other,  as  shown  at  K,  Figs.  1,  4,  and  5. 

One  piece  S,  Jig.  1,  4|  x  J  x  *  inch,  with  a  gioove 
tV  inch  wide,  sawn  half  way  through  J  inch  from  the 
ends.  These  are  to  allow  "the  wire  to  pass  through 
which  is  used  for  fastening  the  support  of  the  barrel 
F  G  to  the  woodwork. 

One  piece  T,  2-J  x  f  x  §  inch. 
One  piece  U,  2  x  2  x  j  inch  for  valve. 
In  the  board,  Fig.  4,  taking  as  a  centre  f  inch  from 
the  edge  cut  out  with  a  centrebit  a  f  inch 
hole.      In  board,  Fig.  5,  two  inches  from 
the  edge,  cut  out  a  hole  H  inches  in  dia- 

In  piece  S,  at  f  inch  from  one  end, 
bore  a  g  inch  hole,  and  drive  into  it  tightly 
a  piece  of  brass  tube,  the  mouth  of  which 
is  contracted  to  finch  as  seen  at  K.  This 
contraction  is  easily  made  by  driving  the 
tube  into  a  conical  hole  drilled  in  a  piece 
of  iron.  Just  below  the  blast-pipe  chisel 
out  a  piece  is  inch  deep  to  admit  a  strip 
of  wire  gauze  which  is  to  be  placed  there 
to  prevent  the  possibility  of  any  dirt  or  ash 
from  the  smoker  getting  accidentally  into 
the  bellows. 

The  piece  S  can  now  be  glued  on  the 
board,  Fig.  4,  in  the  position  shown  by  the 
dotted  lines,  it  being  on  the  underside  in 
the  illustration.  To  prevent  its  being 
broken  off,  drive  two  wire  nails  through, 
and  clinch  them  as  shown  in  Fig.  1.  Glue 
the  strips  R  on  each  of  the  boards,  with 
the  thickest  edges  towards  the  hinge,  and 
the  piece  T  §  of  an  inch  away  from  K, 
Fig.  4.  Secure  all  these  pieces  with  a 
couple  of  nails  each,  but  do  not  allow 
the  points  of  the  nails  to  go  through  the 
boards,  and  thus  disfigure  them.  The  piece 
of  wood  V,  Fig.  4,  is  3£  inches  long  by 
ySth  inch  square.  The  two  ends  are 
rounded,  so  as  to  allow  them  to  fit  tightly 
into  the  holes  of  the  spirals  in  the  spring. 
A  piece  of  No.  22  wire  is  inserted  through 
the  holes,  and  lays  along  the  side  of  the 
wood,  and  when  the  springs  are  in  the 
position  seen  in  Fig.  4  the  ends  of  the  wire  are  turned 
up,  and  prevent  the  springs  from  slipping  off. 

The  boards  are  now  ready  to  put  together,  and  to 
have  the  hinge  put  on.  This  is  a  strip  of  leather  5  inches 
long  and  15  inches  wide. 

Lay  the  two  boards,  Figs,  4  and  5,  so  that  the  strips 
K  face  each  other.  Then  glue  the  ends,  and  put  on  the 
leather.  The  valve  TJ  can  then  be  fixed.  It  has  a  groove 
sawn  out  through  half  its  length  to  allow  the  spring  Q 
to  work  in  it  and  keep  it  in  its  place,  and  this  side  is 
rounded  off  as  shown  in  Fig.  3.  The  valve  can  be  fixed 
to  a  piece  of  leather  W,  8£  x  2  inches,  by  means  of  a 
short  tack  driven  through  the  centre,  the  point  being- 
riveted  on  the  other  side.  The  wood  of  the  valve 
should  not  be  glued  to  the  leather.  Two  tacks  at  one 
end,  Fig.  5,  will  keep  the  leather  in  its  place,  and  allow 
it  to  move  freely  up  and  down  at  the  other  end.  Now 
nail  the  spring  Q  in  its  place,  and  put  the  loose  end  into 
the  groove  of  the  valve.     Nail  a  strip  of  leather  about 

January  27,  1887.] 



4i  inches  long  by  |  inch  -wide  loosely  over  the  valve,  so 
that  when  this  is  open,  the  opening  does  not  exceed  £  of 
an  inch. 

The  leather  used  for  the  bellows  should  be  Persian,  or 
a  similar  strong  and  not  too  pliable  leather,  and  must  be 
cut  to  the  size  and  shape  shown  in  Fig.  9.  The  widest 
part  of  the  leather  is  2J  inches,  and  the  narrow  ends 
1|  inches.  If  many  pieces  are  to  he  cut  it  is  better  to 
have  the  pattern  made  of  sheet  zinc  to  cut  the  leather 
out  by. 

The  spring  being  in  its  place  and  at  right  angles,  we 
shall  want  something  to  keep  the  boards  the  exact 
distance  apart  while  we  are  fixing  on  the  leal  her.  This 
can  be  a  stout  wire   cramp,  bent  thus  j™~  |.  the 

distance  between  the  points  being  just  2f  inches,  or  a 
piece  of  wood  may  be  used  with  a  notch  the  same  size 
cut  out  of  it.  Carefully  glue  the  edges  of  the  boards, 
commencing  from  the  narrowest  part,  and  lay  on  the 
leather,  starting  from  where  the  tapered  part  begins ; 
and  before  removing  the  cramp,  drive  in  a  tack  close  to 
the  end  in  each  board.  The  ends  and  other  sides  can  then 
be  glued,  and  the  leather  secured  in  its  place.  The  two 
end  pieces  which  have  to  go  over  the  hinge  are  better 
fastened  with  paste.  Where  the  ends  overlap,  the 
edges  should  be  thinned  down  by  paring  with  a  sharp 
knife.  All  round  the  edge  we  can  nail  strips  of  leather 
j  inch  wide  by  means  of  tacks,  of  which  there  should  be 
six  on  the  longest  side  and  five  on  the  shortest.  These 
strips  of  leather  need  not  be  glued. 

It  now  remains  only  to  put  the  bellows  and  barrel 
together  to  complete  the  smoker. 

The  support  of  the  barrel  is  slipped  on  to  the  piece  of 
wood  S  and  a  couple  of  tacks,  as  seen  in  Fig.  2,  are  driven 
into  the  wood  on  each  side  through  the  tin  sides  of  the 
support  F,  G,  which  we  previously  turned  down  at  right 
angles.  As  an  additional  precaution  against  accident 
and  breakage  we  can  tie  the  support  to  the  wood  by 
means  of  annealed  iron  wire,  which  is  passed  through 
the  saw  grooves  in  piece  S  and  over  the  angles  of  support 
F,  G.  Bring  the  ends  together  and  two  or  three  twists 
with  a  pair  of  pliers  will  make  all  firm. 

If  our  instructions  are  carefully  carried  out  we  shall 
have  a  real  Bingham  that  will  send  a  greater  volume  of 
smoke,  and  that  to  a  greater  distance,  than  any  other 
smoker  we  know.  We  have  had  such  a  smoker  in  use 
since  1878,  and  although  we  have  been  obliged  to  renew 
the  barrel  which  became  worn  through  from  constant 
use,  nothing  has  been  done  to  the  bellows,  which  is  jnst 
as  good  as  it  was  on  the  first  day  we  had  it.  A  smoker 
like  this  will  burn  almost  any  sort  of  fuel  that  will  pro- 
duce smoke  when  smouldering.  We  use  old  rags,  brown 
paper  or  sacking,  but  peat,  decayed  wood,  or  even 
ordinary  fire  wood  will  do,  when  it  is  well  kindled. 
In  using  old  rags  we  tear  them  into  strips  about  four 
or  five  inches  wide,  and  roll  them  up  loosely  until  they 
nearly  fill  the  barrel,  they  are  then  tied  to  prevent 
them  from  unwinding  when  stored  away,  for  we  always 
get  a  lot  ready  at  one  time.  One  end  of  the  roll  for 
about  |  of  an  inch  is  dipped  into  a  weak  solution  of  salt- 
petre and  when  dry  this  end  will  light  easily  with  a 
match.  Brown  paper  is  rolled  up  in  the  same  way,  but 
we  generally  lay  in  a  few  straws,  cut  to  the  same  length, 
between  the  layers.  One  end  of  these  brown  paper  rolls 
is  also  soaked  in  the  solution  of  saltpetre. 

When  we  use  sacking  it  is  generally  from  an  artificial 
manure  bag,  as  these  cost  us  nothing.  The  edges  of 
these  rolls  are  also  soaked  in  saltpetre  solution  to  make 
them  light  more  readily.  Firewood  is  cut  four  inches 
long  and  split  into  pieces  \  to  f  an  inch  square,  and  must 
be  perfectly  dry.  To  light  if  put  a  few  live  coals  or 
lighted  shavings  into  the  barrel  and  fill  up  with  the 
sticks.  Put  in  the  lighted  end  of  either  fuel  used  to- 
wards the  grating. 

When  the  smoker  is  stood  on  end,  as  in  Fig.  1,  the 
upward  draught  causes  the  fuel  to  burn  freely.    When 

we  wish  to  extinguish  it  the  smoker  is  laid  down  on  the 
bellows  bottom  and  the  nozzle  plugged.  A  smoker  pro- 
perly charged  will  burn  for  five  or  six  hours  without  any 
replenishing.  A  roll  of  rag  five  inches  long  and  2| 
inches  in  diameter  has  lasted  us  during  a  whole  day's 
operations.  If  the  grating  gets  stopped  up  it  can  be 
cleaned  with  a  wire,  and  the  nozzle  should  always  be 
kept  clear. 

We  hope  these  details  will  enable  those  who  have 
asked  us  to  give  them  to  make  an  efficient  smoker  and 
will  explain  the  reasons  for  the  complaints  we  get  from 
time  to  time  about  smokers  not  working  properly. 


This  appliance,  which  was  shown  at  the  Conver- 
sazione of  the  British  Bee-keepers'  Association,  held  on 
the  19th  inst,  and  evidently  met  the  approval  of  all 
present,  is  the  invention  of  Mr.  W.  B.  Webster,  and 
will  no  doubt  supply  a  want  long  felt. 

As  the  illustration  denotes,  it  consists  of  a  handle 
H  revolving  on  a  swivel,  a  bar  B,  which  carries  two 
dogs  or  clutches  D,  one  on  each  end  ;  these  being  opened 
by  raising  the  rod  B,  but  automatically  closing  by 
the  pressure  of  the  spring  S  on  each  end  of  same  rod, 


two  guides  G  G  carry  this  rod  and  keep  the  whole  firm , 
preventing  any  swaying  of  the  clutches.  Such  is  a 
description  of  this  ingenious  appliance;  its  manner  of 
use  will  present  itself  to  our  readers. 

As  is  well  known,  in  removing  a  frame  from  a  hive, 
both  hands  have  to  be  employed  ;  with  this  instrument, 
only  one — the  left  hand — is  needed,  leaving  the  right 
hand  free  to  do  anything  that  is  required,  such  as  catch- 
ing the  queen,  on  taking  one  off  the  comb  the  frame  can 
be  replaced  in  the  hive,  still  only  using  the  left  hand 
to  do  so.  If  both  sides  of  the  frame  have  to  be  ex- 
amined, it  can  be  turned  round  in  its  natural  position  by 
means  of  the  swivel  handle  ;  this  will  be  found  of  great 
importance,  as  in  the  ordinary  method  the  frames  have 
to  be  turned  upside  down  in  order  to  examine  the 
opposite  side  ;  the  bees  being  thus  '  inverted,'  commence 
righting  themselves,  throwing  all  into  confusion,  in 
which  the  queen  joins,  and  so  frequently  escaping  ob- 
servation. By  the  peculiar  arrangement  of  the  clutches, 
the  heavier  a  frame  is  the  tighter  the  grip,  there  being, 
therefore,  no  chances  whatever  of  its  falling. 

In  the  Ileddon  hive  this  will  no  doubt  be  found  a  very 
necessary  appliance,  there  being  no  '  ears '  to  the  frames 
to  hold  by,  when  any  necessity  arises  for  removing 



[January  27,  1887. 

Committee  meeting  held  at  105  Jermyn  Street,  on 
Wednesday,  January  19th.  Present  the  Hon.  and  Rev. 
II.  Bligh  (in  the  Chair),  Rev.  Dr.  Bartrum,  Rev.  F.  Gr. 
Jenvns,  Rev.  F.  S.  Sclater,  Captain  Bush,  Captain 
Campbell,  J.  M.  Hooker,  H.  Jonas,  and  the  Secretary. 
The  minutes  of  the  last  meeting  having  been  read  and 
confirmed,  Dr.  Bartrum  moved,  and  the  Chairman 
seconded, '  That  this  Association  desires  to  express  the  deep 
sense  of  the  loss  the  Royal  Agricultural  Society  and  the 
British  Bee-keepers'  Association  have  experienced  in  the 
death  of  Mr.  H.  M.  Jenkins,  late  Secretary  of  the  Royal 
Agricultural  Society.  Mr.  Jenkins  was  always  most 
willing  and  anxious  to  assist  in  the  advancement  of 
Britisn  bee-keeping  as  an  industry  closely  connected 
with  the  progress  of  agriculture;  and  this  Association 
desires  to  express  its  deep  and  sincere  sympathy  with 
Mrs.  Jenkins  in  the  affliction  that  has  befallen  her,  and 
begs  to  assure  her  that  the  memory  of  Mr.  Jenkins  will 
be  long  and  gratefully  cherished  by  this  Association.' 

On  the  motion  of  Mr.  Jonas,  and  seconded  by  Captain 
Bush,  it  was  resolved  to  arrange  for  an  expert's  or 
lecturing  tour  in  the  Northern  counties  preparatory  to 
the  Newcastle  Show. 

The  statement  of  accounts  for  the  past  year,  as  audited 
and  duly  signed  by  the  Auditor,  Treasurer,  and  Secre- 
tary, was  presented,  and,  after  some  discussion,  was 
passed,  and  ordered  to  be  printed  in  the  Report. 

The  Finance  Committee  presented  a  lengthy- report 
of  the  financial  condition  of  the  Association,  accompanied 
by  statistics  and  recommendations  in  regard  to  the  ex- 
penditure during  the  ensuing  year. 

Captain  Bush  moved,  and  Captain  Campbell  seconded, 
a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Finance  Committee,  for  their  full 
and  complete  report. 

Prior  to  the  Conversazione,  which  commenced  at  six 
o'clock,  a  meeting  of  County  Representatives  was  held. 
There  were  present,  W.  Horton  Ellis,  Devon ;  Mr.  A.  B. 
Lipscombe,  Herts;  Rev.  W.  E.  Burkitt,  Wilts;  J. 
Garratt,  Kent;  T.  J.  Witt,  Surrey;  W.  L.  McClure, 
Lancashire  and  Cheshire. 

The  minutes  of  the  last  Quarterly  Conference  having 
been  read,  Mr.  McClure  called  attention  to  the  rules  laid 
down  for  the  management  of  the  County  Competition  at 
South  Kensington,  and  on  behalf  of  the  Lancashire  and 
Cheshire  Association  he  was  requested  to  state  that  it 
was  considered  advisable  that  in  any  such  future  com- 
petition the  regulation  as  to  corking  of  the  bottles  of 
honey  should  be  dispensed  with,  and  that  the  mode  of 
fastening  the  mouths  of  the  bottles  should  be  left  entirely 
to  the  discretion  of  the  exhibitor,  and  that  in  the  event 
of  any  method  being  adopted  which  in  the  opinion  of  the 
judges  was  not  secure  the  same  should  be  disqualified. 
In  regard  to  sections,  Mr.  McClure  further  recommended 
that  no  limit  should  be  made  in  regard  to  size  or  weight, 
and  that  the  mode  of  protecting  them  from  bees  or  other 
injury  should  be  left  entirely  open,  in  order  that  scope 
might  be  given  for  new  inventions  in  this  direction. 

The  matter  having  been  discussed,  the  Chairman 
pointed  out  that  the  regulations  had  been  made  upon  the 
recommendations  and  suggestions  of  the  County  Repre- 
sentatives themselves  at  a  fully  attended  meeting ;  and 
although  some  members  of  the  Committee  were  in 
accord  with  Mr.  McClure 's  views,  the  majority  were  of 
opinion  that  for  exhibition  purposes  it  was  necessary  to 
have  the  regulations  defined.  In  the  event  of  any  such 
competitions  being  arranged  in  the  future,  full  con- 
sideration would  be  given  to  the  views  of  the  Lancashire 
and  Cheshire  Association. 

The  meeting  then  resolved  itself  into  the  Conver- 
sazione, when  among  the  audience  assembled  were  the 
Rev.  F.  G.  Jenyns,  the  Hon.  and  Rev.  Henry  Bligh, 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Bartrum,  Mr.  Jonas,  Captain  Campbell, 
Mr.  Meggy,  Mr.  Grimshaw,  Mr.  T.  B.  Blow,  Mr.  Hen- 

derson, Mr.  Garratt,  Mr.  Sambels,  Mr.  Baldwin,  Mr. 
Haviland,  the  Rev.  W.  E.  Burkitt,  Mr.  J.  Lee,  and 
other  gentlemen,  and  two  ladies. 

The  Rev.  F.  G.  Jenyns  (Chairman),  in  opening  the 
proceedings,  said  the  Committee  felt  great  satisfaction 
at  seeing  so  many  friends  of  their  cause  gathered 
together  for  the  purpose  of  hearing  the  paper  which 
Mr.  Grimshaw  had  kindly  promised  to  read,  entitled 
'  The  Vocal  Organs  of  Bees.'  It  had  been  said — and  he 
thought  with  truth— that  there  was  nothing  too  minute 
in  nature  to  justify  the  closest  and  most  careful  obser- 
vation ;  there  was  no  doubt  that  wonderful  discoveries 
had,  in  many  instances,  been  led  up  to  from  insignificant 
beginnings.  At  first  sight  it  seemed  to  be  unimportant 
what  cause  gave  rise  to  the  buzzing  or  humming,  but  at 
all  events  the  subject  was  interesting  to  bee-lovers,  as, 
indeed,  was  everything  connected  with  the  organization 
of  the  bee.  He  hoped  and  believed  he  would  learn 
something  that  evening,  which  possibly  some  day  or 
other  might  be  turned  to  practical  use.  He  knew  very 
little  respecting  the  organs  of  sound  in  the  bee,  and 
what  little  knowledge  he  had  was  gained  from  Mr. 
Cheshire.  That  gentleman,  if  he  could  have  been 
present,  would  have  no  doubt  contributed  some  valuable 
information  to  the  discussion— valuable,  because  given 
by  a  very  close  observer  who  had  a  thorough  acquaint- 
ance with  the  subject. 

Mr.  Grimshaw,  in  the  course  of  a  few  prefatory 
remarks,  said  he  felt  considerable  diffidence  in  speaking 
on  a  high  scientific  subject  before  the  select  audience 
present  that  evening,  and  for  the  purpose  of  showing 
how  the  paper  he  was  about  to  read  had  originated  he 
wished  to  carry  their  minds  back  twelve  months  to  the 
quarterly  meeting  held  in  January,  1886,  when  he  had 
the  honour  of  communicating  to  them  by  means  of  a 
paper  his  opinions  regarding  the  bee-sting.  On  that 
occasion  the  discussion  which  followed  trenched  upon 
the  subject  of  the  vocal  and  auditory  organs  of  bees, 
and  his  views  thereon  were  asked.  At  that  time  he 
had  almost  completed  a  paper  on  the  question,  and 
he  undertook  with  their  consent  to  read  it  on  tho 
earliest  opportunity.  He  had  now  much  pleasure  in 
doing  so,  as  follows : — 

The  Vocal  Obgans  of  Bees. 

It  may  be  thought  that  the  subject  I  have  chosen  to 
say  a  few  words  on  is  more  fitted  for  discussion  amongst 
physiologists  than  bee-keepers.  Perhaps  so ;  yet  the  in- 
teresting conversation  at  the  quarterly  meeting  just  a 
year  ago  leads  me  to  suppose  that  the  more  the  bee- 
keeper studies  the  construction  and  habits  of  his 
favourites,  the  more  successful  will  he  become  as  a 
honey-farmer,  exactly  as  the  most  economical  and  trust- 
worthy engineer  is  he  who  best  has  studied  the  scientific 
'  why  and  wherefore  '  of .  the  intricate  machinery  under 
his  charge.  If  bees  can  hear,  we  may  reasonably  con- 
clude they  have  a  voice.  If  bees  have  a  voice,  there  is 
at  once  a  strong  presumption  that  they  can  hear,  and 
that  these  two  faculties  are  given  them  for  the  purpose 
of  communicating  with  each  other.  I  know  of  nothing 
in  nature  having  the  one  organ  without  the  other. 

It  is  on  record  that  during  swarming  bees  have  been 
dispersed  by  the  noise  of  a  band  of  music,  re-assembling 
in  the  intervals  of  silence.  The  whole  of  an  apiary  has 
been  suddenly  aroused  by  the  noise  emitted  by  an  in- 
jured queen,  the  bees  stinging  every  living  thing  within 
reach.  A  sound  uttered  by  the  Death's-head  moth 
{Acherontia  atropos)  is  said  to  paralyse  them.  The 
queen  and  imprisoned  young  queens  evidently  hear  and 
reply  to  each  other  before  the  issue  of  a  swarm.  Kirby 
tells  us  {The  Honey  Bee,  Nat.  Lib.,  p.  54)  that  the  an- 
tennas, '  by  a  peculiar  structure  may  collect  notices  from 
the  atmosphere,  receive  pulses  or  vibrations,  and  commu- 
nicate them  to  the  sensorium,  which  communications, 
though  not  precisely  to  be  called  hearing,  may  answer 

January  27,  1887.  J 



purpose.'     I  wonder  why  this  is  not  precisely 
lied  Bearing !     Then,  again,  they  are  provided 

the  same 

to  be  called  bearing !  Then,  again,  they  are  pr< 
with  depressions  on  the  antenna;  which  Mr.  Cheshire 
reasonably  suggests  are  '  auditory  hollows,'  connected  as 
these  depressions  are  with  the  end  of  a  nerve,  precisely 
as  the  auditory  hollow  on  the  transmitter  of  a  telephone 
is  connected  with  the  telegraphic  nerve-wire.  Such  an 
extremely  sensitive  diaphragm  may  easily  be  susceptible 
to  myriads  of  impressions  from  members  of  their  own 
kind,  although  not  responding  by  visible  signs  to  un- 
intelligible tones  made  by  methods  used  upon  them  in 
vain  by  modern  scientists. 

It  is  well  said*  that  we  ourselves  are  not  visibly 
affected  by  the  sound  of  booming  cannon,  the  roar  of 
thunder,  or  the  surging  of  the  waves  on  a  rock-bound 
coast ;  yet  let  a  child's  tiny  shriek  fall  on  one's  ear  in 
our  crowded  streets  and  all  is  alarm  and  agitation.  To 
deny  the  power  of  hearing  to  bees  because  they  don't 
respond  to  our  sound  productions,  is  equal  to  doubting 
the  efficacy  of  the  telephone  or  microphone  when  their 
transmitting  accuracy  is  disturbed  by  violent  usage. 

Much  could  be  advanced,  and  innumerable  instances 
quoted,  in  favour  of  the  theory  that  our  favourite  insects 
can  hear,  much  also  that  they  cannot ;  amongst  the 
ancient  unbelievers  being-  Linna3us  and  Bonnet:  Aristotle 
and  Huber  remain  doubtful,  yet  the  latter  somewhat 
inconsistently  gives  instances  of  sounds  uttered  by  them 
with  the  effects  produced  upon  the  hearers.  Then  comes 
the  question,  Can  they  speak  P  I  mean  by  speaking  the 
utterance  of  sounds  intelligible  to  themselves. 

Dr.  Wollaston  (Ins.  Misc.,  p.  104)  says,  '  Since  there 
is  nothing  in  the  constitution  of  the  atmosphere  to 
prevent  vibrations  much  more  frequent  than  any  of 
which  we  are  conscious,  we  may  imagine  that  animals, 
like  the  crickets  (Grylli),  whose  powers  appear  to  com- 
mence nearly  where  ours  terminate,  may  have  the  faculty 
of  hearing  still  sharper  sounds  which,  at  present,  we  do 
not  know  to  exist ;  and  that  there  may  be  other  insects 
(this  is  what  I  wish  you  to  specially  notice),  having 
nothing  in  common  with  us,  but  endowed  with  a  power 
of  exciting,  and  a  seuse  that  perceives,  vibrations  indeed 
of  the  same  nature  as  those  which  constitute  our  ordinary 
sounds,  but  so  remote  that  the  animals  who  perceive 
them  may  be  said  to  possess  another  sense,  agreeing 
with  our  own  solely  in  the  medium  by  which  it  is 
excited,  and  possibly  wholly  unaffected  by  the  slower 
vibrations  of  which  we  are'  sensible.'  This  is  what  I 
call  a  fair  description  of  intensely  sensitive  auditory 
organs.  Flies  on  the  diaphragm  of  a  microphone  have 
been  heard  to  utter  trumpet  tones  otherwise  inaudible 
to  us. 

If  I  can  show  that  bees  utter  sounds  certainly  under- 
stood by  us,  how  many  more  must  there  be  which  we, 
with  out  comparatively  coarse  appreciation  and  imperfect 
comprehension,  are  unacquainted  with  ?  We  all  know 
the  lazy  contented  boom  of  the  drone,  as  contrasted  with 
the  irritated  whizz  and  whirr  of  the  disturbed  honey- 
gatherer.  We  recognise  the  contented  hum  of  the  quiet 
prosperous  hive  in  opposition  to  the  sharp  '  poop,  poop ' 
of  theloit  queenless  bee.  The  sounds  of  swarming  are 
as  distinct  to  us  as  are  our  own  distinctive  notes.  Many 
of  these  regular  tones,  'familiar  to  us  as  household 
words,'  are  doubtless  of  no  special  moment  to  the  bee, 
yet  they  show  to  their  community  that '  all  goes  well,' 
everything  is  as  it  should  be  outside  the  hive  ;  these 
involuntary  notes  are  a  sort  of  perpetual  assurance  that 
the  outside  world  is  going  on  much  as  it  should. 

Our  vocal  organs,  as  we  know,  consist,  firstly,  of  a 
reservoir  of  air  in  the  lungs,  which  can  be  compressed 
by  means  of  the  diaphragm  and  the  rib-muscles,  and 
expressed  either  gently  or  with  considerable  force ;  and, 
secondly,  of  an  air-tube  (the  throat),  at  the  opening  of 
which  is  the  glottis.  It  is  the  striking  of  air  upon  the 
lips  of  the  glottis  which,  with  muscular  contraction  and 

*  Cheshire. 

expansion  tightening  or  slackening  them,  causes  the 
varying-  sounds  of  the  human  voice.  Let  them  be  so 
tightened  that  they  touch  each  other,  and  their  vibra- 
tions become  so  rapid  that  a  high  note  in  the  scale 
results ;  slacken  them,  and  the  notes  fall  in  exact  ratio. 
From  the  human  voice  let  us  go  to  the  sound  produced 
in  some  musical  instruments — the  oboe,  the  bassoon,  and 
various  others.  Here  two  pieces  of  reed  are  scraped 
down  until  they  are  exceedingly  thin  ;  they  are  fastened 
together  and  placed  within  the  lips,  when,  after  a  little 
practice,  we  are  able  to  produce  the  peculiar  buzzing 
notes  which  give  to  reed  instruments  their  characteristic 

So,  I  contend,  is  it  with  the  vocal  organs  of  bees ; 
they  have  their  air  reservoirs  (I  do  not  allude  to  the 
trachea  in  the  abdomen)  which  serve  for  them  the  same 
purposes  as  our  own,  namely,  for  oxygenizing  the  life 
fluid,  and  for  uttering  these  signals  to  others  of  their 
kind  which  we  term  language. 

Behind  each  of  the  bee's  four-wings,  two  on  either 
side,  are  spiracles  or  air-throats,  and  these  are  so  placed 
with  regard  to  the  wing,  that  upon  air  being  expelled 
from  the  reservoirs,  it  impinges  upon  the  edge  of  the 
wing  exactly  as  the  air  from  the  lungs  of  the  musician 
strikes  upon  the  edges  of  the  reeds,  or  upon  the  lips  of 
the  glottis  in  the  case  of  vocalists,  causing  such  vibra- 
tions as  produce  notes.  Add  to  this,  muscular  tightening 
or  slackening  of  the  film,  and  its  height  or  depth  is 
varied.  This,  I  imagine,  will  produce  the  voice-tones 
which  may  be  a  perfectly  comprehensible  language  to 
bees,  although  unheard  by  us,  in  the  same  sense  as  a 
whispered  conversation  at  the  other  end  of  the  room 
would  be  here  inaudible.  In  passing : — A  j'Oung  sou  of 
mine  has  informed  me  that  last  season  he  repeatedly 
observed  his  pet  humble  bees  vibrate  their  wings  when 
not  extended  so  as  to  join  the  two  side  wings  together 
by  the  bent  plate  and  hooks,  and  that  the  sound  pro- 
duced with  the  wings,  so  to  speak,  loose,  were  quite 
distinct  in  tone  and  character  from  the  usual  bee-notes. 

I  do  not  suppose  this  theoiy  will  ever  be  more  than  a 
hypothesis  until  we  introduce  the  receiver  of  the  micro- 
phone into  the  observatory-hive — not  a  difficult  thing 
for  scientists.  As  for  the  well-known  notes  we  actually 
hear,  it  is  no  new  theory  that  they  are  produced  as 
Swammerdam  says : — 'By  the  motion  of  the  wings,  which 
is  increased  by  the  internal  air  propelled  out  of  their 
bodies  through  the  air-tubes  at  the  same  time  ;  for  some 
of  these  pipes  open  with  wide  apertures  under  the  wings. 
Certain  cavities,  also,  fit  for  receiving  and  vibrating 
the  air,  and  formed  under  and  behind  the  wings, 
contribute  to  this.  Xor  must  the  shoulder-blades  be 
excluded  from  their  share  in  this  music,  since  they  are 
placed  just  above  the  wings,  joined  to  the  chest,  and 
having  under  their  breadth  the  openings  of  several  air 
pipes.  It  is  thus  the  motion  of  the  wings,  with  the 
assistance  of  all  these  parts,  and  by  force  of  the  pro- 
pelled air,  makes  the  humming  noise  peculiar  to  that 
insect.'*  Reaumur  attributes  the  sounds  of  bees  '  to  the 
wings  beating  more  or  less  rapidly  against  the  air,  ac- 
cording also,  it  may  be,  to  the  different  angles  at  which 
it  is  struck;  t  and  he  expressly  says,  that  a  bee  whose 
wings  are  eradicated  is  perfectly  mute.  Hunter,  on  the 
the  other  hand,J  affirms  that,  though  the  wings  be  :  i 
off,  and  the  legs  held  fast,  they  can  still  emit  a  shrill 
peevish  sound,  as  they  can  also  do  when  their  wings  are 
smeared  with  honey,  and  even  when  they  are  held  under 
water,  which  he  observed  to  vibrate  at  the  point  of 
contact  with  the  air-holes  at  the  root  of  the  wings. 

Since  writing  the  above,  the  sixth  part  of  Mr. 
Cheshire's  admirable  work  on  bees  has  appeared,  and  he, 
as  ever,  goes  most  exhaustively  into  the  question.  He 
quotes  Landois,  who  noticed  three  tones  in  the  flight 
sound : — (1),   the   wing   beats,   (2),   vibrations    in    the 

*  Biblia  Nature,  i.  p.  168.     t  Memoires,  p.  617. 
+  Phil.  Trans.  1792. 



[January  27, 1881 

abdominal  rings,  (3),  notes  from  the  true  vocal  apparatus 
placed  in  the  stigmatic  orifices  (he  stopped  these  with 
wax  and  brought  the  humming  to  a  close  at  once).  Mr. 
Cheshire  tells  us  that  the  wings  undoubtedly  do  the 
buzzing,  but  the  humming  is  as  clearly  the  outcome  of 
an  apparatus  within  the  spiracles  of  the  bee.  He  goes 
on  to  describe  this  anatomically,  and  concludes  by 
attributing  the  voice  of  the  bee  to  sounds  emitted  by 
plaited  and  fringed  curtains  lying  behind  the  edges  of 
the  spiracle,  these  curtains  being  played  upon  by  air 
puffed  in  and  out  at  the  will  of  the  bee.  Whether  by 
this  means,  or  by  the  air  being  forced  against  the  wing 
edges,  by  vibration  of  the  wings,  or  by  all  of  these 
methods,  I  hope  I  have  shown  you  that  there  is  a  strong 
weight  of  evidence,  containing  facts  which  if  not  al- 
ready known  to  us  may  be  easily  verified,  in  support  of 
the  assertion  that  bees,  in  common  with  many  other 
insects  can  hear,  by  organs  not  dissimilar  to  ours,  that 
they  can  also  utter  varying  voice  tones  by  a  method  also 
much  resembling  that  producing  the  voice-tones  of  man 
and  the  greater  part  of  animated  nature  which  inter- 
communicates impressions  and  desires,  and  that  these 
two  faculties,  hearing  and  speaking,  are  possessed  by 
bees,  not  without  an  object,  as  we  can  perceive  always 
in  the  works  of  nature  if  we  examine  them  closely,  but 
with  the  distinct  object  of  being  used  as  we  use  language, 
and  as  every  other  animal  uses  language  which  possesses 
the  apparatus  suitable  for  vocal  signalling. 

Granting  this  much  may  we  not,  without  disagreeing 
on  points  of  anatomical  structure,  conclude  that  the 
voice  of  bees  is  duplex,  first  vibratory  by  the  wings  as 
exemplified  by  the  hummer  wood,  continuous  during 
flight,  and  conveying  only  a  general  assurance  of  con- 
tentment or  alarm  ;  secondly,  truly  vocal  by  means  of 
the  air-sac  (the  lungs),  the  spiracle  (the  throat),  and  one 
or  more  vibrating  lips  against  which  the  air  strikes  in 
respiration,  producing  notes  some  of  which  even  we  can 
hear  and  understand?  The  vibratory  method  I  will 
illustrate  by  the  hummer  and  the  truly  vocal  by  the 
oboe  reed. 

[The  discussion  on  precediug  paper,  with  the  remainder 
of  the  matters  discussed  at  the  Conversazione,  will  be 
given  in  our  next  issue. — Ed.] 


The  Editor  does  not  hold  himself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed 
by  his  correspondents.  No  attention  will  be  talcen  of  anonymous  com- 
munications, and  correspondents  are  requested  to  ■write  on  one  side  of 
the  paper  only,  and  give  their  real  names  and  addresses,  not  necessarily 
for  publication,  but  as  a  guarantee  ofgoodfaith.  Illustrations  should 
be  drawn  on  separate  pieces  of  paper. 

Communications  relating  to  the  literary  department,  reports  of 
Associations,  Shows,  Meetings,  Echoes,  Queries,  Books  for  Review, 
£c,  must  be  addressed  only  to  'The  Editor  of  the  "British  Bee 
Journal,"  c/o  Messrs.  Strang  sways  and  Sons,  Tower  Street,  Upper 
St.  Martin* s  Lane,  London,  W.C  All  business  communications  relating 
to  Advertisements,  &c,  must  be  addressed  to  Mr.  J.  Huckle,  King's 
Langley,  Herts  (see  2nd  page  of  Advertisements). 

*m*  In  order  to  facilitate  reference,  Correspondents,  when  spealdng  oj 
any  letter  or  query  previously  inserted,  will  oblige  (>y  mentioning  the 
number  of  the  letter,  a3  well  as  the  page  on  which  it  appeal's. 


[780.]  (Jlanrafon,  the  residence  of  Nicholas  Bennett, 
Esq.,  J.I',  for  Montgomeryshire,  is  situated  in  the  lovely 
valley  of  Llawry  Glyn,  through  which  the  noted  trout 
stream,  the  Trannon,  flows.  Although  Glanrafon  is  only 
a  few  miles  from  the  summit  of  Plynlimmon,  contrary  to 
what  might  be  expected,  it  is  admirably  situated  for  bee- 
culture,  being  sheltered  by  lofty  hills  covered  with  rich, 
honey-yielding  plants  flowering  at  various  periods  of  the 
year.  In  the  spring  immense  quantities  of  plants  of  the 
orders  Salicaceae  and  Corylaceaj  shed  their  pollen;  the 
latter,  however,  has  little  attraction  for  bees,  being  wind- 
fertilised  ;   but,  later  on,  in   addition   to  other  honey- 

yielding  plants,  scores  of  acres  of  white  clover  are 
cultivated — thence  an  immense  quantity  of  honey  of  the 
richest  aroma  might  be  collected ;  but, 

'Alas !  full  many  a  flower  is  born  to  blush  unseen, 
And  waste  its  sweetness  on  the  desert  air.' 

Some  of  the  hills  appear  to  be  gilded  when  they  are 
covered  at  a  period  of  the  year  with  the  blossoms  of 
Lotus  corniculatus  (a  plant  much  visited  by  bees).  At 
the  same  period  one  hill  is  a  mass  of  thousands  of  'white 
butterflies,'  the  flowers  of  the  sweetest  of  plants,  Orchis 
bifolia.  There  are  also  miles  of  plants  of  the  order  Eri- 
caceae which  tinge  the  mountains  with  the  purple  heather. 

Mr.  Bennett  may  truly  be  said  to  be  a  disciple  of  Dr. 
Bevan,  having  enjoyed  the  friendship  and  acquaintance 
of  the  '  bee-doctor'  in  his  early  dajs  for  a  considerable 
time,  and  from  him  learning  a  great  deal  of  bee-keeping, 

Mr.  Bennett  is  now  advanced  in  years,  and  vast  im- 
provements have  been  made  in  apiculture  since  Bevan's 
time,  but  still  with  very  great  regard  for  his  first  bee- 
master  he  shows  his  visitors  a  very  rare  work  upon  bees 
by  his  friend  Dr.  Bevan.  Mr.  Bennett  has  all  his  life 
studied  bees  with  his  favourite  hives,  facsimile  Bevan's, 
from  which  he  has  taken  immense  quantities  of  the 
richest  and  most  beautiful  honey.  January,  1886,  found 
the  apiary  consisting  of  a  large  number  of  Bevan's  hives, 
and,  alas  !  the  poor  bees  gone  to  their  final  rest,  except- 
ing one  solitary  colony  in  a  very  weak  condition.  It 
might  be  mentioned  that  the  much-respected  mother  of 
this  gentleman,  Mrs.  Bennett,  when  only  fourteen  years 
old,  found  a  stray  swarm  on  the  Plynlimmon  Hills,  and 
successfully  hived  it  herself  in  a  milk  stean  (a  small  milk 
pail),without  help,  from  which  the  whole  of  the  neighbour- 
hood has  been  supplied  with  stocks  through  her  kindness. 
Mrs.  Bennett  had  great  delight  and  success  with  her  bees, 
but  she  has  gone  to  her  rest  many  years  ago,  and  the 
stocks  of  bees  in  the  apiary  dwindled  down  to  almost 
extinction.  The  surviving  queen  was  found  in  possession 
of  a  space  between  the  ceiling  and  floor  of  a  large  room 
of  the  hall — the  bees  of  which  plundering  all  hives  in 
the  vicinitjr.  As  it  has  been  impossible  to  disturb  '  the 
Gipsies,'  as  Mr.  Bennett  has  named  them  (and  it  might 
be  added  Mr.  Bennett  has  the  greatest  regard  for  Gipsies 
of  another  kind,  and  is  a  true  and  good  friend  to  them), 
they  must  have  an  immense  quantity  of  honey,  having 
never  swarmed  and  being  each  year  exceedingly  strong 
in  bees. 

Mr.  Bennett  has  taken  immense  quantities  of  honey 
of  delicious  aroma  and  other  good  qualities,  but  at  the 
time  of  the  visit  he  was  sorely  distressed  about  his 
stock  in  Bevan's  hive — '  his  sole  remaining  joy,'  or  '  last 
of  his  flock.'  He  consented  with  great  reluctance  to 
have  the  hive  opened  or  examined  ! — knowing  nothing  of 
the  modern  methods  of  bee-keeping,  having  not  even  so 
much  as  heard  of  the  existence  of  the  British  Bee 
Journal.  No  John  Peels  about,  and  work  of  County 
Associations  complete,  &c.  However,  one  of  Bevan  s 
hives  was  prepared  for  the  reception  of  moveable  frames 
— frames  prepared  and  all  got  ready  for  transferring  the 
stock  to  the  new  hive — but,  upon  turning  it  out, behold! 
the  honey  had  been  extracted  by  the  six-legged  bees  to 
their  dwelling  already  mentioned,  and  only  about  half 
a  pound  of  bees  left,  but  queen  extra  muros !  A  few 
days  after  a  frame  with  -adhering  bees  was  lifted  out  of 
the  now  modern  hive,  a  fertile  queen  was  placed  right 
in  their  midst,  which  was  joyfully  received,  and  which 
eventually  built  tlio  colony  into  a  very  successful  and 
prosperous  one.  Mr.  Bennett  was  amazed  at  these  pro- 
ceedings, telling  a  friend  some  time  after  that  he  thought 
he  was  fifty  years  in  advance  of  any  bee-keeper  in  his 
neighbourhood  with  his  Bevan's  hives,  hut  now  he  found 
he  was  fifty  years  back ! 

1887,  January.  During  the  year  such  progress  has 
been  made,  such  knowledge  gained,  that  Sir.  Bennett 

January  27, 1887.] 



expressed  to  me  that  lie  could  hardly  have  believed  it 
could  have  been  possible  to  have  made  such  alterations 
and  improvements  in  his  apiary.  There  is  now  a  good- 
sized  bee-house  filled  with  hives,  of  course  with  moveable 
frames  and  all  latest  improvements ;  a  large  row  of  hives 
containing  Standard  sized  frames,  suitable  for  the  pro- 
duction of  comb  or  extracted  honey,  and  all  capable  of 
working  on  the  very  latest  systems  of  honey  production. 
The  hives  are  arranged  most  artistically  amongst  the 
shrubs  of  his  pretty  and  picturesque  garden.  The 
manipulating  house  is  fitted  up  with  improved  Kaynor 
extractors,  wax  extractors,  honey  ripeners,  &c:  arrange- 
ments and  apparatus  for  queen -raising;  compartments 
for  sections  and  feeders,  &c;  in  fact,  a  complete  arrange- 
ment of  modern  bee-keeping  apparatus.  Then  there  is 
the  workshop  fitted  with  a  beautiful  lathe,  built  by  the 
late  R.  lioberts  of  Manchester,  connected  with  which  is 
a  circular  saw,  drilling  machine,  fret-saw,  &c. ;  and  an 
adjoining  room  fitted  up  as  a  complete  smithy.  It 
should,  however,  be  mentioned  that  Mr.  Bennett  has  all 
this  for  his  private  amusement  and  pleasure,  and  in  no 
way  with  a  view  to  pecuniary  interest.  He  is  a  most 
ingenious  gentleman,  and  has  devised  some  very  useful 
plans  for  feeding  bees,  preventing  bees  from  robbing, 
and  others  connected  with  managing  and  arranging 

Perhaps  the  fellowing  illustration  of  the  cleverness 
of  Mr.  Bennett  may  be  useful  to  some  of  your  readers. 
Fitting  up  a  hive  with  moveable  combs  he  fixed  it  in 
such  a  manner  that  the  'Gipsies'  were  forced  to  travel 
through  it — this  was  easily  done  by  making  a  hole  at 
the  back  of  the  hive  and  fixing  it  on  the  outside  of  the 
entrance  of  the  wall  through  which  the  bees  made  their 
way  to  and  from  their  inaccessible  stores  ;  but,  for  a  long 
time,  no  notice  was  taken  of  their  furnished  apartments, 
until  Mr.  Bennett  hit  upon  the  plan  of  placing  a  comb 
containing  eggs  and  brood  into  this  hive ;  the  bees,  as 

A  Floor-board.  E  Feeder. 

B  Sheet  of  Tin  perforated.  F  Uncovered  Spout  to  pla(  e  in  D. 

c  Holes  in  perforation,  |"  diam.  G  Bee  Entrance. 

D  Entrance  for  Feeder. 

he  calculated,  immediately  took  possession,  filled  eight 
standard  frames  with  honey  in  a  week,  wax  foundations 
toak  their  place,  and  a  very  large  quan- 
tity of  honey  thus   secured   at  various 
intervals  during  the  season.   Mr.  Bennett 
has  also  invented  a  floor-board  and  a 
modification     of      Messrs. 
Neighbour's      feeder,     by 
means  of  which  condemned 
bees  may  be  fed. 

This  parish  contains  an 
enormous  amount  of  sick- 
ening superstitions  con- 
nected with  bee-keeping  and  bees,  ail  account  of  which 
I  am  afraidwould  make  these  notes  too  long  ;  but,  with 
your  permission,  I  shall  be  pleased  to  communicate  at 
some  futuie  time,  — T.  Boxner-Chambeks,  F.L.S., 



'  Another  race  the  spring  and  fall  supplies ; 
They  droop  successive,  and  successive  rise.' 

[700.]  I  fear  your  readers  are  getting  '  Yorkshire 
relish  '  ad  nauseam,  but  I  intend  to  pursue  the  subject 
relentlessly  until  one  of  four  things  happens:  (1.)  Until 
you,  pere  Editor,  are  sick  of  the  question,  aud  your  gorge 
rises  proportionately  with  my  choler.  (2.)  Until  we  are 
convinced,  by  a  communication  from  the  Hon.  Sec.  that 
the  Association  is  so  working  as  to  justify  its  fitness  to 
survive,  that  it  has  a  raison  d'etre.  (3.)  Until  it  ex- 
plodes with  pop-gun  report,  and  melts  into  thin  air, 
leaving  us  unfettered  to  form  new  Associations  in 
districts  where  we  will  not  '  give  to  airy  nothings  a 
local  habitation  and  a  name ; '  or  finally  (4.),  Until  the 
B.B.K.A.  emancipate  us  by  expunging  the  Association 
from  their  books. 

With  all  respect  to  the  Hon.  Sec.  (who,  I  hear,  is  an 
estimable  gentleman)  may  I  ask  one  pertinent  question  ? 
Does  he  read  his  B.B.J  J  and,  if  so,  why  does  he  leave 
us  so  totally  in  the  dark  by  not  responding  to  our 
inquiries  either  in  love  or  auger  ?  Neither  contemptuous 
silence  nor  sulks  befit  the  occasion,  for  if  my  com- 
ments call  forth  no  repty,  surely  those  of  your  other 
correspondents  should  command  some  sort  of  courteous 
consideration.  Even  the  gods  of  wood  and  stone  had 
their  prophets  who  spoke,  but  now,  alas  !  the  invocation 
to  Baal  brings  not  the  fire  to  our  sacrifice. 

'  For  ever  close  the  impenetrable  door  ; 
It  naught  avails  that  in  its  torpid  veins 
Year  after  year  life's  tottering  spark  remains.' 

Instead  of  '  Up  mounts  the  chief '  to  tell  us  of  the 
Association  and  its  work,  so  that  helpers  might  join  in 
it,  we  have  only  the  gloom  and  silence  of  space.  Poor 
Milton's  lines  steal  into  the  mind  : — 

'  The  sun  to  me  is  dark  and  silent  as  the  moon 
When  she  deserts  the  night,  hid  in  her  vacant  interlunar  cave.' 

I  want  to  make  a  dreary,  dry,  and  weary  subject 
arouse  the  interest  of  my  brother  bee-keepers  of  the 
county,  hinc  illce  laclwymce.  Are  we  to  conclude  that 
our  Hon.  Sec.  scorns  to  speak,  or  dreads  to  speak,  under 
some  such  idea  as,  '  Sh,  sir,  if  I  utter  but  a  single  tone 
the  whole  thing  will  collapse?'  Would  we  could  cre- 
mate it,  and  preserve  '  the  sacred  ashes  in  a  little  urn,' 
perchance  to  be  mistaken  for  Prince's  mixture  by  some 
snuff-taking  New  Zealander  ear.  Macaulay  ! 

I  saw  in  an  index  the  other  day  '  Bees  and  rheumatism,' 
I  should  have  liked  to  read  something  about '  Bees  and 
bile,'  for  my  bile  was  very  active  on  the  0th  inst.  when 
I  received  the  following,  the  signature,  &c,  of  which  I 
will  suppress : — 

1  Dear  Sir, — Excuse  me  for  being  so  bold  as  to  write  to 
you,  but  as  I  have  seen  your  name  in  the  B.B.J.,  and  as  I 
am  a  Yorkshire  bee-keeper,  I  should  be  glad  to  join  any 
Society  that  would  be  a  help  to  us  in  bee-keeping.  I  did 
join  the  Yorkshire  Society,  and  I  wrote  twice  for  infor- 
mation about  my  bees,  and  I  got  no  reply  until  the  contri- 
butions became  due,  but  declined  to  pay.  I  have  fourteen 
frame-hives.  There  are  only  two  more  in  our  village,  and 
they  are  all  for  the  brimstone  pit  here.  I  shall  be  glad,  if 
you  ever  come  my  way,  to  give  me  a  call,  as  I  take  a  great 
interest  in  bees.' 

Such  a  letter  ought  to  do  more  either  to  awaken  the 
Association  into  new  life,  or  to  give  it  the  coup  de  grace, 
and  cause  it  to  be  put  decently  away  than  any  amount 
of  appeals  or  diatribes  from — R.  A.  H.  Gbimshaw. 


[701.]  1  wish  to  say  a  few  words  on  the  black-headed 
tit.  I  have  four  good  stocks  of  bees  in  bar-frame  hives. 
On  the  12th  of  January  I  noticed  something  or  other 
had  visited  two  of  my  hives  by  the  zigzag  blocks  under 
the  porch  having  been  removed,  as  they  did  not  fit  very 



[January  27,  1887. 

tight ;  and  about  fifty  wings  and  legs  of  bees  were  lying 
about  near  to  the  hives.  I  kept  watch  for  about  half 
an  hour,  and  I  saw,  to  my  surprise,  that  it  was  a  black- 
headed  tit,  and  then  it  was  at  the  entrance  tapping, 
when  out  came  a  bee  to  see  what  was  the  matter.  No 
sooner  had  it  appeared  than  Master  Tit  caught  it  and 
flew  away  with  it.  He  came  back  in  five  minutes  and 
fetched  another,  and  I  got  my  gun  and  shot  it ;  then  I 
set  a  trap  at  the  entrance  and  caught  two  others.  I 
can  prove  that  they  were  not  dead  bees  before  they 
were  caught  by  them,  for  they  disturbed  the  bees  so  as 
to  cause  several  to  flv  about. — B.  W. 


[792.]  Mr.  A.  Green  (page  17)  considers  the  word 
inappropriate.  I  certainly  paused  before  I  dared  take 
the  extreme  liberty  of  coining  a  word ;  but  as  far  as  I 
can  see  it  must  hold  the  field  until  a  better  is  given  ;  one 
not  twice  its  length  and  having  an  absence  of  euphony. 

If  the  Latin  dictionary  be  referred  to,  the  vevbfur/io  will 
be  found  to  bear  the  construction,  to  run  away,  to  be  off, 
to  vanish,  avoid,  forbear ;  and  it  was  in  any,  or  all,  of  these 
senses  I  used  it  (there  is  semi-conciliation  here),  not  in 
the  sense  of  a  helter-skelter,  terrified  stampedo  down 
amongst  the  frames.  If  we  use  bee-conciliators  we  shall 
in  all  probability  find  our  hands  covered  with  bees  during 
manipulation,  a  consummation  not  devoutly  to  be  wished. 
■ — R.  A.  H.  G.,  Horsforth,  near  Leeds. 


HIVES.  [756.] 
[793.]  I  see  James  Lee,  in  B.  B.  J.  of  January  6,  very 
properly  calls  attention  to  the  state  of  the  larvae  in  the 
cells  when  the  comb  is  in  its  normal  position  as  built  hy 
the  hees.  J.  Lee  asks  if  inversion  is  detrimental  to  the 
brood,  and  he  seems  very  strongly  to  object  to  invertible 
hives,  which,  he  says,  have  not  been  tried.  I  beg  to  say 
I  have  tried  them  with  several  hives  this  season,  and  all 
gave  me  nearly  double  the  amount  of  sections. 

I  see  D.  A.  Thomas  gives  a  good  account  of  inversion 
with  one  hive,  I  having  tried  several,  claim  a  right 
to  say  it  is  a  good  plan,  and  it  seems  not  to  hinder  the 
bees  in  their  work,  as  breeding  goes  on  the  same  ;  and 
my  hives  went  into  winter  stronger  than  any  other  hives 
that  were  not  inverted.  I  do  not  like  the  reversible 
frames,  as  they  disturb  the  brood-nest  too  much,  so  I 
think  the  Heddon  hive  just  what  is  wanted,  and  mean  to 
try  a  few  this  next  season,  as  I  did  so  well  with  my 
upside-down  ones  last;  and  as  the  Jones-Heddon  hive 
is  so  cheap  I  advise  the  cottager  bee-keeper  to  try  it. 

Bee-keeping  is  now  taking  a  step  in  the  right  way,  I 
think.  With  the  valuable  B.  B.  J.  first  (not  the 
expert),  and  the  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores  with  its  cheap 
appliances,  keeping  down  the  price  of  hives  of  fancy 
dealers,  and  the  British  Honey  Company  last,  but  not. 
least,  to  buy  our  honey  for  cash  and  to  sell  it  cheap,  so 
all  can  have  a  taste  ;  with  the  New  Year  and  the  Jubilee 
Year  too,  I  trust  the  cottager  is  going  to  have  his  chance 
to  gather  honey  to  help  in  these  bad  times.  It  was  out  of 
his  reach  when  hives  were  such  a  price  and  no  market  for 
his  honey. — Devonshihe  Dumpling. 


[794.]  I  notice  on  page  17  an  appeal  from  Mr.  Samuel 
Watson  for  something  to  be  done  towards  getting  together 
a  bee  show  at  the  above  exhibition  about  seven  miles 
from  here ;  and  it  is  suggested  that  I  should  '  stir  up ' 
some  of  the  bee-keepers  in  the  neighbourhood.  Now, 
Mr.  Watson,  don't  you  think  I've  done  a  fair  share  of 
stirring  up  lately  ?    You  see  our  five-barrod-gate  of  an 

Association  prevents  any  action  beyond  'stirring  up;' 
anything  more  would  be  audacious  presumption  so  long 
as  it  hangs  with  the  proverbial  tenacity  of  a  creaking 

I  can  assure  the  Secretary  of  the  B.  B.  K.  A.  that  the 
attendance  at  Saltaire  will  be  enormous,  and  it  woidd  be 
a  fitting  opportunity  for  the  County  Association  to  rise 
to  the  occasion  and  distinguish  itself;  but  let  us  have  no 
fiasco.  If  we  have  anything  let  them  give  us  such 
manipulation  as  will  tend  to  promote  scientific  bee- 
keeping in  the  district. — R.  A.  II.  G.,  Horsforth,  near 

[795.]  In  most  towns  there  is  a  law  requiring  every 
householder  to  clear  away  the  snow  without  delay  from 
the  front  of  his  own  house.  As  our  bees  are  not  able  to 
do  this  for  themselves  their  masters  should  make  it  a 
point  of  conscience  to  do  it  for  them,  and  thereby  save 
thousands  of  precious  lives.  Snow  has  been  lying  in 
front  of  my  apiary  for  twenty-four  days,  and  this  morning, 
feeling  sure  that  the  brilliant  sun  and  milder  weather 
would  have  wakened  up  my  pets,  I  went  to  enjoy  the 
sight  of  their  pleasure.  The  whole  scene  was  alive  with 
them,  as  on  a  tine  day  in  April ;  but  alas !  the  snow  was 
plentif  ully  sprinkled  with  dead  and  dying,  those  who  had 
alighted  and  fallen  upon  it  becoming  quickly  numbed 
and  stiff.  My  wife,  ever  fertile  in  resource,  suggested 
covering  the  snow  with  ashes,  so  I  shovelled  it  away  as 
fast  as  I  could,  clearing  about  two  yards  in  front  of  the 
hives  and  sprinkling  ashes  plentifully  over  the  remaining 
patches  of  ice.  Straw  or  hay  would  probably  have  done 
as  well;  but  I  shall  always  in  future  make  it  a  rule  to 
clear  away  the  snow  immediately  after  a  fall,  and  thus 
guard  as  well  as  I  can  against  their  first  flight  being 
fatal.  I  did  not  observe  a  single  bee  that  had  settled  on 
the  snow  recover  itself. 

While  watching  one  of  my  hives  I  was  greatly  sur- 
prised to  [see  an  unmistakable  drone  make  its  appearance. 
Dan  any  one  tell  me  what  has  been  observed  of  drones 
surviving  the  winter  ?  I  thought  they  were  never 
allowed  to  try  the  experiment.  I  doubt  if  this  one  will 
be  allowed  to  re-enter.  I  also  noticed  one  bee  dragging 
out  a  team  of  three  dead  ones  fastened  together  length- 
wise by  the  feet.  I  thought  it  did  both  his  brains  and 
his  heart  great  credit. — C.  C.  James,  PapioortJi  St.  Aynes 
St.  Ives,  limits,  January  19th. 


[796.]  In  examining  my  stocks  during  the  cold 
weather  last  spring,  I  used  an  indiarubber  hot-water 
bottle  placed  over  the  frames  to  prevent  loss  of  heat. 
After  removing  the  box  of  cork-dust  on  top  of  the 
quilt,  I  placed  the  bottle  on  the  calico  quilt,  leaving  the 
two  back  frames  clear  which  may  then  be  examined, 
and  so  on ;  before  closing  up  I  put  a  loose  quilt  over  the 
bottle  for  a  minute  or  so,  so  as  to  confine  the  heat;  it 
may  then  be  removed,  and  the  corkdust-box  replaced, 
the  bees  will  not  only  have  suffered  no  loss  of  heat,  but 
will  probably  have  gained  some  by  the  transaction.  I 
did  not  find  it  excited  them  if  not  kept  on  too  long ;  but 
on  one  occasion  when  I  raised  the  temperature  too  high 
in  a  stock  suffering  from  d3rsenteiy,  it  made  them  leave 
the  hive  in  large  numbers,  they  voided  their  fpeces  very 
freely,  and  I  noticed  a  marked  improvement  in  their 
condition  afterwards,  and  dysentery  soon  left  them  ;  I 
infer,  therefore,  that  when  bees  are  lethargic  from  being 
in  this  state,  raising  the  temperature  on  a  suitable  day 
may  be  of  great  advantage  to  them. 

Those  who  continue  to  use  syrup  for  spring  feeding 
instead  of  following  the  very  excellent  plan  Mr.  Siua- 
mins  has  given  us  for  feeding  with  dry  sugar,  can  make 

January  27,  1887.] 



very  cheap  feeders  by  taking-  a  piece  of  wood  six  inches 
square,  cutting  a  two-inch  square  hole  in  the  middle, 
and  covering  this  with  a  piece  of  tin  four  inches  square, 
tacked  on  at  one  corner,  having  previously  bored  about 
a  dozen  or  so  holes  in  it,  corresponding  with  the  hole  in 
the  wood  ;  this  forms  the  stage  over  the  feed-hole.  Invert 
over  this  with  a  small  tin  shovel  the  ordinary  glass  jam 
or  marmalade  jar,  of  which  there  are  usually  quantities 
about.  This  feeder  can  be  made  by  anyone  for  a  few 
pence  except  the  shovel,  which  should  cost  6rf.  I  have 
used  nothing  but  this  the  last  two  years  for  autumn 

Wax  ExrEACTOB. — For  this  purpose  I  bought  last 
year  a  tin  saucepan  and  steamer,  7  in.  in  diameter,  at 
a  cost  of  Is.  Id.  In  the  steamer  I  had  a  tin  dish  made 
1  in.  deep,  raised  by  strips  of  tin  I  in.  off  the  bottom, 
and  the  same  distance  clear  from  the  sides  all  round, 
with  a  small  spout  from  it,  coming  through  the  steamer, 
extending  about  3  in.  beyond  and  downwards  at  an 
angle  of  about  45°,  for  the  melted  wax  to  run  through. 
In  this  saucer  I  have  a  perforated  zinc  cylinder,  with 
bottom  of  same  material,  J  in.  less  in  diameter  than  the 
rim  of  the  dish,  raised  j  in.  from  the  bottom  by  cross 
strips  of  tin,  and  coming  up  to  the  top  of  the  steamer  to 
hold  the  wax  to  be  melted.  These  additions  cost  me  Is., 
so  that  I  have  a  very  serviceable  wax  extractor  for  2s.  Id. 
I  may  say  I  followed  as  well  as  I  could  the  plan  in 
Cowan's  Guide-Booh.  Would  this  suit  your  correspon- 
dent <  A.  S.'  (774)  P— W.  H.  Jenkins. 

[797.]  A  recent  experience  of  mine  may  possibly  be 
useful  as  a  warning  to  other  bee-keepers.  Last  Monday 
I  moved  a  skep  to  a  stand  some  ten  yards  distant,  in  a 
diagonal  line,  from  its  former  position.  For  three  or 
four  weeks  before  the  snow  had  been  lying  all  about 
and  the  bees  had  not  left  their  hive  for  a  longer  time 
than  that.  I  thought  it  was  quite  safe  to  move  them, 
and  was  so  advised  by  a  friend  more  competent  than 
myself.  The  next  day  was  warm  and  bright,  and  the 
bees  came  out  in  numbers.  I  was  away  from  home  all 
the  middle  of  the  day  and  did  not  see  them  flying ;  but 
the  next  time  I  looked  at  my  hives,  on  Thursday  morning, 
I  found  more  than  fifty  bees  lying  dead  on  the  alighting 
board  of  an  erupt}7  wooden  hive  I  had  placed  on  the  old 
stand,  and  several  more  bodies  scattered  about  the  neigh- 
bourhood. The  only  way  I  see  of  accounting  for  this  is 
the  following.  I  had  placed  a  plank  leaning  against  the 
front  of  the  skep  during  the  tnow  to  shade  the  entrance. 
It  did  not  prevent  ingress  or  egress,  but  I  suppose  it  so 
disguised  the  front  of  the  skep  as  to  make  it  unrecog- 
nisable to  the  bees  who  returned,  and  that  they 
accordingly  flew  off  to  the  old  position  and  then  perished. 
Had  I  known  the  thaw  was  coming  so  rapidly,  I  should 
have,  of  course,  removed  the  plank;  but  on  Tuesday 
morning  the  snow  was  still  so  deep  and  so  glaring  in  the 
sun,  that  I  thought  it  better  to  leave  it.  I  am  afraid  the 
loss  of  life  will  be  serious  at  this  time  of  the  year ;  it  is 
sad  to  see  the  beautiful  yellow  Italians  lying  crowded 
on  the  alighting  board  of  the  empty  hive. — F.  0. 


Our  attention  has  been  called  to  our  translation  and 
summary  of  Dr.  de  Planta's  researches  on  the  nectar  of 
plants  to  the  last  but  one  paragraph,  on  page  543  of  pre- 
vious volume.  Dr.  de  Planta  has  explained  to  us  more 
clearly  the  ideas  he  meant  to  convey  with  regard  to 
cane-sugar  in  honey.  The  paragraph  should  therefore 
read  thus : — '  Whilst  cane  sugar  is  present  in  a  great 
number  of  nectars,  and  often  in  considerable  quantities, 
it  is,  on  the  contrary,  generally  rare  in  honeys,  and 
is  frequently  entirely  absent.  It  is  found  only  in  the 
honeys  of  the  Alps  in  relatively  larger  quantities.' 

In  the  Bulletin  d 'Apiculture  de  la  Suisse  Komande, 
G.  de  Layens  says  that  when  a  queen  is  removed  from  a 
colon}'  with  a  view,  for  example,  of  making  an  artificial 
swarm,  the  bees  build  drone-comb,  and  from  this  bee- 
keepers have  generally  concluded  that  they  continue  to 
do  this  until  the  queen  becomes  fecundated.  By  his 
experiments  and  observations,  he  concludes  this  is  a  mis- 
take, and  that  from  the  moment  the  young  queen 
leaves  the  cell  to  the  time  she  is  fecundated  the  bees 
build  worker-comb,  and  not  drone-comb,  as  many  bee- 
keepers think. 

In  the  AmericaiiBee  Journal,  T.  J.  Burrill  says  : — The 
flowers  of  the  honey  locust  (we  presume  he  means 
Gleditschia  triacanthus)  are  what  botanists  call  poly- 
gamous, that  is,  they  are  sometimes  perfect,  having  both 
stamens  and  pistils,  and  sometimes  these  organs  are  in 
separate  flowers.  In  this  case  they  are  evidently  upon 
different  trees,  and  the  case  is  not  a  very  uncommon  one. 
Probably  these  trees  will  continue  year  after  year  to  do 
just  the  same  thing ;  still  it  would  not  be  surprising 
upon  close  looking  if  some  of  both  lands  of  flowers 
should  be  found  on  the  same  tree. 

In  Hice-Bees  indigenous  to  India,  J.  0.  Douglas  says 
Apis  dorsata  builds  under  boughs,  normally  a  single 
comb,  but  under  favourable  conditions,  as  in  caves,  it 
duplicates  its  comb.  Cells,  four  and  a  half  to  the  inch, 
no  drone-comb  differing  from  worker  found  in  any  comb 
examined.  In  a  comb  from  S.  Coimbatore  the  actual 
measurements  were — three  cells  =  ■045",  i.e.  215"  each, 
or  4'65  cells  per  inch;  other  three  were  '225",  '218", 
'230";  average,  4'425  per  inch.  The  Sikkim  variety  is 
larger  than  that  found  in  the  plains,  and  the  hill  varieties 
generally  appear  darker  and  larger  than  those  of  the 
plains  ;  specimens  from  Jubbulpore  are  very  light- 
coloured.  A  comb  of  the  Sikkim  variety  would  be 
interesting,  to  ascertain  if  it  differed  from  the  comb  of 
the  plains,  and  if  it  has  drone-cells.  In  many  parts  it 
migrates  at  certain  seasons,  and  it  leaves  its  comb 
readily  on  failure  of  pasturage.  It  is  reputed  vicious, 
but  this  is  not  confirmed  by  experts;  nor  is  its  sting- 
exceptionally  severe.  This  bee  is  confined  to  the  plains, 
or  does  not  extend  beyond  about  3000  feet  of  altitude. 
It  builds  no  special  drone-comb,  all  its  cells  are  the  same 
size,  and  its  drone  is  not  differentiated  from  the  worker, 
as  is  that  of  other  species,  but  is  of  the  same  size  arid 
shape  as  the  worker,  excepting  that  it  has  the  eyes 
meeting  as  in  the  drone  of  A.  mellifica. 

In  the  Biencmcirtseliaftlif/es  Centralblatt  M.  Ugen 
describes  his  experiment  with  regard  to  the  requirements 
of  water  by  bees.  He  says  at  certain  seasons  bees  require 
water  more  than  at  others.  They  cannot  raise  brood  with- 
out it,  and  he  finds  in  the  spring  they  need  more  than  at 
any  other  time.  Owing  to  inclement  weather  in  the 
spring  they  are  frequently  unable  to  get  any,  and  many 
perish  in  the  endeavour  to  find  it.  He  lias  tried  various 
ways  of  supplying  it  in  the  hives  and  finds  the  best  is  by 
filling  combs  with  water,  and  placing  them  in  the  hives 
near  the  outside,  putting  a  comb  of  honey  on  the  outside 
next  to  them.  He  found  weak  colonies  did  not  take  the 
water,  and  the  quantity  consumed  by  the  various  stocks 
was  in  proportion  to  their  strength.  When  bees  are 
supplied  with  water  in  this  way  they  do  not  fly  out  to 
get  it,  consequently  the  mortality  is  much  smaller. 

In  the  Bee-keepers'  Guide  J.  E.  Pond,  junr.,  says, 
'  Every  bee-keeper  of  experience  knows  that  bees  don't 
like  to  store  honey  in  shallow  cells,  and  that  they  won't 
rear  brood  in  cells  more  than  regulation  depth.  My 
thoughts  on  this  just  gave  me  a  clue  to  the  whole  busi- 
ness. My  top  bars  are  g-inch  wide.  In  early  spring  I 
shave  the  combs  in  brood-chamber  to  just  the  width  of 
the  bar,  and  replace  them  in  the  hive  just  bee-space  apart. 
When  the  honey  season  begins  I  put  on  sections  and  the 
bees  at  once  occupy  them,  for  they  find  the  room  the}' 
want  for  storage,  and  they  at  once  use  it;  the  brood- 
chamber  being  used  only  for  its  legitimate  purpose,  viz., 



[January  21,  1887. 

that  of  rearing  brood.  Of  course  the  size  of  the  chamber 
must  be  proportioned  to  the  size  of  the  colony  to  produce 
the  best  results;  but  no  matter  how  much  room  is  given 
honey  will  not  be  stored  in  shallow  cells  so  long  as  space 
can  be  found  in  which  to  work  up  deep  ones.  This  with 
myself  is  not  a  matter  of  theory ;  it  is  one  of  experi- 
mental knowledge.  I  have  practised  the  above  method 
for  four  seasons  and  find  the  results  the  same.'  [This 
entirely  agrees  with  our  experience,  and  with  what  we 
have  for  many  years  taught,  and  for  this  reason  we  use 
no  projections  or  distance-guides  to  our  frames. — Ed.] 

In  the  Bulletin  if  Apiculture  de  la  Suisse  Bomande, 
E.  Bertrand  says  one  colony  headed  by  a  Cyprian  queen, 
raised  at  Nyon  in  1885,  a  daughter  of  one  received  direct 
from  Mr.  E.  Benton  a  few  years  ago,  has  shown  qualities 
worthy  of  being  recorded.  It  gathered  this  season  about 
40  kilos  (about  88  lbs.)  which  is  the  maximum  quantity 
of  honey  collected  by  an}'  colony  during  this  bad  season. 
After  the  honey  harvest,  i.e.  from  8th  to  24th  June,  it 
gave  six  natural  swarms  of  which  four  weighed  from 
2.900  kilos  (6  lbs.),  to  2.200  kilos  (nearly  5' lbs.),  and 
two  smaller  ones  and  the  stock  still  remained  strong. 
The  colony  rapidly  developed  in  the  spring,  and  wishing 
to  raise  queens  under  the  best  possible  conditions  they 
were  kept  a  little  cramped  for  room,  notwithstanding 
that  they  were  supplied  with  two  supers  which  increased 
the  size  of  the  hive  to  100  litres  (about  6100  cubic 
inches).  Notwithstanding  this  room  the  bees  crowded 
outside;  80  queen-cells  were  constructed.  The  mother 
of  this  colon}-  was  crossed  probably  with  an  Italian  or  a 
cross  breed  drone,  the  workers  being  well  marked.  The 
workers  produced  are  very  active  and  tolerably  quiet, 
which  he  particularly  mentions  as  a  contrast  to  the 
character  and  the  want  of  activity  of  the  imported  queen. 
He  says  home-bred  Cyprians  the  same  as  Italians  pro- 
duce superior  bees  to  those  imported.  The  cross  breeding 
seems  to  produce  excellent  results,  and  the  introduction 
of  Cyprians  into  an  apiary  ought  to  give  bees  with  good 
qualities.     The  future  will  be  able  to  settle  this  point. 

In  the  same  journal  we  find  M.  Du  Pasquier  stating 
that  he  employs  quicklime  as  a  remedy  for  bee-stings. 
It  neutralises  the  poison  which  is  an  acid. 

In  the  Canadian  Bee  Journal  G.  M.  Doolittie  says  he 
uses  side  storing  only  in  connexion  with  top  storing  and 
never  recommends  exclusive  side  stoiing.  Bees,  he  says, 
prefer  to  build  combs  at  the  sides  of  the  hives,  and  store 
honey  on  the  top,  therefore  he  gets  sections  filled  with 
comb  at  the  sides  and  when  they  are  raised  to  the  top 
they  are  at  once  filled  with  honey.  He  uses  wide  frames 
which  are  interchangeable,  so  that  the  process  causes  but 
little  labour,  and  after  years  of  trial  of  all  kinds  of  sys- 
tems he  says  he  knows  no  other  system  which  will  give 
as  good  results. 

In  the  American.  Bee  Journal,  H.  B.  Hill,  referring  to 
a  visit  he  paid  to  Mr.  J.  B.  Hall's  apiary  in  Canada,  says, 
one  of  the  things  he  saw  there  that  interested  him  was  the 
Caucasian  bee.  These  are  smaller  than  the  common  bee, 
and  very  dark,  with  a  distinct  silvery  band  bordering  the 
back  segment  of  the  abdomen,  and  in  mass  present  a  bluish 
appearance.  lie  says  they  do  not  seem  to  know  how  to 
gather  honey.  One  of  the  assistants  thought '  The}7  went 
to  the  field  to  get  what  they  wanted  to  eat  in  the  honey 
season,  and  came  home  without  any.'  Although  they 
are  accused  of  being  unprolific,  lie  thinks  they  can  raise 
more  queens  and  drones  to  the  square  inch  than  any 
other  race  of  bees  in  America.  The  Caucasian  bees  are 
very  gentle  in  their  disposition,  and  Mr.  Hall  says  '  they 
were  the  quietest  bees  he  had  ever  handled.'  It  is  im- 
possible to  handle  them  so  roughly  as  to  make  them 
sting  the  operator,  although  if  squeezed  they  will 
sting.  They  appear  to  he  very  hardy  winterers.  When 
crossed  with  Mr.  Hall's  '  comb  honey '  bee,  they  are  very 
prolific  as  comb-honey  producers,  and  are  beautiful  as 
well  as  gentle. 

In  the  Jiee-l-cepers  Magazine  we  find  TI,  E.  Shannon 

giving  the  Carniolan  bees  a  very  good  character.  He 
says  they  are  very  hardy,  and  the  best  comb-builders  he 
ever  had,  and  that  they  make  the  nicest  section  honey. 
They  protect  their  hives  as  well  as  Italians,  as  far  as  he 
is  able  to  judge.  He  has  some  Carniolan  swarms  that 
built  more  comb  in  August  and  September  than  the 
best  Italian  stands  did  in  the  honey  season.  They  also 
work  on  red  clover  as  well,  if  not  better  than  Italians ; 
hut  the}'  swarm  more,  and  some  queens  raise  very  poorly- 
marked  bees. 

In  the  American  Bee  Journal  we  find  that  at  the 
Marshall  County  Convention  the  Mayor  of  Marshalls- 
town  stated  lie  successfully  prevented  swarms  from 
settling  in  high  trees  by  using  what  is  called  a  '  Yankee 
Queen-stick.'  It  is  made  by  taking  a  stick  two  inches 
square,  the  top  end  dressed  down  to  ^  square  for  about 
a  foot.  On  this  are  nailed  laths,  six  or  eight  inches  long, 
to  form  a  network.  When  a  swarm  is  about  to  settle, 
this  queen-stick  is  held  among  them,  and  he  found  that 
they  would  settle  on  it. 

In  the  Official  Report  of  the  United  States  Entomo- 
logist, N.  W.  McLain,  on  '  The  Production  of  Wax,'  says 
he  observed  that  if  pieces  of  new  comb  were  exposed  on 
a  warm  day  the  bees  would  tear  off  pieces  of  the  wax 
and  carry  them  to  their  hives  for  use  in  comb-building. 
He  therefore  put  pieces  of  new  comb  in  a  shallow,  square 
tin  pan  having  a  close  fitting  cover,  and  having  holes  in 
the  bottom.  This  pan  was  placed  on  the  cloth  covering 
the  frames,  and  holes  made  through  this  to  correspond 
with  holes  in  tin  pan,  so  as  to  admit  the  bees.  The  heat 
arising  from  the  bees  produced  a  high  temperature,  which 
kept  the  wax  plastic  and  easily  worked.  When  this 
assistance  was  given  comb-foundation  was  worked  out 
with  great  rapidity,  principally  by  the  young  bees, 
aided  by  the  field  bees  at  night,  as  the  comb-building 
progressed  more  rapidly  at  night  thau  by  day.  There 
being  no  necessity  for  wax  producing,  the  working  force 
laboured  without  hindrance  during  the  day  in  the  fields, 
and  with  equal  energy  by  night  in  the  hive. 

In  the  Canadian  Bee  Journal,  S.  Corneil  says  he  finds 
it  most  desirable  to  raise  queens  during  swarming  time. 
Cells  nearly  ripe  are  placed  in  cages  on  the  frames  over 
a  cluster.  When  a  hive  swarms,  one  of  the  unfertilised 
queens  is  at  once  run  in  at  the  entrance  of  the  old  hive, 
and  in  twenty-nine  out  of  thirty  cases  last  season  they 
were  accepted.  This  is  a  sure  plan  to  prevent  second 
swarms,  and  at  the  same  time  gain  ten  or  twelve  days. 

In  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Microscopical  Society  we 
find  that  Herr  K.  Mullenhoff,  continuing  his  studies  of 
bees,  has  investigated  the  behaviour  of  the  insect  in 
gathering  and  storing  the  honey.  He  discusses  the 
damping  and  the  compression  of  the  pollen,  the  mar- 
vellous adroitness  of  the  bee  in  forcing  its  way  into 
flowers,  the  careful  avoidance  of  mixing  the  kind  of 
pollen  during  one  gathering,  the  renewed  salivating  and 
compression  which  the  pollen  receives  from  the  younger 
indoor  workers  before  it  is  stored  in  the  cells,  which  are 
always  the  cells  of  workers  and  not  of  drones.  The 
pollen  is  frequently  deposited  in  layers,  and  frequently 
hermetically  sealed  with  honey,  over  which  a  thin 
pellicle,  like  a  layer  of  cream  on  milk,  is  formed, 
and  this  can  be  pushed  aside  for  the  deposition  of 
more  honey  or  walked  over  without  causing  overflow. 
The  bees  which  are  going  up  and  down  over  the  full 
cells  often  exhibit  protruded  stings,  and  that  in  normal 
circumstances.  Drops  of  poison  from  the  end  of  the 
sting  are  seen  to  be  deposited  on  the  hone}-,  and  the 
presence  of  formic  acid,  absent  in  pure  nectar,  is  thus 
explained.  The  acid  doubtless  exerts  an  antiseptic  in- 
fluence on  the  honey ;  and  the  author  has  beautifully 
shown  that  in  uncovered  honey-cells  none  is  present,  and 
that  fermentation  soon  sets  in,  which  could  however  be 
prevented  by  the  addition  of  iV  per  cent  formic  acid. 
Herr  Mullenhoff  suggests  the  possible  expediency  of  re- 
moving the  honey  from  the  uncovered  cells,  and  thus 

January  27,  1887.] 



economising  the  time  and  energy  of  the  hees,  while  the 
honey  could  be  readily  and  cheaply  preserved  by  the 
addition  of  ^  per  cent  formic  acid  from  a  pipette. 

In  the  Canadian  Bee  Journal,  in  an  editorial  it  is 
stated  that  those  who  have  not  used  full  sheets  of  section 
foundation  in  their  sections  should  try  and  observe  the 
difference  in  quantity  of  honey  secured.  Our  experiments 
have  fully  convinced  us  that  sections  should  contain  full 
sheets,  and  with  the  beautiful  light  section  foundation 
we  are  now  making  there  is  no  danger  of  any  backbone 
in  the  comb  honey.  In  a  letter  from  Mr.  Cornell  lately 
he  says  : — '  Dr.  Tinker  wrote  me  to  try  a  quarter-inch 
starter  in  the  bottom  of  the  section  as  well  as  the  visual 
starter  at  the  top.  I  did  so,  and  as  my  section  cases 
reverse  just  as  readily  as  not,  I  reversed  the  cases,  when 
the  two  starters  were  joined,  or  nearly  so,  and  the  result 
is  that  the  sections  are  filled,  without  so  much  as  a  hole 
for  the  passage  of  a  single  bee.' 

Bees,  and  their  Management. — On  Tuesday  evening, 
January  18th,  the  attention  of  the  Uttoxeter  Mutual  Im- 
provement Society  was  directed  to  the  above  subject,  Mr. 
Thomas  Harper  reading  a  paper  upon  Bees,  and  this  was 
followed  by  a  descriptive  lecture  by  Mr.  F.  Harper.  Mr.  J. 
Spencer  presided,  and  in  his  opening  remarks  said  he  had 
known  Messrs.  Harper  as  practical  bee-keepers  for  some 
time,  and  as  they  were  well  acquainted  with  the  subject 
they  were  to  speak  upon  he  had  no  doubt  but  that  their  re- 
marks would  be  interesting  and  profitable.  The  paper  was 
then  read,  in  which  the  writer  briefly  traced  the  history  of 
the  honey-bee,  mentioning  several  varieties  now  kept  in  this 
country.  The  physiology  of  the  bee  was  described,  showing 
how  these  insects  are  fitted  by  nature  for  the  objects  of  their 
existence — to  gather  honey,  and  to  assist  in  the  fertilisation 
of  flowers  which  afterwards  produce  fruits  or  seeds.  The 
value  of  honey  as  a  heat  and  force  -  producing  food  was 
spoken  of,  and  some  of  the  uses  to  which  it  may  be  put  were 
mentioned.  Mr.  F.  Harper  followed  with  some  remarks 
upon  the  best  methods  of  managing  bees,  he  also  exhibited 
hives  and  various  appliances,  and  explained  their  use  and 
advantages.  The  methods  of  supering  and  doubling  were 
shown,  also  driving  condemned  bees,  and  making  artificial 
swarms  from  either  straw  or  bar-frame  hives.  At  the  close, 
pieces  of  corab  and  comb-foundation,  dead  bees  (including 
queens,  drones,  and  workers)  were  passed  round,  as  well  as 
sections  of  comb-honey.  The  meeting  was  well  attended, 
and  included  a  good  number  of  young  men,  who  were  very 
much  interested  in  the  subject.  At  the  close  a  vote  of 
thanks  was  given  to  Messrs.  Harper  for  the  trouble  they 
had  taken. 

&tym  from  %  gilies. 

Mayfietd,  Sussex. — One  of  my  stocks  of  bees  got  blown 
over  by  the  severe  storm  at  Christmas  time,  and  as  I  was 
away  and  the  men  rather  afraid  of  bees  it  was  put  back  on 
its  stand  almost  anyhow.  On  my  going  down  to  the 
country  about  a  fortnight  after  I  found  that  the  hive  was 
raised  from  the  floor-board  on  two  sides  about  two  inches, 
allowing  the  cold  wind  and  ah'  to  pass  through.  I  took  the 
hive  indoors,  rearranged  the  frames,  which  had  got  rather 
mixed  up,  and  found  the  bees  none  the  worse.  This  seems 
to  show  that  cold  does  not  necessarily  injure  bees,  the 
weather  having  been  of  the  coldest  and  most  wintry  descrip- 
tion.—J.  B.  S. 

kCplbs  10  $mm%> 

***  In  their  answers,  Correspondents  o>re  respect/idly  requested  to 
mention  in  each  instance  the  number  and  the  title  of  the  query  asked,. 

[773.]  Managing  Stock  on  Allotment  Garden.  (J.  Walton.) 
— If  for  comb-honey,  use  ten  frames  in  brood-nest,  and 
'  tier  up  '  your  racks  by  placing  empty  one  under  partially 
filled  one.  If  for  extracted,  use  empty  combs  in  supers, 
and  extract  freely  or  '  tier  up '  with  another  set  of  combs 
as  with  racks.  Clip  the  queen's  wings,  have  the  hive 
almost  on  the  ground  with  alighting-board  touching  the 

same,  all  grass  and  weeds  clear  around  the  hive  ;  the  bees 
will  swarm  even  tben  sometimes. — W.  B.  Webster. 

[771.]  Separating  Wax  from  Pollen.— Tie  your  combs  up 
tight  in  a  piece  of  strainer  cloth  along  with  a  stone  or 
stones  of  sufficient  weight  to  sink  this  bundle  to  the  bottom 
o£  your  boiler,  light  the  fire  and  let  it  boil  a  short  time, 
then  allow  it  to  get  cold.  Your  wax  will  be  in  a  sheet  at 
top;  press  the  bundle  a  little  with  a  stick  while  boiling. 
You  must  remelt  this  sheet  of  wax  by  water  heat,  and 
allow  it  to  cool  gradually  in  tall  vessels. — W.  B.  Webster. 

[785.]  Clover  in  Front  of  Hive. — Why  not  sow  Limnan- 
thes  ?  This  does  not  grow  very  high,  and  looks  nice ;  it 
sows  itself  after  the  first  year,  and  provides  plenty  o£ 
honey.  If  you  particularly  desire  clover  and  grass,  pur- 
chase some  lawn  grass  seed  already  mixed  of  a  good  firm. — 
W.  B.  Webster. 

[786.]  Specimens  of  Honey.  (Aros.)— Mr.  Carr,  of  Higher 
Bebington,  Cheshire,  can  give  you  the  addresses  of  the 
parties  mentioned. — W.  B.  Webster. 

[787.]  (Castle  Douglas.)— An  Unicomb  observatory  hive 
is  an  oblong  case  having  the  two  longest  sides  fitted,  prefer- 
ably, with  double  glass  §  inch  apart,  of  sufficient  inside 
capacity  to  take  your  frame  with  J  inch  bee  space  all  round, 
a  removable  cover  fitting  on  top  with  a  ventilating  hole 
covered  with  perforated  zinc,  a  chamber  called  a  flight- 
chamber  at  bottom  and  underneath,  communicating  with 
oblong  case,  having  perforated  zinc  on  one  side  for  the 
purpose  of  ventilation.  An  observatory  (full)  hive  is  dif- 
ferently constructed,  and  would  require  illustrations.— 
W.  B.  Webster. 

[788.]  Dysentery.  (Far  North.)— If  hive  is  damp,  remove 
frames — indoors— en  bloc  into  a  fresh  dry  hive.  Provide 
clean  dry  quilts,  place  some  nice  warm  cakes  of  candy 
under  quilt,  enamel  cloth  on  top  of  frames,  then  felt  and 
chaff  cushions  on  top  make  good  coverings  for  hives  during 
winter  and  spring;  for  summer  remove  chaff  cushions. 
Enamel  cloth  is  American  cloth  of  a  description  that  has 
little  or  no  smell. — W.  B.  Webster. 


.411  queries  forwarded  will  be  attended  to,  and  those  only  of  personnl 
nterest  will  be  answered  in  this  column. 

H.  T. — Uniting  queenless  stock  to  another  indifferent-shaped 
hive. — There  is  no  doubt  that  your  stock  is  queenless. 
You  can  now  only  prepare  for  uniting  by  approaching  the 
hives  to  one  another  a  yard  a-day,  reckoning  only  those 
days  on  which  the  bees  are  flying  freely.  When  the 
weather  is  suitable  for  uniting  (which  will  not  be  until 
April)  get  some  standard  frames,  cut  out  the  combs  from 
the  odd-sized  frames,  and  splice  them  into  the  standards  ; 
you  can  then  easily  unite  the  two  lots  by  opening  out  the 
frames  of  the  receiving  stock  with  as  little  disturbance  as 
possible,  and  gently  placing  the  others  between  them 

W.  G. — Queen  found  on  alighting-board. — It  is  not  likely 
that  there  were  two  queens  present,  and  therefore  your 
stock  is  queenless.  You  can  do  nothing  at  present,  but 
when  the  weather  is  warmer  you  must  unite  with  another 
stock.  In  the  meantime,  approach  the  hives  to  one 
another  by  a  yard  a-day,  reckoning  only  the  days  when 
the  bees  are  flying  freely. 

A  Cottager. — Making  Foundation,  &c. — We  do  not  think 
the  apparatus  you  describe  well  adapted  for  making 
foundation,  and  do  not  advise  you  to  persevere  with  it. 
In  dipping,  so  much  depends  on  the  temperature  of  the 
wax  that  it  is  doubtful  if  you  ever  succeed  in  making  the 
plain  wax-sheets.  It  is  much  better  to  continue  the 
small  strips  of  well-made  foundation,  which  many  skilled 
bee-keepers  give  to  swarms  in  preference  to  whole  sheets. 
Queen-raising  by  nuclei  is  described  in  most  of  our  bee- 
books,  and  articles  have  appeared  in  the  Journal.  The 
queen  in  a  swarm  may  be  found  by  shaking  out  the 
bees,  and  as  they  run  back  into  the  skep  guided  by 
feather  she  may  be  easily  picked  up.  Evening  is  the 
best  time  to  do  this. 

J.  B.  S. — 1.  Bees  on  Hoof  of  House. — Bees  twenty  feet  from 
the  ground  should  do  as  well  as  if  nearer  to  the  ground, 
considering  that  in  a  natural  state  they  live  in  hollow 
trees.   2.  Ligurianizing  Six  Stocks  from  Two. — Stimulate 



[January  27,  1887. 

your  two  stocks,  and  devote  them  to  providing  drones 
and  queens  as  you  propose.  It  does  nut  follow  that  your 
neighbours  will  not  have  black  drones  flying  as  soon  as 
you  have  Ligurians,  still  if  your  queens  should  be  mated 
with  blacks  your  hybrids  will  do  you  good  service. 

E.  F.  S. — 1.  Bees  in  Hoof  of  House. — As  you  say  you  do 
not  understand  bees,  you  had  better  let  some  more 
experienced  bee-keeper  undertake  the  job  of  removal ; 
which  is  one  which  often  taxes  the  skill  and  patience  of 
good  bee-men.  2.  Hive  Making. — Refer  to  pp.  59  and 
69,  Vol.  XIV.,  by  following  the  directions  there  given  you 
cannot  fail  to  make  a  good  serviceable  hive.  3.  Becoming 
a  Bee-keeper.  —  Get  Modern  Bee-keeping  and  Cowan's 
Guide,  read  them,  and  also  get  acquainted  with  an 
experienced  bee-keeper — your  county  swarms  with  them 
— discuss  what  you  read  with  him,  and  with  a  little 
practice  you  will  soon  get  on. 

Surrey. — Transferring  Carniolans. — The  operation  must 
not  be  performed  before  April,  and  then  only  in  fine, 
warm  weather.  A  Carniolan  queen  may  be  introduced 
at  any  time  during  the  summer,  but  if  done  during  the 
honey  harvest  the  income  will  be  checked.  We  advise 
you  to  leave  the  introduction  till  near  the  close  of  the 
season,  unless  you  intend  to  increase  by  swarming,  when 
the  queen  might  be  given  advantageously  to  the  old  stock 
after  the  departure  of  the  swarm.  From  experience  we 
say  that  Ligurians  are  better  honey-gatherers  than 
Carniolans,  and  about  as  gentle  when  properly  handled. 
We  should  doubt  whether  the  cross  between  Carniolans 
and  blacks  are  superior  to  either  race  pure. 

T.  M.  G. — Foundation. — You  will  find  it  difficult  to  get 
foundation  drawn  out  in  time  to  use  on  the  doubling 
system  during  the  present  year,  and  if  successful  the  new 
combs,  being  tender,  would  not  be  well  adapted  for 
extracting.  Having  twenty  colonies,  and  not  wishing 
for  increase,  we  advise  you  to  take  away,  say,  the  two 
outside  frames  from  each  colony,  and  supply  their  places 
with  whole  sheets  of  foundation,  the  bees  being  confined 
by  division-boards.  Cover  up  warmly  and  feed  with 
syrup  at  the  feed-hole.  As  the  colonies  increase  in 
population  give  more  foundation,  and  spread  brood  judi- 
ciously until  your  hives  are  well  filled  with  bees  and 
brood,  which  they  ought  to  be  by  the  time  the  honey-flow 
arrives,  when  you  may  proceed  to  doubling,  using  the 
forty  frames  of  old  comb  previously  abstracted  in  the 
upper  hives.  To  these  latter  any  combs  which  can  be 
spared  from  the  lower  hives  may  be  added  and  founda- 
tion again  given  below.  Do  not  remove  combs  in  the  first 
instance  until  the  bees  are  crowded — about  the  end  of 
April  or  early  in  May.    Much  depends  upon  the  season. 

T.  Hill. — Canon  Tristram's  Natural  History  of  the  Bible 
is  published  by  the  S.P.C.K.,  Northumberland  Avenue, 
price  Is.  Gd. 

Trade  Catalogues. — We  have  received  from  Messrs. 
Abbott,  Brothers,  Southall,  London  and  Paris,  their  cata- 
logue of  bee-hives  and  appliances.  This  valuable  catalogue 
has  been  considerably  enlarged,  and  contains  many  im- 
provements in  appliances  and  reductions  in  prices.  Also 
from  Mr.  Eedshaw,  The  Apiary,  South  Wigton,  near  Lyster, 
his  catalogue  of  hives  and  bee-keeping  appliances.  On  the 
outside  page  of  the  wrapper  will  be  found  four  very  complete 
collections  of  bee-keeping  appliances  suitable  to  a  beginner, 
with  the  prices  attached. 

In  answer  to  several  inquiries  we  beg  to  say  that  the 
'British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,'  23  Cornhill,  E.C.,  are  in  no 
way  connected  with  the  British  Bee-keepers'  Association  or 
with  the  British  Honey  Company. 

Wax  Smelting. — F.  H.  Lemare  of  4  Sydney  Terrace, 
Guildford,  writes: — If  the  lady,  said  by  'Amateur  Expert"  to 
be  in  trouble  as  to  "Wax  Smelting"  would  think  it  worth 
while  to  send  her  combs,  there  is  a  man  here  who  would 
melt  them  for  her  and  return  the  wax.  His  calculation  is, 
that  -1  lbs.  of  comb  produce  1  lb.  of  wax,  and  his  charge  is 
at  the  rate  of  Grf.  for  the  1  lb.  of  wax.  Of  course  only  1  lb. 
of  wax  would  not  pay.  The  melted  wax  is  free  from 
'  pollen  and  other  debris.'    In  looking  over  the  catalogue  of 

Mr.  Bedshaw,  South  Wigton,  near  Leicester,  we  note  his 
wax  extractor,  which  he  styles  'The  Poor  Man's  Friend,' 
which  would  be  found  of  great  servioe  for  small  lots  of  wax 
and  for  slender  purses. 

Dead  Queen — Dead  Bees  have  been  forwarded  to  Mr. 
Cheshire,  and  we  await  his  report. 

.©how  ^Announcements. 

Giving  Name  and  Address  of  Secretary,  Date  and  Place  of 
Show,  Date  of  Closing  Entries.  Terms  :  Three  Insertions 
and  wider,  Two  Shillings  and  Sixpence ;  additional  inser- 
tions, Sixpence  each.  No  charge  made  to  those  Associations 
whose  Shows  are  announced  in  our  general  Advertising 

July  11-15. — Royal  Agricultural  Show  at  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne.  Entries  close  May  12.  Sec.  J.  Huckle,  Kings 

August  3-5. — Yorkshire  Agricultural  Society  at  York, 
Secretary,   H.  L.   Biekards,   Poole,  near  Leeds. 

business  ^Directory. 

For  the  use  of  Manufacturers   and  Purchasers  of  Bee- 
keeping Appliances. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Appleton,  H.  M.,  Dowry  Works,  256a  Hotwell  Koad, 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 
Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 
Burtt,  E.  J.,  Stroud  Boad,  Gloucester. 
Edey  &  Son,  St.  Neots. 
Hole,  J.  R.  W.,  Tarrington,  Ledbury. 
Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 
Meadham,  M.,  Huntington,  Hereford. 
Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 
Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 
Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 
The  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 
Walton,  E.  G,  Muskham,  Newark. 
Wren  &  Son,  139  High  Street,  Lowestoft. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

British  Honey  Co.,  Limited,  17  King WilliamSt., Strand. 

Country  Honey  Supply,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Howard,  J.  H.T  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn 

Walton,  E.  G ,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Benton,  F.,  Munich,  Germany. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Simmins,  S.,  Rottingdean,  near  Brighton. 

Walton,  E.  G,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B„  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Lyon,  F.,  94  Harleyford  Road,  London,  S.E. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Walton,  E.  G,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J. ,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Howabd,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Walton,  E.  G,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Communications  to  the  Editor  to  be  addressed  '  Stbangeways'  Printing  Office,  Tower  Street,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  w.c.' 

[No.  241.    Vol.  XV.] 

FEBRUARY  3,  1887. 

[Published  Weekly.] 



I, — Where  bees  may  be  kept,  and  who  is  suited 


1.  Bees  can  be  kept  in  any  place  where  there  is 
a  small  piece  of  garden,  and  fields,  meadows,  or 
heath,  within  easy  reach,  more  especially  near 
orchards  and  fruit  gardens,  or  where  clover,  sain- 
foin, mustard,  rape,  and  buckwheat,  are  cultivated. 

2.  The  best  spot  to  select  for  placing  the  hives 
is  in  a  garden  not  far  from  the  house,  where  they 
will  be  sheltered  from  wind  and  be  free  from  dis- 
turbance by  strangers,  and  out  of  the  way  of 
domestic  animals.  It  is  very  important  if  such  a 
sheltered  place  cannot  be  found  to  plant  a  hedge 
or  other  wind  guard  on  the  northern  side  of  the 
hives ;  and  if  there  are  a  few  fruit  trees  about  so 
as  to  shelter  the  bees  from  the  fierce  rays  of  a 
summer  sun  it  would  be  an  advantage. 

3.  Most  persons  can  keep  bees  if  they  have  suffi- 
cient time  to  spare  during  summer,  when  most 
of  the  work  has  to  be  done.  Even  the  cottager 
who  is  at  work  from  morning  till  night  will  be  able 
to  devote  a  little  of  his  leisure  time  to  this  pursuit, 
which  will  add  to  his  income  in  an  agreeable 
manner.  Any  one  who  is  sufficiently  vigorous  and 
strong,  and  can  still  lift  from  fifty  to  sixty  pounds 
in  weight,  can  walk  without  assistance,  and  has 
good  eyes  sharp  enough  to  distinguish  a  bee's 
egg  at  the  bottom  of  a  cell,  is  able  to  keep  bees. 

4.  The  object  of  keeping  bees  is  generally 
either  pleasure  or  profit.  If  they  are  kept  for 
pleasure  it  is  better  to  have  only  two  or  three 
hives  ;  but  if  profit  be  the  object  the  bee-keeper 
should  possess  at  least  ten  or  a  dozen  hives.  In 
either  case  not  more  hives  should  be  kept  than  can 
be  properly  attended  to,  for  one  hive  well  looked 
after  will  make  a  better  return  than  a  dozen  that 
are  neglected. 

5.  There  are  some  districts  where  bee-pasturage 
is  so  scarce  that  the  bees  even  in  the  best  seasons 
cannot  procure  the  necessary  stores  to  keep  them 
through  the  winter.  These  are  not  suitable  districts 
for  keeping  bees. 

6.  Places  exposed  to  the  wind,  or  on  the  borders  of 
wide  rivers  and  lakes,  where  there  are  many  manu- 

factories, such  as  breweries  and  sugar  refineries, 
which  allure  the  bees,  who  there  meet  with  certain 
death,  are  also  not  suitable. 

7.  Those  who  suffer  so  severely  from  a  sting  as 
to  be  obliged  to  call  in  a  doctor,  or  take  to  their 
beds,  or  who  have  not  sufficient  courage  to  bear 
calmly  an  occasional  sting,  or  who  will  not  attend 
to  their  bees  themselves,  and  are  not  able  to  make 
their  hives,  or  have  not  got  the  means  to  procure 
them,  or  will  not  when  needed  feed  their  bees  if 
they  are  in  want,  had  better  not  undertake  bee- 
keeping. (y0  be  continued.) 


Three  or  four  months  ago  we  drew  attention  to 
a  suggestion  thrown  out  at  the  Annual  Meeting  of 
the  British  Bee-Keepers'  Association  held  at  South 
Kensington.  It  was  to  the  effect  that  a  great 
impetus  would  be  given  to  bee-keeping  if  the 
attention  of  masters  and  mistresses  of  schools  of 
various  grades  throughout  the  country  were  called 
to  the  subject.  From  altogether  another  quarter 
the  idea  is  again  brought  to  our  notice,  as  will  be 
seen  from  a  letter  in  this  week's  issue  of  the  Journal. 
(P.  49).  A  further  proposal  of  a  practical  kind  in 
connexion  with  the  point  is  that  '  The  Teachers' 
Union '  could  be  turned  to  good  account  for  the 
purpose  advocated.  We  entirely  approve  .  of  the 
suggestion.  Such  an  existing  organization,  if  in- 
terested in  the  matter,  would  not  only  save  much 
trouble  and  expense  to  those  anxious  to  make  a 
move  in  the  direction  indicated,  but  would  furnish 
excellent  opportunities  for  securing  intelligent 
audiences  to  lecturers  on  apiculture. 

Now  in  order  to  give  new  energy  to  the  sugges- 
tion of  our  correspondent  we  would  point  out  two 
or  three  simple  matters  which  should  at  once  engage 
the  attention  of  the  Committee  of  the  B.B.K.A. 
In  the  first  place,  means  should  be  taken  to  ascer- 
tain the  names  of  schoolmasters  and  schoolmistresses 
who  already  possess  stocked  hives  or  are  interested 
in  the  pursuit  of  bee-keeping.  To  all  such  an 
appeal  might  be  made  to  do  what  is  in  their  power 
to  promote  the  spread  of  information  about  api- 
culture. Next,  from  among  these  names  a  selec- 
tion should  be  made  of  those  known  to  belong  to 
'  The  Teachers'  Union.'  These  friends  should  be 
requested  to  try  and  secure  the  interest  of  the 
officials  of  the  Union  in  their  own  neighbourhood. 



[February  3,  1887- 

When  once  the  sympathies  of  such  leading  members 
■were  aroused  there  would  be  no  difficulty  in  making 
arrangements  for  lectures,  and  possibly  for  the  dis- 
play of  hives  and  honey.  This  last  point  would  be 
certain  to  exert  a  powerful  attractive  influence.  A 
third  matter  would  be  the  securing  of  efficient 
lecturers  or  exponents  of  the  elements  of  bee- 
keeping. This  might  be  accomplished  either  by  the 
Committee  of  the  B.B.K.A.  taking  the  subject  in 
hand,  or  by  individual  and  qualified  members  of 
the  Association  offering  their  services  to  the  branch 
of '  The  Teachers'  Union  '  nearest  their  own  abodes. 

We  have  before  pointed  out  the  immediate  ad- 
vantages which  would  be  gained  by  teachers  who 
might  be  induced  to  interest  themselves  in  api- 
culture. The  importance  of  this  point  will  justify 
a  repeated  reference  to  it.  In  the  first  place,  then, 
bee-keeping  supplies  a  hobby  admirably  adapted  to 
those  whose  profession  makes  a  severe  call  on 
physical  energy,  and  especially  on  brain  power.  A 
certain  amount  of  bodily  exercise  is  required  in 
attending  to  hives,  while  no  exhausting  toil  is 
needed.  The  mental  faculties  are  quietly  and 
healthfully  called  out  in  devising  various  little 
expedients  for  making  improvements,  meeting 
difficulties,  or  securing  the  best  results  in  honey 
and  strength  of  stocks.  These  considerations  tell 
with  great  force  in  the  case  of  female  teachers,  and 
we  are  thoroughly  convinced  that  an  immense 
development  of  bee-keeping  is  yet  to  take  place 
through  our  gentler  sex.  A  second  benefit  would 
be  the  certainty  that  pupils  of  these  teachers  would 
be  aroused  to  take  interest  primarily  in  our  pet 
insects,  and  later  on  in  natural  history  generally. 
We  need  not  point  out  to  our  readers  the  humanising 
and  elevating  consequences  of  such  results.  Thirdly, 
a  fresh  link  would  be  forged  in  the  happy  bonds 
existing  between  many  teachers  and  their  pupils ; 
and  so  an  indirect  stimulus  would  be  applied  to 
those  feelings  of  mutual  regard,  which  go  so  far  in 
lending  a  zest  to  efforts  to  impart  knowledge  on  the 
one  hand,  and  to  imbibe  it  on  the  other.  Fourthly, 
the  giving  away  of  sections  or  other  small  quantities 
of  honey  would  often  afford  pleasure  to  the  givers 
and  receivers,  and  would  certainly  .  call  further 
attention  to  the  industrious  producers  of  the 
delicious  article  of  food.  We  say  nothing  of  the 
profits  to  be  derived  from  a  few  well-managed 
hives,  though  this  money-consideration  would  be, 
in  many  instances,  by  no  means  an  unworthy  or 
futile  motive  for  keeping  bees.  We  repeat  our 
conviction  that  the  enlistment  of  schoolmasters 
and  schoolmistresses  in  the  army  of  apiculturists 
would  prove  an  immense  addition  to  our  power. 
No  such  recruiting  officers  could  be  elsewhere 
secured.  Each  one  is  the  centre  of  a  company  of 
possible  additions  to  our  rank  and  file.  Each  one 
possesses  more  than  average  ability  and  intelligence, 
which,  if  brought  to  bear  on  bee-keeping,  would 
assuredly  aid  in  its  development.  We  invite  them 
to  help  in  an  endeavour  to  gain  our  school-teachers 
to  the  interests  of  the  good  cause. 

In  a  future  number  we  will  comment  on  the 
second  suggestion  contained  in  our  correspondent's 
letter — the  subdivision  of  County  Associations. 

Walton's  Honey  Bottle. 

On  page  542  of  our  last  volume 
we  described  a  wicker-work  cover- 
ing for  honey  jars  which  was 
introduced  by  Mr.  E.  C.  Walton, 
Muskham,  Newark,  at  the  Nor-. 
wich  Show  ;  and  we  are  now  able 
to  give  an  illustration  of  it  which 
the  inventor  has  been  good  enough 
to  send  us.  The  cover  is  made  to 
suit  any  sized  jar,  and  it  will  be 
seen  that  by  slipping  up  the  ring 
the  jar  can  be  easily  removed  for 
cleaning  purposes. 


The  departure  of  frost,  with  a  return  of  mild  weather, 
and  an  occasional  bright  day,  have  afforded  our  bees 
an  opportunity  of  flight  after  a  long  confinement,  and 
at  present  all  colonies  appear  healthy  and  strong. 

Pollen  and  Syrup. — Soon  will  the  crocuses  and 
snowdrops  tempt  the  bees  to  pollen-gathering,  and 
stimulate  the  queens  to  breeding  in  earnest.  Then  the 
time  will  have  arrived  for  supplying  artificial  pollen,  and 
for  gentle  feeding  to  stimulate  to  further  efforts.  Pea, 
rye,  or  wheat  meal  may  be  sprinkled  upon  the  crocus 
blooms,  and  will  be  duty  appreciated  by  the  bees.  It 
may  also  be  placed  in  skeps  or  boxes,  amongst  shavings, 
and  placed  in  a  warm,  sunny  spot  near  the  hives  ;  a  piece 
of  honey-comb  laid  upon  the  shavings  will  soon  guide 
the  bees  to  the  spot.  A  graduated  feeder,  in  which  one, 
two,  or  three  holes  can  be  used  at  pleasure,  is  best  for 
this  early  season  by  those  who  follow  up  this  practice  of 
stimulating.  For  ourselves  we  prefer  to  uncap  a  few 
cells  near  the  brood-nest,  which  arouses  the  bees  suffi- 

Taking  a  Peep. — To  ascertain  the  condition  of  the 
bees,  and  the  amount  of  food,  gently  turn  aside  the 
quilt — on  a  fine  day  only — and  notice  the  number  of  bees 
crowding  to  the  top  of  the  hive,  on  the  admission  of 
light ;  also  the  quantity  of  sealed  honey  at  the  top  of 
the  frames. 

If  there  are  no  winter  passages  in  the  combs,  al- 
though the  outside  frames  contain  honey,  bees  will 
often  starve  from  inability  to  reach  it.  In  such  a  case 
feed  with  soft,  warm  candy  over  the  cluster.  A  flat 
cake  of  two  or  three  pounds,  rolled  in  thin  muslin,  and 
pressed  down  upon  the  frames,  the  quilts  and  chaff- 
cushion  laid  upon  it,  and  over  all  a  board,  or  flat  straw 
cover,  will  enable  the  bees  to  feed  in  comfort,  until 
warmer  weather  encourages  them  to  extend  their  circle 
to  the  outside  combs.  At.  present  this  is  the  oidy  ex- 
amination admissible,  except  in  extreme  cases,  when 
indoor  manipulation  must  be  resorted  to. 

Small  Colonies. — Small  or  weak  colonies  should  be 
closely  confined  by  division-boards,  and  fed  as  recom- 
mended above,  with  a  view  to  union  with  stronger  ones 
later  on,  or  the  preservation  of  their  queens,  which  will 
often  be  found  of  great  use  when  the  general  overhauling 
takes  place. 

Food. — For  various  kinds  of  food  refer  back  to  former 
'  Hints '  under  '  Ifeddon's  Syrup,' '  Good's  Food,' '  Frames 
of  Honey,'  &c,  of  which,  we  consider  the  latter,  as 
general  food,  the  best.  It  should  never,  however,  be 
given  when  granulated,  a  cold  slab  of  granulated  honey- 
comb being  about  as  useful  as  a  slab  of  ice  at  this  time 
of  year.  All  such  combs  should  be  removed  from  the 
hives,  the  division-boards  moved  up  to  the  cluster,  an4 

February  3,  1887.] 



Good's  (soft)   candy  placed   on   the  frames  above  the 

Cleaning  Floob-boabds. — As  spring  advances,  and 
the  bees  begin  to  work,  a  change  of  floor-boards  is  ad- 
vantageous. Let  the  hive  be  gently  raised  from  the 
board  by  pushing  wedges  beneath,  allowing  it  to  remain 
in  the  raised  position  for  a  few  minutes  until  the  bees 
are  quiet,  when  it  may  be  placed  on  a  clean,  dry  board 
on  its  former  stand.  "When  board  and  stand  are  in- 
separable, the  hive  should  be  removed  while  the  board 
is  scraped  and  thoroughly  cleaned.  If  boards  are 
separate  from  the  hive — as  we  much  prefer  them — it  is 
a  very  easy  matter  to  slip  under  the  hive  a  dry,  clean 
board  in  place  of  the  fold  one. 

Defunct  Colonies. — When  bees  are  flying  freely  it 
is  well  to  watch  the  hives  carefully  and  to  note  any 
showing  no  signs  of  energy  or  life ;  or  when  clearing 
entrances,  if  dead  bees  are  found  in  numbers ;  in  either 
case  an  examination  should  be  made  at  once  to  fully 
ascertain  the  state  of  such  colonies,  which  often  will  be 
found  to  have  perished.  These  hives  should  be  removed 
since  they  afford  incentives  to  robbing. 

"Wateb. — Strong  colonies  when  breeding  largely 
during  the  spring  months  require  a  constant  supply  of 
water,  which  is  best  given  in  shallow  troughs  near  the 
apiary,  stones  being  placed  in  the  water  to  prevent 
drowning.  These  should  be  filled  up,  as  required,  with 
clean  water,  in  which  a  handful  of  salt  has  been  mixed. 
Some  advise  a  comb  filled  with  water  to  be  placed  inside 
the  hive,  but  in  a  large  apiary  the  plan  involves  too 
much  labour  and  disturbance  of  hives.  The  bees  prefer 
to  carry  in  water,  and  if  it  be  found  near  home  much 
bee-life  will  be  saved,  since  many  bees  perish  while 
searching  for  water  in  ditches  and  ponds  during  the  pre- 
valence of  cold  winds.  Let  the  water  troughs  be  placed 
in  a  sheltered  spot  with  the  sun  full  upon  them.  Italian 
bees  are  far  more  eager  in  the  pursuit  of  water  than  are 
the  black  races,  which  may,  probably,  be  accounted  for 
by  the  extraordinary  fecundity  of  their  queens. 

Spbing  Dwindling. — This  searching  for  water  is 
often  a  prolific  source  of  spring  dwindling ;  also  too 
early  and  too  frequent  manipulation,  and  stimulation  by 
driblets  of  syrup,  may  be  placed  in  the  same  category. 
However  prolific  a  queen  may  be,  when  in  the  early  part 
of  the  spring — the  breeding  season — her  subjects  are 
reduced  in  numbers  until  they  cover  two  or  three  frames 
only,  it  is  best  to  unite  such  small  colonies,  for,  although 
with  care  and  constant  attention  they  may  be  built  up 
to  strong  ones  by  the  time  the  autumn  arrives,  yet  no 
surplus  must  be  expected  from  them.  The  union,  how- 
ever, should  not  be  made  sooner  than  the  month  of 
April,  or  early  May,  when,  by  judicious  feeding  and 
the  addittion  of  a  frame  or  two  of  brood  from  the 
strongest  hives,  populous  colonies  may  be  created  by 
the  arrival  of  the  principal  honey-harvest.  There  is  no 
better  rule  in  apiculture  than  that  which  demands  that 
'  All  colonies  must  be  7cej>t  strong?  Weak  colonies  never 
give  satisfaction,  but  bring  endless  disappointments, 
causing  many  beginners  to  give  up  bee-keeping  in  dis- 
gust. Let  it  be  remembered  that  in  our  changeable 
climate,  even  in  the  finest  summers,  and  in  districts 
where  nectar-yielding  plants  abound,  the  harvest  is 
short,  and  only  strong  colonies  can  yield  a  satisfactory 
return.  This,  of  course,  is  taking  a  honey-view,  but 
where  the  sale  of  bees,  or  queens,  or  general  increase  of 
colonies,  is  the  object,  a  different  method  must  be  pur- 
sued— a  subject  which  concerns  the  expert  more  than 
the  general  apiarist,  and  into  which  we  shall  not,  there- 
fore, enter.  Strong  colonies,  young  and  prolific  queens, 
plentiful  store,  a  southern  aspect  with  shelter  from  the 
north,  and  as  little  disturbance  as  possible,  are  golden 

Foundation. — For  some  years  we  have  used  in  our 
own  apiary  the  light,  flat-bottomed  wire  foundation 
for  brood  combs  with  the  best  results,  and  on  our  recom- 

mendation large  quantities  have  been  sold,  affording  to 
the  purchasers  general  satisfaction.  The  article  is  of 
American  manufacture,  and,  being  desirous  of  encourag- 
ing our  own  trade,  we  intend  in  future  to  wire  the 
frames,  and  to  use  English  foundation  of  a  light  descrip- 
tion, since,  with  the  heavier  foundations,  we  have  found 
the  bees,  especially  in  the  '  honey-flow,'  to  leave  a  solid 
septum,  indeed,  scarcely  to  draw  out  the  foundation  at 
all.  The  small  instrument  introduced  by  Mr.  Cowan 
at  the  Conversazione  held  at  the  C'olinderies  we  find 
very  useful  in  imbedding  the  wire  in  the  foundation, 
but  we  are  not  aware  who  the  manufacturer  is,  or  where 
the  article  can  be  obtained.  Perhaps  the  inventor  will 
kindly  say. 

Hives. — "Whether  invert  ible  hives  will  ever  come 
into  general  use  remains  to  be  proved.  Catering  for 
those  who  believe  in,  or  feel  inclined  to  try,  the  plan, 
Mr.  Neighbour  has  introduced  an  extremely  well-made 
substantial  hive,  of  four  invertible  and  interchangeable 
boxes,  which  may  be  used  for  obtaining  either  extracted 
or  comb  honey,  and  which  appears  to  us  to  avoid  the 
objectionable  points  in  the  American  Ileddon  hive,  the 
walls  being  much  thicker,  and  the  close-ended  frames 
being  dispensed  with.  Perfect  simplicity  and  a  moderate 
price  are  also  great  recommendations. 

Pbepabations. — Again  let  us  advise  all  apiarists  to 
have  an  eye  to  preparation  for  the  fast  approaching 

'  All  things  decent  and  in  order '  is  the  best  of 

3)  n  QpemoriauL 

It  is  with  feelings  of  the  deepest  regret  that  we  are 
called  upon  to  chronicle  the  early  and  sudden  death  of 
our  friend  and  fellow-worker,  Mr.  Charles  James  Fox 
Kenworthy,  Hon.  Sec.  of  the  Middlesex  Bee-keepers' 
Association.  He  died  of  diphtheria,  after  a  few  days' 
illness,  on  the  26th  ult.,  at  Kerrison  Lodge,  The  Park, 
Ealing,  in  the  thirty-fourth  year  of  his  age.  Mr.  Ken- 
worthy  was  the  eldest  son  of  Mr.  James  Lees  Kenworthy, 
F.B.A.S.,  an  old  and  respected  resident  in  Ealing,  and 
was  related  to  Mr.  C.N.  Abbott,  of  SouthaH,  and  to  Mr. 
Charles  Atlee,  a  gentleman  who  took  a  deep  interest  in 
the  formation  of  the  British  Bee-keepers'  Association. 
Mr.  Kenworthy's  father  kept  several  hives  of  bees,  and 
from  his  earliest  years  his  son  imbibed  a  love  for  bees 
and  bee-keeping.  As  he  grew  in  years  this  love  strength- 
ened with  Ids  strength,  and  he  became  in  time  a  very 
expert  manipulator;  and  it  was  ever  his  delight  to  assist 
young  bee-keepers  and  to  impart  whatever  knowledge 
he  possessed  to  others. 

Mr.  Kenworthy  was  intimately  connected  with  the 
history  of  the  British  Bee-keepers'  Association.  "When 
Mr.  Hunter,  who  was  the  first  Secretary  of  this  Asso- 
ciation, resigned  his  office  in  September  1875,  he  was 
succeeded  by  Mr.  Cleaver,  who  officiated  from  September 
187o  to  June  1870,  wrhen,  in  consequence  of  his 
numerous  other  engagements,  he  was  compelled  to  resign. 
The  position  of  the  "Association  was  at  this  time  very 
uncertain,  and  its  finances  at  a  low  ebb.  The  committee 
of  that  day  were  highly  pleased  to  accept  the  willing 
services  of  Mr.  Kemvorthy  as  Secretary,  as  he  was  known 
to  many  of  them  as  an  enthusiast  in  bee-keeping  and 
well  versed  in  keeping  accounts.  Mr.  Kenworthy  began 
his  duties  on  the  loth  of  June,  1876,  being  then  in  his 
twenty-second  year.  During  his  Secretaryship  the 
B.B.K.A.  (in  September  1876)  held  a  three-days  show 
in  Alexandra  Palace,  in  which  Mr.  Kenworthy  had  a 
favourable  opportunity  of  exercising  his  special  powers 
of  organisation.  In  a  great  measure  the  success  of 
that  exhibition  was  due  to  him,  and  it  was  said 
on  the  occasion  that  '  his  exertions  on  behalf  of  the 
Association  were  beyond  all  praise.'  In  the  early 
part  of  1878  Mr.  Kenworthy,   in   consequence   of   the 



[February  3, 1887. 

pressure  of  other  duties,  family  afflictions,  and  the 
unhappy  divisions  then  existing  in  the  Association, 
resigned  the  office  of  Secretary.  On  the  25th  March, 
187S,  the  Secretaryship  was  accepted  by  the  Rev.  H.  R. 
Peel,  who,  by  his  experience,  energy,  and  decision,  placed 
the  Association  on  that  firm  and  solid  basis  which  from 
that  time  it  has  occupied. 

In  April  1884,  it  was  intimated  to  Mr.  Kenworthy 
that  the  Middlesex  Bee-keepers'  Association,  which  had 
been  recentlj-  established,  required  the  services  of  a 
Secretary.  He  at  once  expressed  his  readiness  to  act  in 
that  capacity.  The  work  connected  with  a  county  like 
Middlesex  is  most  arduous  and  difficult,  but  Mr.  Ken- 
worthy  has  been  unwearying  in  his  endeavours  to  bring 
it  abreast  with  the  other  successful  Associations  in 
the  land.  For  some  time  he  has  been  associated  in  his 
office  with  the  Hon.  and  Eev.  H.  Bligh.  Within  the 
last  few  weeks  he  has  introduced  some  new  ideas  into  the 
management  of  the  Association,  and  he  has  been  working 
out  the  details  of  this  scheme  in  a  most  masterly  manner. 
Mr.  Bligh,  in  a  letter  now  before  us,  says, '  that  ever  since 
we  struck  out  the  idea  of  my  being  associated  with  him 
he  has  seemed  to  work  energetically  and  to  have 
developed  great  power  of  administration.  He  will  be 
much  missed  in  the  Association,  and  it  will  be  difficult 
to  find  any  equal  to  him  at  the  level  to  which  he  had 
raised  himself.' 

At  the  establishment  of  the  Bee  and  Fruit  Farming 
Company  he  was  appointed  Secretary ;  and  at  the  last 
annual  meeting  of  the  British  Honey  Company  he  was 
elected  its  auditor. 

Mr.  Kenworthy's  work,  however,  was  principally 
among  the  j'oung.  He  was  always  a  boy  amidst  boys, 
participating  in  their  joys  and  pleasures,  and  sympathising 
with  all  their  cares  and  sorrows.  He  was  a  staunch 
advocate  of  total  abstinence  during  his  whole  life,  and 
he  was  never  weary  of  inculcating  temperance  principles 
among  the  youth  by  whom  he  was  surrounded,  and  in 
promoting  their  moral  and  social  welfare.  He  took  a 
prominent  part  in  all  schemes  which  would  beneficially 
employ  the  leisure  time  of  his  young  friends ;  and  so  we 
find  him  the  Secretary  of  Bands  of  Hope,  the  Beaver 
Swimming  Club,  the  Crusaders'  Cricket  Club,  and  so 
forth.  By  his  soft,  winning,  and  attractive  manners,  he 
won  all  hearts,  both  young  and  old.  His  character  was 
most  estimable ;  he  was  amiable,  genial,  kind-hearted,  and 
generous,  and  ever  willing  to  assist  in  any  work  which 
had  for  its  object  the  advancement  of  his  fellow-creatures. 

He  was  buried  in  Ealing  Cemetery  on  Saturday,  the 
20th  ult.,  a  large  concourse  of  friends  and  neighbours 
testifying,  by  their  attendance,  their  high  esteem  for  him 
and  his  life-work,  and  their  sympathy  with  his  bereaved 
relatives.  We  were  pleased  to  see,  among  others,  as 
representing  bee-keepers,  the  Hon.  and  Bev.  11.  Bligh, 
Mr.  J.  Garratt,  and  Mr.  G.  Henderson. 

[The  writer  of  the  above  is  reminded  that  it  has  been 
his  melancholy  duty,  within  the  space  of  a  very  few 
years,  to  pen  obituary  notices  of  three  Secretaries  of 
the  British  Bee-keepers'  Association.] 


'  Mel  sapit  Omnia.' 

Mr.  Grimshaw  is  at '  York'  again;  he  means  to  succeed 
if  it  is  to  be  done  by  wearying  all  parties  interested  by  his 
importunity.  I  have  a  suggestion  to  make  to  him,  which 
I  hope  lie  will  be  able  to  accept  and  act  upon.  What 
Swanmore  is  to  Hants,  and  Hertford  is  to  Herts,  Leeds 
may  become,  in  his  able  hands,  to  York,  if  he  can  only 
be  induced  to  go  to  work.  Let  him  ask  all  the  clergy,  &c, 
if  they  will  allow  him  to  lecture  on  bees  in  their  village 
schools  and  talk  to  the  people  in  simple  language,  taking 
a  few  simple  appliances  with  him;  and  having  shown 
them  some  inducements  for  keeping  bees,  give  them  five 
minutes  of  the  wonders  of  the  busy  insects  themselves, 
and  ask  them  all  to  join  a  'bee-club,'  and  show  them 

what  he  can  give  them  for  their  one  shilling  per  annum. 
Mr.  Huckle  will  give  him  some  leaflets  and  back  numbers 
of  the  B.  B.  J.  for  distribution.  I  am  quite  sure  Mr. 
Grimshaw  will  gain  more  profit  from  this  than  he  ever 
can  hy  throwing  stones  into  a  pond  that  does  not  even 
contain  a  frog  to  croak. 

Talking  about  croaking  reminds  me.  I  hope  all  those 
who  own  '  croaking '  bees  are  satisfied  with  Mr.  Grim- 
shaw's  excellent  paper  on  the  '  Vocal  Organs  of  the  Bee,' 
and  that  they  will  endeavour  to  notice  the  different 
'  croaks '  in  future,  and  moreover  that  none  of  them  will 
ever  'croak'  themselves. 

There  is  one  line  in  'Devonshire  Dumpling's'  letter 
that  will  make  the  '  f  ancy  dealers '  close  their  teeth  tight, 
I  guess.  It  is  about  '  cheap  appliances  and  low  prices.' 
The  worst  thing  they  will  wish  him  is  that  he  were  a 
manufacturer,  and  had  to  live  on  some  of  the  'fancy' 
profits  gained  from  some  of  their  wares. 

The  Rev.  C.  C.  James  is  going  to  shut  his  stable-door 
now  he  has  lost  his  horse.  He  says, '  Snow  has  been  laying 
in  front  of  m}r  apiary  for  twenty-four  days.'  I  did  not 
allow  the  snow  to  lay  in  front  of  mine  for  forty-eight 
hours,  as  I  went  and  shovelled  it  away,  consequently  I 
enjoyed  the  sight  of  a  flight  of  my  pets,  and  I  don't  think 
I  lost  a  dozen  through  the  snow.  They  brought  out 
their  dead,  and  I  judge  the  flight  did  them  no  end  of 
good  altogether.  Keep  the  ground  in  front  of  3'our 
hives  rolled  hard  so  that  you  can  shovel  the  snow  away 
when  it  comes,  and  as  they  say  across  the  Atlantic,  Don't 
you  forget  it ! 

Mr.  F.  C.  Hodgson  should  have  removed  all  traces  of 
his  old  stand  as  far  as  possible  and  not  have  placed  an 
empty  wooded  hive  there,  as  he  confesses  he  did ;  the 
board  in  front  did  not  do  so  much  harm  as  the  '  decoy  ' 
hive,  as  the  board  probably  helped  them  to  mark  their 
new  site,  but  seeing  a  hive  on  their  old  site  they  at- 
tempted to  enter  that,  and  so  perished. 

My  voting  list  for  the  Committee  of  the  B.B.K.A. 
reveals  the  fact  that  we  have  lost  the  future  services  of 
Mr.  D.  Stewart.  In  losing  him  we  lose  an  old  and  use- 
ful member  whose  place  it  will  be  difficult  to  fill.  Living 
in  town  as  he  does  lie  was  always  at  hand  when  impor- 
tant work  wanted  doing.  He  worked  hard  at  the 
Healtheries,  and  much  of  the  success  of  the  reception 
we  were  able  to  give  to  the  Canadians,  I  believe,  was  due 
to  his  efforts.  Last  year  he  advocated  reform,  but  now 
we  lose  him  altogether.     I  for  one  am  deeply  sorry. 

The  Ontario  B.  K.  A,  had  a  '  rousing '  meeting  on 
January  6th  to  welcome  home  their  delegates.  Mr. 
Jones  had  not  arrived  in  time ;  the  other  three,  viz., 
Messrs.  Pettit,  Corneil,  and  McKnight,  were  all  present, 
they  were  highly  flattered  by  our  treatment  of  them. 
They  were  gracious  enough  not  to  insist  that  their 
honey  was  better-flavoured  than  British,  and  they  have 
great  hopes,  which  I  have  no  doubt  they  will  realise,  of 
finding  a  good  market  in  England  for  the  future.  Mr. 
Corneil  said  British  bee-keepei's  were  a  class  of  men  that 
knew  their  business,  and  there  was  nothing  equal  to  a 
trip  to  London  to  take  the  conceit  out  of  a  man  —even  a 
bee-keeper.  They  managed  to  hand  over  O.'SW.  for  their 
16'91  tons  of  honey,  that  they  sent,  after  all  their  ex- 
penses were  paid.  The  expenses  were  heavy  of  course, 
although  they  had  a  heavy  subsidy  from  the  Govern- 
ment, and  the  price  realised  is  a  fair  one  considering  the 
price  of  honey  in  Canada. 

Here  is  a  wrinkle  that  may  be  of  use  to  some  one. 
A  Michigan  man  found  a  bees'  nest  in  the  arm  of  a  tree 
six  inches  in  diameter  and  sixty  feet  from  the  ground; 
he  wanted  the  honey,  so  he  shot  the  bough  off  with  his 
rifle,  taking  sixty-four  bullets  to  complete  the  job.  I 
confess  it  would  have  cost  me  a  night's  sleep  scheming 
how  to  do  it  before  I  should  have  hit  on  that  plan, — 1 
Amateur  Expert, 

February  3,  188?.] 




Seventh  annual  meeting;  of  the  Ontario  Bee-keepers' 
Association,  1.30  p.m.,  January  5th,  1887,  in  the  City 
Chambers,  Toronto. 

The  President,  Mr.  S.  T.  Pettit,  of  Belmont,  occupied 
the  chair,  and  in  his  opening  remarks  stated  that  no 
doubt  the  production  of  honey  would  require  to  be  very 
much  increased  to  permit  Canadian  honey  to  remain 
constantly  upon  the  British  market,  for  should  this 
constant  supply  fail  they  must  expect  to  lose  very  much 
of  the  vantage-ground  they  would  previously  have  secured. 
He  would  emphasise  the  necessity  of  sending  only  the 
very  best  honey  as  to  colour,  texture,  and  flavour. 
For  extracted  honey  only  such  as  had  been  capped  by 
the  bees  previous  to  extracting  should  be  produced,  and 
for  this  purpose  recommended  the  tiering-up  system  as 
allowing  ample  room  for  storing  and  at  the  same  time 
ripening  of  hone)'.  No  one  contended  that  artificially 
ripened  honey  was  better  than  naturally  ripened  honey, 
whilst  many  claimed  that  the  artificially  ripened  was 
very  much  inferior.  The  question  of  legislation  re  foul 
brood  was  before  the  Association,  a  committee  to  see 
railway  directors  about  reducing  freight  on  honey,  and 
also  to  see  about  arranging  to  send  honey  to  the  British 

Mr.  J.  A.  Abbott,  of  London,  England,  was  introduced. 
He  was  warmly  greeted,  and  expressed  his  acknowledg- 
ment of  his  warm  reception.  Mr.  Abbott  was  elected  an 
honorary  member  of  the  Association. 

Mr.  J.  B.  Hall  then  stated  he  was  one  of  a  committee 
from  the  Oxford  Bee-keepers'  Association  to  ask  the 
O.B.A.  to  seek  for  legislation  for  foul  brood.  At  a 
later  stage  of  the  Convention  a  committee  was  ap- 
pointed to  ask  the  Legislature  to  pass  an  Act  to  that 

Mr.  S.  Cornell,  of  Lindsay,  then  brought  up  the  pro- 
position of  asking  the  Government  to  grant  a  sum  of 
money  to  pay  the  expenses  of  a  scientific  lecturer  to 
deliver  a  course  of  lectures  in  Canada. 

The  impression  was  that  after  the  late  grant  bee- 
keepers should  not  ask  for  such  an  outlay,  and  for  the 
present  the  matter  was  dropped. 

The  evening  session  now  opened.  This  session  had 
been  set  apart  in  honour  of  the  returned  delegates. 

Mr.  S.  T.  Pettit  addressed  the  meeting.  He  mentioned 
how  Doctor  Thorn,  of  Streetsville,  had,  in  his  retiring 
address  as  President  of  the  Association,  pointed  out  the 
advisability  of  the  display  at  Kensington,  and,  step  by 
step,  the  work  had  been  executed  until,  at  the  close  of 
the  Exhibition,  they  felt  their  most  sanguine  expecta- 
tions had  been  realised,  and  Ontario  bee-keepers  had 
every  reason  to  congratulate  themselves  on  their  success. 
The  different  characteristics  of  honey  from  other  colonies 
•were  given,  and  in  his  opinion  none  could  compete  in  any 
quantity  with  Ontario  honey.  He  emphasised  the  neces- 
sity of  sending  only  the  clearest  and  best  honey,  and  by 
so  doing  they  woidd  have  a  trade-mark  which  could  not 
be  imitated  to  any  extent. 

Mr.  S.  Corneil  then  spoke.  He  mentioned  the  mistake 
made  by  sending  too  large  packages  of  extracted  honey, 
also  crates  of  comb  honey,  both  for  selling  and  exhibition 
purposes.  They  had  used  a  very  small  package  of  tin, 
also  in  glass,  besides  distributing  free  to  visitors  a  large 
quantity  in  '  tastes '  of  honey.  He  was  satisfied  with 
proper  management  Britain  could  consume  more  honey 
than  Ontario  could  produce.  The  honey  must,  how- 
ever, not  go  through  too  many  hands. 

Mr.  E,.  McKnight  then  related,  in  his  well-known 
pleasing  strain,  many  amusing  incidents  of  their  journey 
and  work.  He  thought  much  credit  was  due  to  those 
who  had  brought  out  their  honey,  not  knowing  what 
their  returns  would  be ;  also  to  the  Ontario  Government 
for  their  grant,  and  the  Dominion  Government  for  their 
ever-ready  and  courteous  assistance,  also  the  transport 

lines.     Mr.  McKnight  had   a  large  number  of  letters 
speaking  in  the  highest  terms  of  Ontario  honey. 

A  unanimous  vote  of  thanks  was  then  passed  to  the 
British  tee-keepers  for  their  very  kind  reception  of  the 
Ontario  delegates,  and  all  the  attention  which  had  been 
shown  them. 

Mr.  Abbott  thanked  the  Association  on  behalf  of  the 
British  bee-keepers. 

9  a.m.,  January  0. 

President  in  the  chair.  A  discussion  upon  the  hive 
question  then  took  place.  There  was  a  very  great 
diversity  of  opinion  as  to  the  best  hive.  Mr.  Pettit 
thought  a  frame  not  less  than  8  inches,  or  more  than 
0  inches,  would  be  the  best,  and  he  recommended  the 
tiering-up  system.  There  were  some  who  thought  a  hive 
with  comb  less  than  8  inches  advisable,  and  one  or  two 
did  not  object  to  a  frame  a  little  deeper  than  9  inches. 
The  tiering-up  system  was  recommended  to  enable  hor.ey 
to  be  ripened,  and  at  the  same  time  allow  lees  ample 
storage  room. 

Mr.  J.  B.  Hall  then  spoke  of  what  had  been  done 
during  the  presidency  of  Mr.  Pettit,  and  largely  through 
his  instrumentality  they  had  secured  incorporation,  a 
grant  of  $1000  to  defray  expenses  at  the  Colonial,  an 
annual  grant  of  $o00,  the  grand  display  of  honey  in 
England,  and  he  would,  therefore,  ask  the  Association 
to  re-elect  Mr.  Pettit. 

Rev.  W.  F.  Clarke  objected  to  presidencies  for  more 
than  one  year. 

The  Rev.  W.  F.  Clarke  and  Mr.  J.  B.  Hall  were  also 
nominated,  the  latter,  however,  asked  to  withdraw,  and 
when  his  request  was  not  granted  he  asked  all  who 
wished  hi  in  well  to  support  Mr.  Pettit. 

Mr.  Pettit  was  elected  President,  and  Mr.  J.  B.  Hall 

The  Directors  were  then  elected,  who,  during  a  meeting 
after  the  close  of  the  Convention,  elected  Mr.  W.  Couse 
of  Meadowvale,  Ontario,  Secretary. 

The  utility  of  perforated  metal  was  next  discussed. 
All  wdio  had  used  it  and  knew  what  it  was  to  be  with 
and  without  it  testified  that  it  was  a  great  acquisition 
to  the  apiary. 

Mr.  Abbott  related  the  first  experiments  with  it,  how 
it  had  been  in  favour,  but  was  now  but  little  used  ;  the 
variation  in  the  honey  flow  might,  however,  make  the 

The  afternoon  session  consisted  chiefly  of  business, 
and  at  3.00  p.m.  the  Convention  adjourned  to  mest  in 
Woodstock  the  second  week  in  January,  1838. — R.  F. 
IIoltehmann,  Brantford,  Canada. 



The  annual  meeting  of  the  Cornwall  Bee-keepers' 
Association  was  held  on  Wednesday,  January  26,  at  the 
Town  Hall,  Truro,  under  the  presidency  of  the  Rev.  0. 
R.  Sowell.  There  were  also  present  the  Rev.  A.  R. 
Tomlinson,  Mrs.  Tomlinson,  Mrs.  Polwhele,  Mrs.  Hockin, 
Messrs.  T.  R.  Polwhele,  T.  Cragoe,  T.  Treleaven,  G.  E. 
George,  G.  Gradidge,  and  C.  Kent  (lion,  secretary). 

On  the  motion  of  Mr.  Cragoe,  seconded  by  Mr. 
Gradidge,  the  following  report  of  the  committee  was 
adopted : — 

The  committee  have  to  congratulale  the  Association 
upon  an  increase  in  the  number  of  members  and  upon 
having  passed  a  fairly  successful  year.  Our  members 
now  number  179  as  compared  with  160  last  year,  but  the 
total  subscriptions  promised  and  received  are  slightly  less, 
being  42A  18s.  Gd.  as  compared  with  461.  3*.  last  year. 
The  amount  not  paid  is  11/.  10s.  Gd.,  but  the  committee 
have  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  greater  part  of  this 
will  be  collected  during  the  coming  year.  The  visits  to 
the  apiaries  of  members  in  183o  were  so  sreatly  appre-i 



[February  3,  1887 

dated  that  the  committee  decided  to  adopt  a  similar 
course  in  the  past  year.  This  useful  work  was  carried 
out  by  the  Rev.  C.  JR.  Sowell,  Rev.  J.  A.  Kempe,  Mr.  T. 
Treleaven,  and  the  Secretary.  It  would  be  a  great 
advantage  if  a  few  of  our  members  could  gain  experts' 
certificates  to  enable  the  committee  to  divide  the  county 
into  districts,  and  so  carry  out  a  systematic  visitation  to 
all  members,  at  least  once  a-year,  at  slight  cost.  The 
annual  show  of  appliances  was  again  held  in  connexion 
with  the  Royal  Cornwall  Agricultural  Association's 
exhibition,  and  the  St.  Austell  local  committee  made  a 
grant  of  167.  towards  the  expenses.  Mr.  S.  J.  Baldwin 
was  engaged  as  expert,  and  the  show  was  a  most  attrac- 
tive and  successful  one,  though  owiug  to  its  being  held 
so  early  in  the  season  the  competition  in  the  honey  classes 
was  limited.  Shows  were  also  held  at  St.  Germans, 
Wadebridge,  and  Fowey,  but  in  neither  case  did  the 
takings  meet  the  expenses.  At  these  shows  the  mani- 
pulation tent  was  under  the  charge  of  the  Rev.  J.  A. 
Kempe,  Rev.  C.  R.  Sowell,  Mr.  T.  Treleaven,  and  Mr.  E. 
Gradidge,  to  whom  the  thanks  of  the  committee  are  due 
for  their  kind  exertions  to  promote  the  interests  of  the 

The  statement  of  accounts  showed  that  the  assets 
exceeded  the  liabilities  by  '21.  8s.  Id. 

The  Earl  of  Mouut  Edgcumbe  was  re-elected  president. 
The  vice-presidents  were  re-appointed  as  follows: — Hon. 
and  Rev.  J.  Townshend  Boscawen,  Mrs.  Digby  Collins, 
Mr.  T.  Martin  (Plymouth),  Lord  Robartes,  Sir  John  St. 
Aubyn,  Bart.,  M.P.,  and  the  Earl  of  St.  Germans.  Mr. 
A.  P.  Nix  was  re-elected  treasurer,  and  Mr.  C.  Kent 
secretary.  The  following  were  elected  as  the  com- 
mittee : — Mr.  A.  Bailey,  Liskeard ;  Mr.  W.  K.  Baker, 
Towednack;  Mr.  J.  Branwell,  jun.,  Penzance;  Mr.  G.  H. 
Chilcott,  Truro;  Mr.  T.  Cragoe,  Sunset,  Truro ;  Mr.  G. 
Dixon,  Truro;  Mr.  G.  Gradidge,  Truro;  Mr.  G.  E. 
George,  Probus;  Mr.  J.  W.  Harrison,  Tregony ;  Mrs. 
Hockin,  Flushing;  Mr.  J.  Lander,  Laveddon,  Bodmin; 
Mr.  II.  B.  Neame,  Portreath;  Mr.  W.  Nickell,  Helland ; 
Mr.  W.  Prockter,  Launceston;  Mr.  T.  R.  Polwhele, 
Polwhele,  Truro  ;  Mrs.  Polwhele,  Polwhele,  Truro  ;  Mr. 
E.  Rashleigh,  Par ;  Rev.  W.  Rogers,  Mawnan  ;  Rev.  C.  R. 
Sowell,  St.  Goran;  Mrs.  Tom,  Rosedale,  Truro  ;  Rev.  A. 
R.  Tomlinson,  St.  Michael  Penkivel ;  Mrs.  Tomlinson, 
St.  Michael  Penkivel;  Mr.  T.  Treleaven,  Creed;  Mr.  J. 
"Williams,  Scorrier  House,  Scorrier. 

Votes  of  thanks  to  the  Chairman  for  presiding  and  the 
Mayor  for  the  use  of  the  room  terminated  the  pro- 


AVe  give  below  an  abstract  of  the  Annual  .Report  of 
the  above  Association,  which  was  held  at  Reading  on 
Saturday  last.  In  our  issue  of  January  Oth,  we  bad  the 
pleasure  to  notice  a  pleasant  social  gathering  of  the 
members  and  friends  in  tho  Windsor  district.  We  under- 
stand_  that  arrangements  have  been  made  to  hold  one  of 
a  similar  nature  at  Reading,  on  February  24th ;  and  it  is 
hoped  to  extend  these  gatherings  to  all  the  eleven 
districts  into  which  the  county  has  been  divided,  thereby 
enabling  its  members  to  talk  over  bee  matters,  and  take 
counsel  with  each  other  for  the  coming  season.  Arrange- 
ments have  been  made  by  the  Berks  B.K.  A.,  in  con- 
nexion with  the  Hants  and  Isle  of  Wight  B.  K.  A.,  to 
take  charge  of  the  bee  department  of  the  Royal  Counties 
Agricultural  Societies'  Show  to  be  held  at  Reading  in 
June  next.  A  show  will  also  be  held  at  Windsor  in 
connexion  with  Prince  Consort's  Association,  in  which 
Her  Majesty  takes  so  great  an  interest,  besides  shows 
in  other  parts  of  the  county. 

The  Committee  beg  to  present  their  Seventh  Annual 
Report  to  the  Members,  and  to  congratulate  them  on  the 
strength  of  the  Association  —  there  being  now  26G 
members  on  the  list,  conclusively  proving  that  its  ad- 

vantages and  privileges  are  being  appreciated,  and  that 
the  Association  has  been  enabled  to  spread  and  encourage 
modern  bee-keeping  among  a  larger  circle  and  over  a 
wider  area.  This  increase  has  been  largely  due  to  the 
adoption  of  the  District  or  Branch  system,  which  has 
been  very  successfully  at  work  during  the  past  year. 
The  thanks  of  the  members  are  due  to  those  gentlemen 
who  have  so  kindly  undertaken  the  duties  of  District 
Honorary  Secretaries,  for  their  earnest  efforts  on  behalf 
of  the  Association.  There  are  still  wanting  Hon.  Secre- 
taries for  the  Abingdon,  Bradfield,  and  Maidenhead  Dis- 

Among  the  chief  features  of  a  very  active  year's  work 
was  the  Great  Exhibition  of  Honey,  &c,  held  by  the 
British  Bee-keepers'  Association  at  South  Kensington, 
from  July  30th  to  August  5th,  and  it  may  safely  be  said 
that  on  no  previous  occasion  has  there  been  brought  to- 
gether such  a  magnificent  display,  notwithstanding  the 
fact  that  the  honey  season  had  been  but  an  indifferent 
one.  On  the  invitation  of  the  British  Bee-keepers'  Asso- 
ciation, your  Committee  decided  to  take  part  in  the 
County  Competition,  and  sent  out  a  circular  asking 
members  to  contribute  to  the  display,  which  was 
responded  to  by  the  following  : — Messrs.  Bowly,  Bunce, 
Champion,  Clegg,  Coombes,  E.  Cooper,  G.  M.  Ma}r, 
Miller,  Rayer,  Reeley,  Whittle,  Wright,  W.  Woodley, 
and  Woodley  Bros.  The  Committee  were  enabled  to 
stage  upwards  of  half  a  ton  of  hone}"-  and  wax  on  the 
Berkshire  stand,  proving  that  the  County  can  hold  her 
own  in  the  bee-keeping  world. 

The  Annual  Show  was  held  at  Reading,  on  August 
26th,  when  the  Corporation  kindly  granted  your  Com- 
mittee the  free  use  of  the  Abbey  Ruins,  and  the  Reading 
Horticultural  Society  allowed  their  large  tent  to  be  used 
on  the  occasion.  This  was  one  of  the  most  successful 
shows  ever  held  by  a  County  Association,  and  almost  the 
first  that  has  been  held  independently.  The  classes  for 
honey,  wax,  hives,  &c,  were  well  filled.  Class  14,  for 
recent  inventions  of  service  to  bee-keeping,  and  Classes 
15  to  20,  for  honey  in  its  applied  form,  were  particularly 
noteworthy.  The  prizes  were  kindly  distributed  by  Mrs. 
Murdoch.  The  Silver  Medal  of  the  British  Bee-keepers' 
Association  was  won  by  the  Rev.  R.  Errington  ;  the 
Bronze  by  W.  Woodley ;  and  the  Certificate  by 
Woodley  Bros.  The  judging,  which  was  a  very  arduous 
task,  was  ably  carried  out  by  the  Hon.  and  Rev.  II. 
Bligh,  Rev.  J.  L.  Seager,  and  Otto  Hehner,  Esq.,  F.C.S., 
F.I.C.  The  bee  tent  was  a  source  of  much  interest,  and 
the  driving  competition  by  amateurs  was  well  contested. 
The  show  was  visited  during  the  day  by  upwards  of 
3000  people. 

Very  successful  shows  have  been  held  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Windsor  Branch,  at  Ciewer,  on  August 
2nd,  in  conjunction  with  the  Ciewer  Horticultural 
Society  ;  and  by  the  Faringdon  District,  in  conjunction 
with  the  Faringdon  Horticultural  Society. 

The  See  Journal  has  been  circulated  among  most  of 
the  members,  and  under  the  now  system  adopted  this 
year,  considerable  improvement  has  been  apparent,  but 
with  the  more  rapid  issue  difficulties  continue  to  arise 
by  members  detaining  it  more  than  the  allotted  time. 

Most  of  the  members'  apiaries  were  visited  by  the 
expert  at  the  commencement  of  the  season.  He  reports 
that,  owing  to  the  late  spring,  bees  were  in  a  very  back- 
ward condition,  and,  in  consequence,  the  honey  yield  must 
be  considered  below  the  average. 

The  bee  tent  has  been  of  much  use  at  the  various  local 
shows,  viz.,  Henley-on-Thames  (in  conjunction  with  the 
Oxfordshire  Bee-keepers'  Association),  Beading  (twice), 
Whitchurch,  Steventou,  Shiplake,  Windsor,  Easthamp- 
stead,  Bradfield,  Winkfield,  Abingdon,  Faringdon, 
Maidenhead,  Remenham,  AVokingham,  and  Walthara- 
St.-Lawrance,  when  lectures  have  been  given  on 
practical  bee-keeping,  by  Messrs.  A.  D.  Woodley, 
Fewtrell,  Webster,  and  Cobb. 

February  '6,  1887.] 



In  June  of  this  year  the  Royal  Counties'  Agricultural 
Society  will  hold  their  Annual  Show  at  Reading-,  when 
your  Committee  propose  to  unite  with  the  Hants  and 
Isle  of  Wight  Bee-keepers'  Association  in  a  joint  Show. 
To  make  the  Bee  Department  a  success,  members  are 
asked  to  kindly  he  prepared  to  exhibit  and  otherwise 
support  the  Committee. 

With  great  regret  the  Committee  have  to  announce 
the  resignation  of  the  Hon.  Secretary,  Mr.  Bowty,  who 
has  ceased  to  reside  iu  the  county,  and  is  at  too  great  a 
distance  to  give  the  necessary  personal  attention  to 
the  duties.  The  thanks  of  the  members  are  due  to 
him  for  the  vast  amount  of  time  and  labour  he  has 
devoted  to  the  interest  and  welfare  of  the  Associa- 
tion ;  his  duties  have  been  ably  carried  on  by  Mr. 
A.  D.  AYoodley.  The  Association  have  also  lost  the 
services  of  Mrs.  Curry,  and  Mr.  W  B.  Kingswood 
from  the  Committee. 

The  Committee  regret  to  have  to  present  you 
with  a  Balance-sheet  showing  a  deficit,  but  this  is 
more  than  met  by  arrears  of  subscriptions  and  out- 
standing accounts. 


The  annual  meeting  of  the  Huntingdonshire  Bee- 
keepers' Association  was  held  in  the  '  Fountain  '  hotel  at 
Huntingdon,  on  Saturday,  January  15th.  The  President, 
the  Earl  of  Sandwich,  was  in  the  chair,  and  the  members 
present  included  Col.  Marshall,  Rev.  H.  S.  Budge,  Rev. 
C.  C.  James,  Mr.  T.  Coote,  jun.,  and  Messrs.  C.  N. 
White,  J.  H.  Howard,  A.  Cbilds,  E.  Allen,  Z.  Hobbs, 
&c,  &c. 

The  first  business  was  to  present  the  balance-sheet  for 
the  past  year.  This  showed  a  deficit  of  51.  8s.  iid., 
the  receipts  being  18?.  16s.  Qd.  and  the  expenditure 
231.  19s.  lOid.  The  Secretary  (Mr.  C.  N.  White)  then 
read  the  annual  report.  Lectures  had  been  given  at 
Hemiugford  Abbots  and  at  Offord  Cluney,  and  from 
both  of  these  places  new  members  had  been  promised 
for  the  ensuing  year.  The  bee-tent  was  erected  at  the 
annual  show,  and  addresses  were  then  given  to  large 
audiences  by  Mr.  J.  II.  Howard  and  the  Secretary  (Mr. 
C.  N.  White).  At  the  annual  show  held  at  St.  Ives  on 
August  5th.  the  B.B.K.A.  silver  medal  was  awarded 
to  Mr.  T.  Cook  of  Yaxley,  the  bronze  medal  to  Mr. 
J.  II.  Howard,  jun.,  of  Holme,  and  the  certificate 
of  the  Association  to  Mr.  J.  H.  King  of  Holme.  The 
report  and  balance-sheet  were  adopted  upon  the  motion 
of  Col.  Marshall  and  the  Rev.  H.  S.  Budge. 

Lord  Sandwich  accepted  again  the  office  of  presideut. 
Captain  Fellows,  M.P.,  Mr.  F.  R.  Beart,  Captain  Dun- 
combe,  Lord  Esme  Gordon,  Lord  Douglas  Gordon,  and 
Messrs.  H.  Goodman,  A.  W.  Marshall,  A.  Sperling, 
C.  P.  Tebbutt,  A.  J.  Thornhill,  W.  Wells,  T.  Coote,  jun., 
and  Mrs.  Puckle,  were  elected  vice-presidents  ;  Rev. 
C.  G.  Hill,  Mr.  J.  H.  Howard,  Rev.  J.  Jickling,  Mr.  J. 
Linton,  Rev.  N.  Royds,  Mr.  G.  J.  Rust,  Rev.  C.  C.  James, 
and  Messrs.  F.  B.  Thackray,  A.  Sharp,  B.  Bull,  Z.  Hobbs, 
A.  Childs,  and  E.  Allen,  were  elected  Committee  ;  Col. 
A.  W.  Marshall  treasurer ;  and  C.  N.  White  secre- 
tary. Mr.  J.  Linton  and  Mr.  J.  II.  Howard  were 
appointed  to  represent  the  Society  at  the  quarterly 
meetings  of  the  British  Bee-keepers'  Association. 

The  Earl  of  Sandwich  moved  that  in  future  the 
members  of  the  Society  should  be  divided  into  two 
classes — cottagers  and  amateurs ;  and  that,  in  order  to 
prevent  the  bulk  of  the  prizes  falling  into  the  hands  of 
two  or  three  individuals,  no  member  should  be  permitted 
to  take  more  than  one  first  and  one  second  prize  at  any 
competition.  This  was  seconded  by  the  Rev.  IT.  S. 
Budge,  and  unanimously  adopted. 

The  meeting  concluded  with  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the 
Earl  of  Sandwich  for  his  services  as  chairman. 


Swanmore  Branch. 

A  committee  meeting  of  the  above  Society  was  held 
on  Tuesday  evening,  January  25th,  1887,  at  Swanmore 
Vicarage;  when  there  were  present  the  Rev.  AV.  E. 
Medlicott  (in  the  chair),  Miss  Medlicott,  Miss  Myers, 
and  Messrs.  C.  Martin,  E.  Ainsley,  G.  Horner,  and  H. 
AV.  West  (Hon.  Secretary). 

The  lion,  secretary  said  that  he  had  called  the  meet- 
ing to  consider  the  advisability  of  holding  a  series  of 
lectures  in  the  villages  comprising  the  district ;  he  stated 
that  he  was  himself  most  strongly  in  favour  of  the 
scheme,  as  from  his  experience  of  last  year,  not  only 
were  the  lectures  then  given  well  attended,  but  that 
many  people  who  then  knew  nothing  whatever  of  bee- 
keeping, were  now,  through  hearing  those  lectures, 
bee-keepers.  The  hon.  sec.  also  said  that  the  number 
of  new  members  gained  at  those  lectures  more  than  paid 
the  expense  of  them. 

A  discussion  then  ensued,  the  Rev.  AV.  E.  Medlicott, 
Miss  Myers,  Mr.  C.  Martin,  &c,  taking  part  in  it.  The 
Rev.  AV.  E.  Medlicott  expressed  himself  most  strongly 
in  favour  of  the  lectures  being  held,  and  also  kindly 
offered  to  give  two  of  the  series.  Mr.  C.  Martin  fol- 
lowed, to  the  effect  that  he  was  sure  the  lectures  were  a 
means  of  doing  good  work  amongst  the  poorer  class,  and 
rightly  mentioned  that  that  was  the  class  which  they 
wanted  to  reach  ;  in  concluding,  he  also  said  that  he 
would  be  happy  to  help  the  hon.  sec.  by  taking  one  or 
two  of  the  lectures.  The  hon.  sec.  thanked  both  these 
gentlemen  for  their  kind  offers,  and  the  meeting  closed 
with  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  chairman. 


The  Editor  does  not  liold  himself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed 
by  his  correspondents.  No  attention  will  be  taken  of  anonymous  com- 
munications, and  correspondents  are  requested  to  write  on  one  side  of 
the  paper  only,  and  give  their  real  names  and  addresses,  not  necessarily 
for  publication,  but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith.  Illustrations  should 
be  drawn  on  separate  pieces  of  paper. 

Communications  relating  to  the  literary  department,  reports  of 
Associations,  Shows,  Meetings,  Echoes,  Queries,  Books  for  Review, 
&c,  must  be  addressed  only  to  *The  Editor  of  the  "British  Bee 
Journal,"  cjo  Messrs.  Strangeways  and  Sons,  Tower  Street,  Upper 
St.  Martin's  Lane,  London,  W.  C  All  business  communications  relating 
to  Advertisements,  &c,  must  be  addressed  to  Mr.  J.  Huckle,  King's 
Langley,  Herts  (see  2nd  page  of  Advertisements). 

%*  In  order  to  facilitate  reference,  Correspondents,  when  speaking  oj 
any  letter  or  query  previously  inserted,  will  oblige  by  mentioning  the 
number  of  the  letter,  as  well  as  the  page  on  vihich  it  appears. 


[798.]  AVith  your  permission  I  should  like  to  offer 
two  suggestions  for  the  consideration  of  your  readers 
in  general,  and  of  the  Committee  of  the  B.B.K.A. 
in  particular.  I  have  been  examining  the  Rev.  F.  G. 
Jenyns'  Book  about  Bees — a  most  interesting  book — and 
I  have  been  thinking  two  things  which  I  hope  every 
teacher  in  the  country  will  do.  I  can  conceive  no  hobby 
which  a  teacher  can  follow  which  is  at  once  so  pleasur- 
able and  profitable  as  bee-keeping.  Even  our  lady 
teachers  might  take  it  up.  All  would  find  in  it  wholesome 
relaxation  for  both  mind  and  body,  and  any  one  fond  of 
using  tools  could,  perhaps,  make  a  hive  or  two. 

Many  teachers  keep  bees,  but  many  do  not.  .How 
shall  we  induce  them  to  do  so  ?  AVell,  the  Teachers' 
Union  includes  more  than  300  local  associations,  whose 
meetings  are  held  in  some  school,  monthly,  bi-monthly, 
or  quarterly.  Could  not  some  of  our  experts  be  sent  to 
address  each  of  the  County  Associations  upon  the  sub- 
ject of  bee-keeping  once  during  the  coining  season?  The 
dates  of  meetings  could  be  obtained  from  the  local 
secretaries,  whose  addresses  would  be  found  in  the 
Annual  Report  of  the  Union.  I  think  many  would  be 
glad  to  hear  about  the  subject.     Last  year  I  addressed 



[February  3,?1887. 

the  members  of  one  Association  upon  bee-keeping,  and 
by  the  time  tins  appears  in  print  shall,  I  hope,  have 
brought  the  Booh  about  Bees  under  the  notice  of  the 
members.  I  made,  at  least,  one  convert.  I  forgot  to 
mention  that  meetings  are  held  generally  on  Saturday 
afternoons,  and  that  the  Union  numbers  about  10,000 

My  second  suggestion  is  this.  Our  County  Associations 
are  not  able  to  do  so  much  as  I  think  they  might, 
because  they  embrace  too  large  an  area.  Why  not 
follow  the  example  of  the  Teachers'  Union,  and  have 
district  associations,  each  -with  its  honorary  officers  ? 
The  meetings  might  be  held  in  some  school,  the  use  of 
which  most  school  managers  would  readily  grant  for 
so  useful  an  object.  The  teachers  would,  if  bee-keepers, 
be  pleased  to  act  as  local  secretaries,  at  any  rate,  for 
their  own  parish,  and  the  Association  would  be  more 
in  touch  with  its  members.  The  cottagers  would, 
perhaps,  be  more  easily  reached  by  this  means. 

If  you,  Mr.  Editor,  will  kindly  allow  these  suggestions 
to  be  discussed — if  they  are  deemed  of  sufficient  general 
interest  to  be  discussed — in  the  columns  of  the  B.B.J., 
perhaps  some  practical  result  may  follow?  Such,  at  any 
rate,  is  the  hope  of — A  Worker. 


[790.]  Most  of  us  will  remember  that  when  the  great 
annual  bee-shows  were  being  held  in  various  parts  of  the 
kingdom  during  the  past  summer,  the  decisions  of  the 
judges  called  forth  rather  severe  comments  from  several, 
both  exhibitors  and  non-exhibitors.  It  is  not  my  desire 
to  rekindle  a  phase  of  the  subject  which  is  happily  now 
laying  dormant,  but  to  suggest  what  I  hope  will  prevent 
a  repetition  of  some  of  the  anomalies  then  complained  of. 
Undoubtedly  the  judges  have  far  too  much  to  do  in  a 
given  time.  The  amount  of  work  involved  in  doing- 
justice  to  our  large  classes  of  appliances  is  equal  to  the 
work  expected  of  the  agricultural-implement  judges  at 
the  Royal  Agricultural  Society,  and  similar  shows;  and 
yet  we  expect  two,  or  three  men  at  most,  to  do  the  work 
of  ten  or  a  dozen.  Consequently  many  of  the  newest 
appliances  do  not  get  sufficient  attention,  exhibitors 
especially  stay  away,  at  least  until  they  have  forgotten 
the  disgust  with  which  they  left  the  last  show  at  which 
they  exhibited,  and  bee-keepers  generally  do  not  attach 
as  much  value  to  the  awards  as  they  would  if  those 
awards  gave  more  satisfaction  when  made.  To  increase 
the  number  of  judges  is  not  practical  on  the  score  of 
costs  ;  moreover,  outsiders  would  be  rather  amused  at 
the  sight,  so  that  all  thoughts  of  reform  in  that  quarter 
had  better  be  abandoned  at  the  outset.  Possibly  it 
■would  be  wise  to  select  the  judges  from  a  wider  area ; 
but  this  by  the  wa}r. 

The  next  best  remedy  I  have  to  suggest  is  on  the  lines 
of  "what  was  commenced  at  the  spring  quarterly  con- 
versazione of  the  British  Bee-keepers'  Association  last 
year.  Appliances  were  brought  to  that  meeting  and 
discussed,  and  a  vote  taken  as  to  their  utility.  At  the 
last  Conversazione,  held  on  January  10th,  of  this  year, 
the  vote  was  dispensed  with,  and  I  think  wisely,  because 
that  vote  was  not  binding  on  the  Committee  of  the 
B.  B.  K.  A.  to  grant  a  certificate  of  utility,  conse- 
quently it  might  lead  to  disappointment  and  unpleasant- 
ness. But  I  think  those  who  bring  out  new  appliances 
from  time  to  time  might  well  be  encouraged  to  bring  or 
send  them  to  the  Conversaziones  and  get  the  members 
there  assembled  to  discuss  them,  and  the  new  points  in 
the  various  appliances  should  be  recorded  to  the  credit  of 
those  who  first  exhibited  them,  subject  of  course  to  the 
protest,  of  any  who  may  be  able  to  prove  priority.  This 
will  probably  prove  the  most  fruitful  source  of  any 
trouble  there  may  bo  in  my  scheme,  but  something  of 
this  kind  may  -well  be  recognised  amongst  us,  as  we  do 
not  as  a  rule  go  to  the  Patent  Office;  and  I  much  doubt 

if  anything  appertaining  to  bee-hives  could  ever  be 
granted  a  patent  '  that  would  hold  water,'  but  the  fact 
of  our  avoiding  the  Patent  Office  need  not  prevent  us 
from  doing  justice  to  any  one  who  had  applied  a  new 
idea  to  bee-appliances,  by  withholding  the  credit  of  the 
same  from  any  exhibitor  who  may  have  pirated  another's 

The  next  requirement  is  a  Standing  Committee  of 
members  of  the  B.  B.  K.  A.  for  appliances  only.  Its 
members  need  not  be  chosen  exclusively  from  those 
fifteen  overworked  gentlemen  that  compose  the  General 
Committee  of  the  B.  B.  K.  A.,  although  those  who  usually 
act  as  judges  at  our  great  shows  should  of  necessity  be 
on  it.  The  duties  of  this,  which  we  will  name  '  Appliance 
Committee,'  should  be  to  thoroughly  overhaul  the  new 
appliances  that  may  be  submitted  from  time  to  time,  and 
award  certificates  to  those  of  sufficient  merit.  Then 
when  these  various  articles  already  certified  as  containing 
merit  are  brought  together  at  the  great  shows,  the  duty 
of  the  judges  would  be  to  define  the  degrees  of  merit  in 
each  case  and  make  their  awards  accordingly.  A  silver 
medal,  awarded  after  such  an  ordeal,  would  be  far  more 
valuable  in  the  eyes  of  manufacturers  and  bee-keepers 
generally,  and  we  should  get  the  award  of  one  set  of 
judges  at  one  show  reversed  b}r  another  set  at  another 
show  less  seldom  than  at  present ;  competition  in  ideas 
and  workmanship  would  be  more  spirited,  and  judging 
would  be  done  with  greater  care. 

What  I  should  wish  for,  above  all  things,  is  to  see  this 
well  discussed  by  those  most  interested ;  as  a  rule  we  are  far 
too  apathetic  in  everything  except  grumbling.  Some  of 
my  remarks  may  seem  like  reflecting  on  those  gentlemen 
who  undertake  the  duties  of  judges  from  time  to  time,  I 
need  scarcely  assure  them  I  give  them  every  credit  for 
doing  their  best ;  what  I  desire  is,  that  their  best  efforts 
may  for  the  future  give  satisfaction.  —  Amateur 


[800.]  I  see  by  your  show  announcements  that  the 
Yorkshire  show  is  announced  to  be  held  at  York  in 
August.  Now,  I  hope  that  the  show,  and  especially  the 
bee-department,  may  be  a  success,  and  I  trust  that  the 
bee-keepers  of  Yorkshire  will  do  all  they  can  to  make  it 
so.  I  also  notice  that  the  Hon.  Secretary  resides  at 
Poole,  which  is  only  a  few  miles  from  Horsforth,  so  that 
I  was  rather  surprised  that  Mr.  Grimshaw  was  not 
acquainted  with  him.  Now,  I  think  that  if  Mr.  Grim- 
shaw and  the  Secretary  would  co-operate,  and  use  their 
best  endeavours,  they  would  greatl}'  improve  the  exhibi- 
tion, and  also  the  Yorkshire  B.K.A.,  which,  there  can  be 
no  doubt,  requires  improvement.  AVe  should  be  pleased 
to  see  Yorkshire  enter  the  county  competition  at  the 
B.B.K.A.'s  annual  show,  as  I  feel  confident  that  there 
are  many  practical  bee-keepers  in  Yorkshire,  and  I  think 
Yorkshiremen  would  prove  bad  to  beat. 

Mr.  Editor,  I  must  not  trespass  too  much  upon  your 
space,  but  I  cannot  close  this  without  another  word  to 
the  Yorkshire  Association,  which  has  been  somewhat 
like  the  fat  boy  in  Pickwick,  doing  its  work  and  going 
about  half  asleep ;  but  let  it  wake  up  with  the  present  year, 
as  there  is  a  great  deal  of  work  to  be  done,  and  let  it  be 
done  in  a  manner  worthy  of  our  grand  old  county,  and 
then  it  will  be  a  pleasure  to  belong  to  the  Yorkshire 
B.K.A. — A.  Woodhead,  Ooole. 


[801.]  I  havo  just  seen  your  issue  for  January  0th, 
and  am  very  pleased  to  find  our  old  friend  James  Lee 
coming  to  the  fore  again.  I  am  also  glad  to  be  able  to 
confirm  all  his  statements  with  reference  to  one-piece 
sections,  &o.  As  I  was  one  of  the  few  bee-keepers  who 
took  special  notice  of  i,he  machine  referred  to,  I  can 

February  3,  1887.] 



perhaps  throw  some  light  on  the  reversable  hive  and  its 
application  to  practical  bee-keeping.  In  nearly  all  my 
conversations  with  bee-keepers  on  this  side  the  question 
of  the  Heddon  hive  has  turned  up,  and,  excepting  in  the 
case  of  those  most  interested  in  its  sale,  the  verdict  has 
been  invariably  against  it.  At  the  Ontario  Convention 
the  opinion  of  the  meeting  as  to  the  best  hive  was  asked  ; 
and  though  many  practical  honey-raisers  spoke  on  the 
subject,  no  one  mentioned  the  Heddon,  or  owned  to 
using  a  reversing  hive  of  any  kind  ;  and  on  the  matter 
being  put  tothe  vote,  the  meeting  was  almost  unanimously 
in  favour  of  the  Langstroth.  I  am  further  able,  through 
the  courtesy  of  Mr.  Aspinal,  editor  of  the  Bee-keepers' 
Magazine,  to  give  an  extract  from  a  letter  which  will 
appear  in  the  February  number  of  that  journal,  from 
the  pen  of  the  Kev.  W.  F.  Clarke,  the.  chief,  if  not  the 
only  disinterested  advocate  of  the  Heddon  hive  in  this 
country.  He  says,  in  reply  to  another  correspondent, 
and  referring  to  the  half  bee-space, '  I  visited  Mr.  Heddon 
on  my  way  to  the  North  American  Bee-keepers'  annual 
meeting  in  October,  and  he  distinctly  told. me  that  he 
never  claimed  to  have  that  feature  patented.  Moreover, 
he.  thought  so  little  of  it  that  he  meant  to  cease  using  it.' 
And  further,  '  It  is  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  ease  of 
inverting  is  the  main  feature  of  this  hive  ;  it  is  not.  I 
see  no  need  of  inverting  the  brood  frames  more  than 
once,  the  object  being  to  get  the  comb  built  out  evenly 
and  fully.  With  such  shallow  frames  even  once  in- 
verting is  not  always  necessary.  I  judge  from  my  own 
experience,  and  from  conversations  with  Mr.  Heddon 
and  his  assistants,  that  the  inversion  of  the  section  rack 
is  unnecessary,  and  often  inadvisable.' 

Mr.  Clarke  mentions  the  many  advantages  possessed  by 
this  hive,  but  he  does  not  give  one  which  was  not  also 
common  to  the  old  Carr-Stewarton,  and  almost  equally 
so  to  the  Woodbury,  or  any  other  frame-hive.  I  have  it 
also  on  good  authority  that  Mr.  Heddon  gave  it  as  his 
opinion  that  the  mere  making  of  hives  6  inches  deep 
would  not  be  any  infringement  of  his  patent.  Where 
then  is  the  valuable  part  of  his  'invention?'  He  dis- 
claims and  abandons  the  half  bee-space,  does  not  think 
much  of  the  reversing,  and  claims  nothing  for  the 
.shallow  boxes.  I  hope  some  one  will  enlighten  us  upon 
this.  I  shall  look  with  interest  at  the  future  numbers  of 
the  Bee-keeper's  Magazine. 

By  the  way,  many  of  ns  might  take  that  little  monthly 
with  advantage.  It  is  '  well  gotten  up,'  and  costs  only 
twenty-live  cents  per  annum— Is.  Id. — which  low  price 
is  making  it  popular.  Its  circulation  is  about  9000. — J.  A. 
Abbott,  Ifew  York,  January  Vith,  1887. 


[802.]  In  addition  to  the  method  lately  explained, 
there  are  others  which  suggest  themselves  in  cases  of 
emergency  for  early  spring  feeding.  Where  a  colony 
has  been  found  short  soon  after  mid-winter,  I  have  given 
lumps  of  granulated  honey  placed  upon  the  bare  frames, 
and  so  kept  them  along  until  syrup  could  be  fed  with 

At  other  times,  rather  than  break  open  the  cluster, 
a  frame  of  sealed  stores  has  been  laid  on  the  top-bars 
and  all  covered  up  warm.  Certainly  the  comb  is  cut 
about  more  than  when  inserted  below,  but  then  in  cases 
of  this  kind  we  are  fortunate  in  being  able  to  save  the 
stock,  and  there  is  a  great  advantage  in  thus  placing  the 
comb  of  honey,  as  it  is  within  easy  reach  of  every  seam 
of  bees. 

A  note  of  warning  here  may  not  be  out  of  place.  If 
colonies  have  died  from  any  cause,  and  stores  are  care- 
lessly left  in  the  hive,  the  other  bees  will  find  it  out  as 
soon  as  a  few  warm  days  come;  and  in  carrying  that 
little  honey  home  to  their  own  hive  much  needless  loss 
of  life  will  occur,  just  at  the  time  when  every  bee  should 
be  restrained  from  flying  as  far  as  possible. 

In  like  manner  out-door  feeding  is  very  injurious, 
unless  in  skilful  hands,  and  even  after  the  hives  are  well 
populated  with  young  bees,  the  practice  is  liable  to  lead 
to  serious  loss  of  strength. 

Several  correspondents  wish  to  know  if  the  Porto 
Rico  sugar  may  be  placed  over  the  feed-hole  in  first 
thicknesss  of  material  laid  on  the  frames.  Using  it  in 
that  manner  has  proved  quite  satisfactory  to  myself; 
but  the  hole  must  be  immediately  above  the  cluster, 
and  to  prevent  the  closing  of  so  small  a  space  by 
pressure  from  above,  a  piece  of  wood  0  inches  long  by 
li  inches  deep  should  be  placed  close  to  the  opening 
before  arranging  the  sugar. — S.  Simmins. 


[803.]  In  my  remarks  (778)  I  ventured  to  state  it  as 
my  opinion  that  'a  friendly  discussion  on  the  advantages 
or  disadvantages  of  this  hive  and  system  in  the  Journal' 
would  be  the  means  of  obtaining  information  useful  to 
those  who  wish  to  be  careful  how  they  discard  their 
present  hives  and  appliances  before  rushing  into  the 
trouble  and  expense  of  purchasing  others,  however  much 
they  may  have  been  cracked  up  by  those  who,  them- 
selves, have  had  to  admit  that  they  are,  at  present,  for 
all  practical  purposes  untried,  either  for  wintering  or 
honey-getting.  I  had  hoped  that  this  suggestion  would 
have  elicited  the  attention  of  some  of  our  many  practical 
and  experienced  bee-keepers,  whose  names  alone  would 
have  been  a  guarantee  for  the  soundness  of  their  opinions 
and  advice,  whether  for  or  against  this  or  any  other 
particular  system  or  theory  in  connexion  with  bee- 

'  Devonshire  Dumpling,'  who  may  for  aught  I  know  be 
one  of  these,  prefers  to  give  his  ideas  under  an  assumed 
name,  which  many  will  think  somewhat  detracts  from 
their  value,  writes  :  '  I  beg  to  sajr  I  have  tried  them  with 
several  hives  this  season,  and  all  gave  me  nearly  double 
the  amount  of  sections,' — I  presume  lie  means  double  the 
amount  of  sections  that  other  hives  gave  that  were  not 

It  is  no  uncommon  thing  in  some  seasons  for  different 
colonies  in  an  apiary,  in  similar  hives,  and  under  pre- 
cisely the  same  conditions,  so  far  as  we  know,  to  give  us 
double  the  amount  of  honey  that  others  do,  whether  we 
are  working  for  comb  or  for  extracted  honey  ;  therefore, 
as  'Devonshire  Dumpling'  says,  'I  having  tried  several' 
(hives)  'claim  a  right  to  say  it  is  a  good  plan.'  I  think 
we  may  fairty  ask  him  to  give  in  the  Journal  more 
detailed  particulars  of  his  experience,  the  conditions 
under  which  the  comparison  as  to  the  yield  of  honey 
was  made,  the  total  number  of  colonies  in  the  apiary, 
the  number  of  those  inverted,  the  ages  (approximate)  of 
the  queens,  description  of  the  hives  that  each  was  in, 
the  number  of  swarms  from  each  inverted  or  other  hive, 
and  the  number  of  sections  or  pounds  of  extracted  honey, 
and  other  information  he  may  be  able  to  give,  will,  I  am 
sure,  be  most  interesting  to  your  readers. 

It  would  almost  appear  unnecessary  for  '  D.  D.'  to  try 
the  Jones- Heddon  hive,  as  the  invertible  hive  he  has 
used  gives  '  nearly  double  the  amount  of  sections'  of 
his  ordinary  hives.  Surely  he  cannot  hope  to  do  more 
than  nearly  double  his  crop  by  the  use  of  a  particular 
'cheap'  hive. 

However  cheap  invertible  hives  can  be  obtained,  you, 
Mr.  Editor,  will,  I  think,  agree  with  me  the  time  is  not 
yet  come  for  '  the  cottager  bee-keeper  to  try  it.'  What 
is  required  for  the  cottager,  and  what  can  now  be 
obtained  from  most  or  all  British  manufacturers  of  hives, 
is  simply  a  hive  with  standard  frames  and  walls  at  least 
§  inches  (not  §  inches)  thick,  enough  to  stand  exposure 
in  our  damp  and  variable  climate,  having  a  proper  pro- 
jecting roof  or  cover. 

Competition  has  brought  the  price  of  hives  down,  and. 


[February  3,  1887. 

it  is  only  by  the  use  of  machinery  aud  the  quantity  sold 
that  there  can  be  any  profit;  and  I  am  convinced  that 
the  British  hive-maker  can  hold  his  own  against  all  the 
world  if  sound  workmanship  and  finish  are  taken  into 

To  be  cheap  a  thing  must  be  what  it  professes,  well 
made,  suitable  to  the  conditions  and  purposes  for  which 
it  is  intended,  otherwise  it  is  'dear  at  any  price]  however 
small. — John  M.  Hookek. 

[804.]  The  'Devonshire  Dumpling'  has  entirely  misap- 
prehended my  views  as  to  invertible  hives.  I  simply 
advised  that  caution  should  be  used,  and  I  still  think  it 
will  be  wise  for  bee-keepers  to  pause  before  going  largely 
into  inversion  of  hives.  Nothing  I  have  written  justifies 
the  assertion  that  '  I  seem  very  strongly  to  object  to 
invertible  hives.'  So  far  from  my  condemning  invertible 
hives,  I  have  designed  a  hive  and  frames  complete,  which 
I  think  will  favourably  compare  with  the  cheap  hives  of 
which  '  Devonshire  Dumpling '  speaks.  These  hives  can 
be  used  as  invertible  hives,  or  not,  at  the  pleasure  of  their 
owners.  The  improvements  in  construction  embrace 
every  requisite  of  a  modern  hive,  and  I  am  bold  enough 
to  say  that  the  method  adopted  is  a  step  forward  in 
several  details  that  have  hitherto  been  done  in  a  crude 
and  makeshift  manner  at  the  best.  I  am  patenting  this 
hive,  and  I  hope  shortly  to  have  the  unbiassed  opinions 
of  reliable  apiarists  on  its  merits. 

I  read  with  astonishment  '  Devonshire  Dumpling's ' 
advice  to  cottagers,  to  try  the  Jones-Heddon  hive. 
Surely  it  requires  no  argument  to  prove  its  utter  unsuit- 
ability  to  the  cottage  bee-keeper,  seeing  more  skill  and 
judgment  is  required  to  manipulate  this  hive  successfully 
than  any  other  in  use  at  the  present  day. 

With  regard  to  '  Devonshire  Dumpling's '  experience  in 
inverting,  1  would  remark  that  facts  stated  under  a  nom 
de  plume  lose  half  their  value.  I,  for  one,  am  anxious 
for  information,  aud  ask  '  Devonshire  Dumpling '  to  give 
us  further  particulars  of  his  management.  The  expres- 
sion used  of  having  '  tried  the  inversion  of  several  hives 
this  season  '  is  a  loose  way  of  putting  it,  and  what  would 
be  preferred,  I  apprehend,  is  something  more  than  such 
an  unknown  quantity. — James  Lee,  January  2M2nd. 


[80S.]  Whilst  all  our  inventors  are  busying  themselves 
over  new  designs  for  invertible  hives  I  take  this  oppor- 
tunity to  warn  them  off  my  latest  invention— the 
grandest  and  most  decided  advance  in  bee-culture  of 
modern  times.  Even  if  scouted  by  an  unsympathetic 
public  I  look  to  a  grateful  posterity  to  erect  a  statue 
(wax)  in  my  honour.  It  is  such  a  great  and  well-known 
advantage  to  be  able  to  reverse  the  hive  at  any  and 
every  time  and  renders  the  bees  so  comfortable  and  con- 
tented that  I  propose  at  once  making  a  hive  to  have 
every  facility  in  that  direction.  It  will  be  constructed 
with  circular  frames  fixed  to  an  axle  passing  through  the 
centres,  the  body  of  hive  to  be  cylindrical  and  to  be  half 
inch  wider  in  inside  diameter  than  the  outside  of  frames, 
a  portion  of  the  top  staves  being  removed  to  allow  of  a 
section  crate  above,  the  said  section  crate  to  be  either 
fixed  or  revolve  separately.  The  brood  combs  when 
finished  will  resemble  cart-wheels  revolving  in  a  barrel 
with  a  hole  up  top  for  the  bees  to  get  into  the  sections, 
the  centres  of  frames  being  connected  to  a  handle  out- 
side. It  will  be  among  other  advantages :  1  st,  A  great 
novelty  (this  is  enough  alone  to  command  an  enormous 
sale).  2nd,  The  immense  saving  of  labour  to  the  bees 
in  having  the  honey  just  collected  and  stored  at  bottom 
of  frames  carried  upstairs  by  revolving  t lie  handle,  and  a 
fresh  set  of  cells  brought  down  handy  for  the  field  bees  ; 
I  do  not  think  it  necessary  to  be  constantly  inverting  it — 

perhaps  for  a  man  with  but  little  spare  time  once  every 
ten  minutes  would  be  often  enough.  3rd,  A  great  in- 
ducement for  the  queen  to  la}'  eggs  when  she  comes 
unexpectedly  upon  empty  cells  which  she  distinctly 
remembers  filling  a  few  minutes  before  and  thus  be 
stimulated  to  renewed  efforts.  To  enumerate  all  the 
advantages  would,  I  fear,  cause  our  courteous  Editor  to 
hint  about  advertisement  colnmns,  so  I  must  conclude 
with  an  appeal  to  the  honour  of  brother  bee-keepers  not 
to  appropriate  my  idea,  as  the  doctors — I  mean  circum- 
stances over  which  I  have  no  control — prevent  me  from 
taking  out  a  patent  in — Colney  Hatch. 


[806.]  Just  a  few  lines  in  reply  to  Mr.  Ward.  He  says 
he  lias  no  agents  recognised  or  otherwise.  I  don't  know 
where  I  said  that  he  had,  in  fact,  I  don't  know  what 
he  sells. 

Mr.  Cheshire's  cure  did  not  fail  with  me  because  I 
gave  it  to  them  four  times  stronger  than  recommended,  as 
it  was  quite  the  reverse  of  that.  That  sentence  should 
have  been  '  reduced  four  times  below  the  strength  recom- 
mended,' but  by  some  means  the  word'below '  wasomitted. 
I  don't  know  whether  the  mistake  was  mine  or  the 
printer's,  but  even  then  1  don't  see  how  he  manages  to 
make  it  stronger  by  reduction;  but  I  suppose  in  these 
days  of  inverted  hives,  he  thought  he  would  invert  me. 
Perhaps  I  went  too  far  in  saying  that  all  agree  that  the 
Cheshire  formula  is  too  strong,  but  even  Mr.  Ward 
recommends  giving  it  to  the  bees  in  small  doses. 

Inverted  again,  killed  the  bees,  and  then  coidd  not 
cure  foul  brood,  but  now  we  have  it  ammonia's  the 
thing;  take  out  a  patent,  Mr.  Ward,  as  there  is  plenty 
of  that  about,  but  not  where  that  lot  of  bees  went  to. 
I  am  sorry  that  I  cannot  tell  him  how  to  distinguish 
a  diseased  queen  from  a  healthy  one,  but  if  he  wants  to 
requeen  any  of  his  hives  I  should  advise  him  to  get  his 
queens  from  an  apiary  that  he  knows  to  be  clear  of 
foul  brood. 

Thanks,  Mr.  Editor,  for  your  footnote  to  your  last 
letter,  I  am  in  hopes  that  the  correspondence  will  do 
some  of  us  afflicted  ones  good. — Man  op  Kent. 


[807.]  Your  readers  may  not  be  aware  that  the 
specifications  of  patents  taken  out  in  all  countries 
where  there  is  a  patent  law  are  filed  and  can  be  iuspected 
in  the  library  at  the  Patent  Office,  Chancer}'  Lane,  with- 
out payment  of  any  fee,  simply  by  signing  your  name 
and  address  in  a  book  as  you  enter.  There  is  also  a 
library  of  the  scientific  books  of  all  countries. 

After  the  little  business  I  had  at  the  Patent  Office  this 
week  was  done  I  amused  myself  looking  at  the  places  and 
specifications  of  some  of  the  American  bee-hives.  Seeing 
from  the  general  indexes  the  great  number  of  hives  that 
had  been  patented  in  the  United  States  I  thought  it 
might  be  of  interest  to  your  readers  to  know  the  number 
of  patents  taken  out  under  the  heading  '  lee-hives]  not 
including  extractors,  feeders  and,  &c,  and  I 
counted  up  the  numbers,  which  are  as  follows : — From 
the  commencement  up  to  the  end  of  the  year  187.'!,  591  ; 
1874,  22  ;  1875, 17 ;  1876,  22  ;  1877,  33 ;  1878, 33 ;  1879, 
18;  1880,  12;  1881,  10;  1882,  8;  1883,  10 ;  1884,8; 
1885,  20;  part  of  1886,  6:  total,  816. 

You  will  see  that  the  year  1886  is  not  yet  completed, 
but  up  to  the  latest  returns  the  enormous  number  of  816 
patents  have  been  taken  out  for  '  bee-hives.'  I  examined 
about  thirty  of  the  most  recent  ones,  and  I  should  much 
like  those  gentlemen  who  consider  that  we  get  all  our 
best  ideas  from  America  to  spend  a  day  there  in  search 
of  ideas  worthy  of  imitation,  and  I  feel  convinced  that 
whatever  their  opinion  of  the  superiority  of  American 

February  3,  1887.] 



appliances  had  previously  been  lie  will  go  away  surprised 
to  find  that  any  one  would  ever  patent  the  rubbish  he 
sees  illustrated  and  described  there.  Upon  inquiry  of  a 
patent  agent,  I  find  a  patent  costs  more  there  than  here, 
since  the  alteration  of  our  patent  law. — -John  M. 

<£.c{  ixam  %  lite. 

Honey  Cott,  Weston,  Leamington,  January  19th. — After 
such  a  long  spell  of  cold  weather  we  have  had  a  grand 
change,  and  such  a  time  for  the  bees  to  fly ;  there  was  no 
mistake  about  their  enjoying  it,  after  being  cooped  up  so 
long.  As  there  was  such  a  lot  of  snow  lying  about  among 
my  hives,  I  had  to  put  straw  down  to  save  the  bees  from 
settling  on  it  to  their  destruction.  January  20th. — On 
looking  over  some  hives  to-day,  at  dinner-time,  with  the 
sun  shining  bright  and  warm,  the  pleasant  hum  of  the  bees 
was  very  enjoyable  after  such  severe  weather  ;  bees  on  the 
whole  look  bright  and  healthy.  January  25th. — Another 
nice  mild  day,  bees  flying  in  great  numbers.  January  2(ith. 
— Such  a  lovely  day !  I  took  advantage  of  it,  and  had  the 
afternoon  to  look  over  my  stocks,  and  found  four  lots  that 
had  lost  a  good  number  of  bees  (bad  management) ;  but  I 
excuse  myself  on  the  plea  that  I  had  not  time  or  a  chance 
to  see  to  them  ;  a  couple  of  stocks  bad  dysentery  very  bad  ; 
found  all  other  stocks  in  fair  order ;  had  quite  a  job  in 
drying  quilts,  &c.  January  '21th. — Sun  shining  very  warm 
again,  birds  and  bees  singing  away,  hope  we  shall  not  have 
a  pinch  for  it.  January  31st. — A  very  nice  day  again,  bees 
fetching  water,  showing  they  are  making  a  move  for  breed- 
ing, etc. — John  Walton. 

TrefEglwys. — Bees  here  had  first  flight  on  20th  January. 
They  were  unable  to  fly  from  12th  November  to[29th  January. 
To-day,  29th  January,  first  pollen  gathered.  Leg  of  one 
pollen-gatherer  sent  to  editor  with  this  note. — T.  Bonner 
Chambers,  F.L.S. 

South  Cornwall,  January  25th. — It  is  long  since  I  sent 
forth  a  sound  from  these  parts  (in  this  column  at  least). 
Like  many  others,  I  suppose,  there  has  been  little  or 
nothing  to  report.  The  weather  has  not  been  so  severe  as 
in  some  parts  of  England,  but  we  have  had  an  unsettled 
and  uncomfortable  winter.  Yet  bees  have  flown  at  intervals. 
Many  are  out  to-day,  and  I  have  had  the  opportunity  of 
taking  a  peep  at  some  of  them.  I  perceive  that  five  stocks 
are  well  supplied  with  sealed  stores  till  breeding  sets  in  at 
any  rate,  and  I  expect  that  nine  others  are  equally  well  off. 
I  am  sorry  to  say  that  I  know  of  two  small  stocks  starved 
to  death  for  want  of  judgment.  But  '  live  and  learn,'  only 
in  the  process  the  bees  do  not  do  the  former.  In  your  last 
number  you  mentioned  the  use  of  crown-boards.  I  have 
used  them  (in  five  slips)  for  years  a-top  of  some  of  Lee's 
hives,  which  stand  well.  They  have  then-  uses.  They 
make  a  snug  cover  for  winter,  and  enable  you  to  close  a 
portion  of  the  top  of  the  hive  when  repairing,  say,  towards 
the  close  of  the  season,  with  a  single  Benthall  crate.  But 
the  disadvantage  for  winter  work  is  this,  that  if  they  lie 
next  the  hive  you  cannot  well  inspect  at  this  season  without 
a  jar,  therefore  put  down  a  cloth  first,  and,  if  you  like,  your 
slips  on  top  of  this.  So  I  see  the  top-ventilation  theory  is 
being  given  up.  I  don't  wonder  at  it.  I  remember  years 
ago  mentioning  to  Mr.  Abbott  how  inconsistent  it  seemed 
to  me  with  the  determined  practice  of  the  bees  to  propolise 
every  crevice. — C.  B.  S. 

Loughbrickland,  Co.  Down. — This  parish  lies  high,  from 
400  to  500  feet  above  the  sea.  The  few  bee-keepers  in  it 
find  it  well  suited  for  producing  honey.  All  stocks  that 
were  properly  prepared  have  wintered  so  far  well,  and  are 
fairly  strong.  Since  the  snow  melted  the  bees  have  had 
several  cleansing  flights. — H.  W.  Lett,  M.A. 

Up&es  ta  ($wm$t 

***  In  their  answers.  Correspondents  are  respectfully  requested  to 
mention  in  each  instance  the  number  and  the  title  of  the  query  aslced. 

[774. ]  Separation  of  Wax  from  Pollen,  &c. — Like  your 
correspondent  '  A.  S.',  I  have  been  perplexed  in  the  sepa- 
ration of  wax  from  all  refuse,  but  now  I  find  it  is  easily 

separated  by  a  wax-extractor  that  is  within  the  reach  of 
every  cottager,  invented  and  made  by  myself,  and  the  price 
would  be  complete,  3s.  M.,  or  a  cheaper  one  still  without  a 
receptacle  for  the  wax  for  2s.  ;  hut  a  basin  will  answer  this 
purpose.  I  have  lent  mine  to  several  bee  -  keepers  in  my 
district,  and  they  say  it  is  a  great  boon,  as  there  is  no  mess 
and  no  time  wasted  and  extracts  every  particle  of  wax  from 
any  old  combs,  cannot  get  out  of  repair,  and  will  last  a  life- 
time.— Wm.  Killick,  Sandhurst. 


All  queries  forwarded  will  be  attended  to,  and  those  only  of  personal 
interest  will  be  answered  in  this  column. 

W.  G. — Uniting  Queenless  Stock  when  Frames  are  not  inter- 
chaugeable. — See  reply  to  H.  T.,  page  41  current  volume. 

Inquirer. — The  American  Bee-keepers'  Magazine  may  be 
procured  through  Mr.  Huckle,  Kings  Langley,  Herts. 

John  Bichardson.  —  Non-swarming. —  Consult  Simmins's 
Non-swarming  System  as  applied  to  Hives  in  Present  use. 

Beeswing Distance  of  Combs. — The  distance,  by  actual 

measurement,  from  centre  to  centre  of  naturally-built 
combs  is  1^  inch,  and  that  is  the  distance  preserved  by 
properly  constructed  metal  ends.  If  you  wish  to  reduce 
the  space  it  can  be  done  by  putting  ends  on  alternate 
frames  only. 

J.  P. — The  comb  forwarded  is  not  affected  with  foul  brood. 
The  brood  has  been  chilled  and  dried  up.  It  is  difficult 
to  say  what  has  been  the  cause  of  the  decay  of  the  hive. 
Probably  the  queen  has  died,  the  bees  have  been  unable 
to  raise  another  in  her  stead,  and  they  have  gradually 
dwindled  away. 

Gen.  B. — 1.  Utilising  Sections  for  Feeding. — If  you  have 
a  stock  in  a  frame  -  hive  short  of  food  3'ou  can  hang 
the  sections  in  a  frame,  tying  a  string  round  them  if  they 
do  not  fit  well.  Uncap  them,  warm  them,  aud  place  them 
within  the  divider,  crowding  the  bees  by  removing  outside 
combs.  You  can  give  sections  to  bees  in  skeps  by  placing 
them  over  the  feed-hole  and  covering  up,  but  at  this 
season  candy  or  dry  sugar  is  better ;  in  either  ease  remove 
the  sections  when  the  honey  is  cleared  out  and  give  others. 
2.  Sugar  for  Dry  Feeding. — Porto-Rico. 

Constant  Reader. — 1.  Uniting.  —  Wait  for  a  few  weeks 
until  the  weather  is  warmer  and  the  bees  more  active. 
Meanwhile,  get  the  two  stocks  together  by  moving  one, 
or  both,  not  more  than  a-yard  a-day,  only  counting  such 
days  as  the  bees  are  flying  freely.  If  they  are  short  of 
food  you  can  give  some  combs  from  the  stocks  you  found 
dead  with  plenty  of  food — provided,  of  course,  they  did 
not  die  of  disease.  To  unite,  if  in  frame-hives,  open  out 
the  frames  of  one  and  place  the  others  between  them 
alternately ;  if  in  skeps  drive  both,  mix,  and  return  to 
the  combs.  2.  Robbing. — You  had  better  remove  the 
honey  from  the  dead  stocks — robbing,  when  once  set  up, 
is  difficult  to  stop. 

S.  G.  F.,  Hornsey. — 1.  Size  of  Floor-board. — The  position 
of  the  floor-board  is  quite  correctly  shown.  It  is  the  size 
of  the  outer  casing,  and  answers  as  a  support  both  to  it 
and  the  hive  which  is  placed  inside.  2.  Spring  Feeding. 
— It  is  impossible  to  say  how  long  you  must  feed  the 
bees  when  you  first  have  them,  but  you  must  occasionally 
examine  the  hives,  and  if  the  bees  are  not  bringing  in 
sufficient  to  supply  their  requirements  they  must  be  fed 
until  they  do.  3.  Number  of  Frames. — Twelve  frames 
would  not  be  too  many  in  an  Abbott  hive,  but  they  must 
only  be  given  to  the  bees  gradually  as  they  need  them  ; 
there  should  never  be  more  frames  in  the  stock  hive  than 
can  be  covered  by  the  bees.  4.  Distance  of  Baskets  from 
Spindle  in  Extractor. — We  think  four  inches  too  close, 
and  have  found  five  inches  the  nearest  that  the  cages  can 
be  brought  to  the  central  spindle  without  considerably 
diminishing  the  extractive  power. 

Putting  Swarms  Together. — Will  Mr.  A.  J.  H.  Wood 
tell  me  how  to  put  two  swarms  together  if  they  don't  swarm 
on  the  same  day  ?  When  I  attempt  this  they  fight  dread- 
fully with  great  loss  of  bees. — Beeswing, 



[February  3,  1887. 

Size  of  Extractor. — Will  any  reader  of  the  Journal  in- 
form me  what  extractor  will  suit  best  for  a  small  apiary? 
I  have  five  hives,  and  some  of  the  frames  are  larger  than 
others.  The  largest  size  is  13J  inches  long  by  101  inches 
deep,  the  top  bar  being  17  inches  long. — W.  M. 

We  much  regret  tliat,  through  want  of  space,  we  have  been 
obliged  to  postpone  the  appearance  of  the  Discussion  on  Mr. 
Grimsliaw's  paper. 

g'how   Announcements. 

Giving  Name  and  Address  of  Secretary,  Date  and  Place  of 
Show,  Date  of  Closing  Entries.  Terms  :  Three  Insertions 
and  under.  Two  Shillings  and  Sixpence ;  additional  inser- 
tions, Sixpence  each.  No  charge  made  to  those  Associations 
whose  Shows  are  announced  in  our  general  Advertising 

July  11-15. — Royal  Agricultural  Show  at  Newcastle. on. 
Tyne.     Entries  close  May  12.     J.  Huckle,  Kings  Langley. 

August  3-5. — Yorkshire  Agricultural  Society  at  York, 
Secretary,   H.  L.  Eickards,   Poole,  near  Leeds. 

pQusiness  ^Directory. 

The  Name  and  Address  and  Business  of  any  Manufacturer 
will  be  inserted  in  this  List,  under  one  heading,  for  One 
Pound  per  annum.  Additional  lieadings,  Five  Shilling's 
extra.  Advertisers  in  '  The  Bee  Journal,'  whose  orders 
amount  to  Five  Pounds  per  annum,  will  be  inserted  Free. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Appleton,  H.  M.,  256a  Hotwell  Eoad,  Bristol. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Burtt,  E.  J.,  Stroud  Road,  Gloucester. 

Edey  &  Son,  St.  Neots. 

Hole,  J.  R.  W.,  Tarrington,  Ledbury. 

Howard,  J.  H,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Meadham,  M.,  Huntington,  Hereford. 

Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 

Neighbour*  Sons,  H9  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

The  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 

Wren  &  Son,  139  High  Street,  Lowestoft. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

British  Honey  Co.,  Limited,  17  King  William  St.,  Strand. 

Country  Honey  Supply,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Howabd,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn 

Walton,  E.  C. ,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Benton,  F.,  Munich,  Germany. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  1-49  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Simminb,  S.,  Rottingdean,  near  Brighton. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Lyon,  I'\,  94  Harleyford  Road,  London,  S.E. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts 


lib.  Ql-  or  1/10. 
Dealers  and  others  apply  for  List  (110  Illustrations), 
G.   STOTHARD,   WELWYN,   HERTS,   a  2324 

QJir  A  l>   Having   had   many   enquiries   fro 

OP  \Jr\  t\t  those  who  cannot  obtain  the  rig 
kind,  we  now  offer  Genuine  PORTO  RICO,  on  rail  at 
Brighton,  21s.  per  cwt„  lis.  56-lbs.,  5s.  9d.  28-lbs.  DUTCH 
CRUSHED,  best  for  Syrup,  22s.  6d.  per  ewt.,  lis.  6rf.  56-lbs., 
6s.  28-lbs.  Quantities  of  not  less  than  2  cwt.  of  Dutch 
Crushed,  direct  from  London,  at  19s.  6rf,  per  cwt,  ;  not  less 
than  10  cwt.  Porto  Rico,  at  18s. 

Address:  Simmins'  Factory,  Brighton.    (161) 

WHY    BUY   A    HIVE?7 

WHEN  you  can  get  one  by  looking  in  the  Dictionan/, 
Greatest  number  of  words  from  OBSERVATORY. 
Entrance  Fee,  Is.  Prize:— An  OBSERVATORY  HIVE, 
If  entries  insufficient,  half  money  returned.  Enclose  a 
Post-card  for  successful  one.  Entries  close  February  21. 
Results  week  after.     Address — 

Mr.   CHITTY,  Apiarist,  PEWSEY. 



Clark's  Patent  Climax  Hives. 

IN  order  that  these  Hives  may  be  more  generally  known, 
the  Licensee  has  determined  to  give  away  among  Pur- 
chasers of  undermentioned  Goods  during  this  February, 
One  Dozen  No.  2,  and  Half-dozen  No.  1  HIVES  (full  par- 
ticulars given  in  last  year's  Advertisement),  at  the  rate  of 
one  among  every  thirty  Purchasers,  to  be  distributed  by  a 
lottery,  to  conduct  which  he  will  endeavour  to  obtain  the 
assistance  of  persons  of  known  integrity.  Purchasers  of 
any  two  articles  above  Is.  to  have  one  chance,  and  each 
2s.  Gd.  one  chauce ;  every  further  2s.  Gd.  an  additional 

N.B. — In  order  to  have  a  chance  of  securing  one  of  these 
Hives  gratis,  Orders  must  be  sent  in  during  February,  as  the 
lottery  will  take  place  early  in  March  and  Hives  at  once 
forwarded  to  respective  AVinners. 


Finest  quality  White  Basswood  A  SECTIONS,  4£  x  4J  x 
2,  per  100,  3s.  ;  500,  lis.;  1000,  21s.  5Jx6J,  per  100, 
3s.  6d.  ;  500,  13s. ;  1000,  25s.  PURE  FOUNDATION, 
BROOD,  per  lb.  2s. ;  5  lbs.,  Is.  Wd.  ;  5  lbs.  to  25  lbs.,  Is.  QUI ; 
SUPER  ditto,  per  lb.  2s.  9rf.  SMOKER  (Bingham),  2s.  9d. 
EXTRACTOR,  10s.  VEILS,  Is.  3d.  PINE'S  METAL 
ENDS,  per  gross,  7s. 


Set  of  36  best  Cast  Steel  Black  Bits  and  Iron  Brace,  15s.  Gd 
Beech  Brace,  Lignum  head,  26  Bits  ditto,  18s.  Gd.  Set  of 
12  Cast  Steel  Chisels,  from  1  in.  down,  5s.  Gd.  Handles, 
2d.  each.  Tenon  Saw  File,  3.!d.;  Hand  Saw,  id.  Marking 
Guages,  9<7.  Mortice  ditto,  from  2s.  Gd.  to  3s.  Gd.  Best 
Twist  Gimlets,  assorted,  three,  10i<(.  Small  Hammer,  Is.; 
larger,  Is.  Gd.  Name  Stamps,  Steel,  id.  per  letter.  Oil 
Stones  from  Is.  to  3s.  Best  Smoothing  Planes,  2  in.  3s.  Gd,, 
2i  4s.,  2}  4s.  3</.  Best  Jack  Plane,  4s.  9d.  Best  Try  Plane, 
6s.  6<7.  Best  Cast  Steel  Hand  Saw,  22  ins.,  4s.  ;  24  ins., 
4s.  Gd.  Tenon  Saw,  14  ins.,  Iron  Back,  3s.  9d, ;  Brass  ditto, 
5s.  Gd.  Dove-tail  Saw,  3s.  2  ft.  Rules,  2  fold,  Is.  and  Is.  Gd.} 
4  fold,  Is.  3d.  to  2s.  3d.  Spokeshave,  Is.  Id.  Squares,  6  in., 
Is. 8<7.;  9  in.,  2s.  3d.;  12  in.,  3s. 

Kindly  oblige  by  adding  sufficient  postage  for  small 
packages  of  goods. 

All  Orders   to   be  addressed  to   W.    J.    GREEN, 

Hive  Works,  Friar  Street,  Sudbury,  Suffolk. 

a  2325 





Communications  to  the  Editor  to  be  addressed  '  Steangeways'  Printing  Office,  Tower  Street,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  w.c' 

[No.  242.    Vol.  XV.] 

FEBRUARY  10,  1887. 

[Published  Weekly.] 

€bxtaxml,  gottas,  $** 


In  our  last  issue  ive  noticed  one  or  two  sugges- 
tions made  in  a  letter  from  a  correspondent  (  ) ;  and 
we  promised  to  say  something  this  week  about  the 
second  of  his  proposals.  This  related  to  the  forma- 
tion of  branches  or  district  Associations  of  the 
County  Associations.  It  is  somewhat  remarkable 
that  a  practical  emphasis  to  this  idea  was  given 
by  the  report  of  one  of  our  most  flourishing  Associ- 
ations, which  appeared  in  our  columns  last  week. 

Now,  we  who  are  bee-keepers,  and  who  wish  to 
make  our  own  views  widely  prevail,  may  learn 
a  lesson  from  political  workers.  Their  watch- 
word is,  '  Organize,  organize,  organize.'  The  loss 
of  most  elections  on  one  side  or  the  other  is  put 
down  to  the  want  of  organization ;  and  most 
victories  are  hailtd  as  evidence  of  what  can  be  done 
by  organization.  So  far  as  truth  lies  in  these 
assertions,  all  that  it  amounts  to  is  that  to  push  a 
cause  you  must  have  plenty  of  people  interested  in 
the  cause — interested  so  as  to  work  for  it — working 
for  it  systematically.  Let  us,  then,  see  how  far 
these  requisites  will  be  secured  by  the  formation  of 
a  number  of  District  Associations  of  bee-keepers. 

Our  first  point  is  to  secure  numbers  to  show  an 
interest  in  the  subject  of  apiculture.  There  are, 
happily,  now  thousands  throughout  the  country 
who  keep  bees,  and  who  manage  them  in  an  intelli- 
gent manner.  Many  of  these  also,  we  are  glad  to 
know,  are  members  of  our  various  County  Associa- 
tions. Still  there  are  very  large  numbers  who  do 
not  think  it  worth  while  to  join  these  bodies, 
because  they  feel  it  doubtful  how  far  they  will 
derive  advantage  from  membership.  Distance  from 
headquarters,  inconveniences  of  getting  to  the 
meetings,  the  uninteresting  nature  of  much  of  the 
necessaiy  routine  business,  all  combine  to  prevent 
people  from  joining  the  larger  Associations.  But  if 
only  four  or  five  neighbouring  bee-keepers  will  but 
combine  to  talk  with  each  other  about  their  methods, 
their  difficulties,  and  their  successes,  a  great  stimulus 
will  be  given  both  to  the  pursuit  of  bee-keeping 
and  to  united  efforts  to  improve  the  art.  Then, 
if  such  a  small  Society  be  affiliated  to  the  central 
County  Association,  new  strength  will  be  added  to 
the  parent  body,  while  each  of  the  remoter  and  dis- 

trict members  will  feel  possessed  of  a  share  in  the 
larger  Society  and  its  doings.  One  very  important 
matter  in  each  case  will  be  the  securing  of  an 
energetic  man  as  the  honorary  secretary  for  each 
small  branch.  Still  further  stimulus  may  be  given 
by  holding  shows — on  however  diminutive  a  scale — 
once  a-year.  Then,  the  best  exhibits  in  each  of  these 
should,  as  a  rule,  be  reserved  for  the  county  show. 
Prizes  and  commendations  thus  gained  will  promote 
a  healthy  emulation,  and  the  successful  competitors 
will  learn  to  believe  in  their  own  powers,  and  will 
be  led  on  to  renewed  effort  for  improved  methods 
and  more  careful  attention  to  details. 

A  last  essential — but  by  no  means  the  least — will 
be  encouragement  from  the  more  influential  bodies. 
We,  therefore,  would  very  earnestly  commend  this 
matter,  in  the  first  place,  to  the  notice  of  the  Com- 
mittee of  the  B.B.K.A.  We  venture  to  suggest 
the  collection  of  information  from  those  Associations 
where  the  plan  of  branches  is  in  full  operation. 
From  the  knowledge  thus  gained,  it  would  be  no 
difficult  matter  to  select  such  salient  points  as 
might  be  embodied  in  a  leaflet  for  circulation 
wherever  the  possibility  of  establishing  District 
Associations  seemed  advisable  or  possible. 

There  are  many  counties  which  have  cultivated 
District  Associations  with  success,  for  example,  the 
Herts,  the  Hants,  the  Bucks,  the  Staffordshire,  &c. 

At  the  beginning  of  this  article  we  referred  to  the 
report  of  the  Berks  County  Association.  On  turning 
to  it,  in  our  last  week's  issue,  it  will  be  seen  that 
there  are  affiliated  branches  to  the  number  of  eleven. 
The  vigour  these  have  imparted  to  the  central 
body  is  manifest  from  the  shows  held  in  various 
neighbourhoods.  We  had  the  pleasure  of  acting  as 
judge  at  one  of  these,  and  were  distinctly  impressed 
with  the  excellence  of  the  exhibits,  the  best  of 
which  subsequently  took  the  first  prize  at  the 
County  Show  at  Reading.  We  know  also  the 
excellent  spirit  prevailing  among  the  members  of 
this  District  Association,  and  we  have  reason  to 
believe  a  similar  good  feeling  exists  in  all  the 
affiliated  branches.  In  advocating  the  adoption  of 
our  correspondent's  suggestions,  we  are,  therefore, 
speaking  from  known  facts  of  the  advantages  that 
would  certainly  come  from  its  adoption.  But,  while 
earnestly  directing  the  attention  of  the  Committee 
of  the  B.  B.  K.  A.  to  this  matter,  we  would,  with  equal 
fervour,  urge  all  central  Committees  to  promote  in 
every  possible  way  the  establishment  of  branches 



[February  10,  1887. 

in  all  towns  and  villages  in  which  the  existence  of 
even  three  or  four  bee-keepers  is  known.  As  the 
rain-drops  make  the  runnels,  and  the  runnels  the 
streamlets  ;  the  streamlets,  again,  form  the  rivers  ; 
and  the  rivers  replenish  the  ocean  itself  ;  so  we 
may  expect  wonderful  results  from  the  union  of 
individuals  into  small  societies ;  of  these  into 
County  Associations,  and  of  the  County  Associa- 
tions with  the  great  central  body — the  B.  B.  K.  A. 

There  is  an  idea  that  scientific  subjects  should  not 
be  brought  forward  at  meetings  of  bee-keepers,  but 
that  only  those  of  a  practical  character  should  be 
discussed.  "We  have  always  considered  this  a  mistake, 
and  we  are  glad  to  find  gentlemen  willing  to  bring  for- 
ward scientific  papers  for  discussion,  anticipating  that 
something,  however  little,  may  be  added  to  our  previous 
stock  of  knowledge.  There  are  plenty  of  persons  who 
do  not  know  what  has  been  discovered  in  any  particular 
branch  of  study,  or  where  to  refer  to  for  the  information, 
that  it  must  always  be  of  some  use  to  have  papers  similar 
to  the  one  read  by  Mr.  Grimshaw  at  the  last  Conversazione 
of  the  B.  B.  K.  A.,  and  more  especially  when  the  subject 
is  handled  in  so  pleasant  and  able  a  style.  That  bee- 
keepers do  take  an  interest  in  such  subjects  was  evinced 
by  the  discussion  which  followed. 

It  is  difficult  for  bee-keepers  generally,  to  get  informa- 
tion on  scientific  subjects,  as  our  knowledge  in  these  is 
constantly  increasing,  and  the  discoveries  are  published 
in  pamphlets  and  proceedings  of  scientific  societies  not 
accessible  to  every  one.     There  is  no  book  to  guide  the 
scientific  student  and  to  point  out  what  has  been  done  in 
any  particular  direction,  and  by  whom,  or  where  the  in- 
formation is  to  be  found.    For  instance,  how  many  bee- 
keepers are  there  who  know  that  Leuckart  discovered 
and  propounded   that   the  larvse  of  worker  bees  were 
weaned,  whilst  those  of  queens  were  not,  but  were  fed 
with  the  same  food  during  the  whole  of  their  darval 
existence;  or  that  this  discovery  was  published  in  1855 
at  p.  209  of  the  Bienenzeitung,  and  that  it  is  referred 
to  in  several  books  ?     Or  how  many  know  what  has 
been  done  with  regard  to  arriving  at  some  knowledge 
of  the  difference  of  the  food  of  larva;  and  that  of  the 
queen  and   drone,  or  of  the  discoveries  of  Schonfeld, 
Holz,  Schiemenz,  and  others,  in  connexion  with  this? 
Or  that  Schiemenz,  after  elaborate   researches  and   a 
minute  description  of  the  five  gland  systems  in    the 
bee,   arrived  at  the  conclusion  that  the  food  given  to 
the  queen  'consists  of  secretion  from  system  1,  although 
the  others  cannot  be  excluded  from  its  composition  ? ' 
There  is,  as  we  have  said,  absolutely  no  work  in  the 
English  language  that  gives  us  this  and  similar  inform- 
ation, or  a  correct  history  of  the  more  recent  discoveries 
in  connexion  with  the  life -history  of  bees,  which  are 
found  scattered  in  different  publications.     The  French 
bee-keepers  are  more   fortunate,   as    they    have    their 
Maurice  Girard,  who,  in  1878,  published  an  excellent 
compilation,  a  new  edition  of  which  was  not  long  since 
published,  with  references,  of  all  that  was  known  up  to 
that  time.     We  have  no  similar  book  of  recent  date, 
and  until  this  want  is  supplied  the  student  will  have  to 
wade  through  volumes  of  Bee  Journals  and  other  books 
to  find  what  he  wants.     These  Conversaziones  assist 
greatly  in  spreading  such  a  knowledge,  and  frequently 
add  something  now  to  that  previously  known. 

The  subject  chosen  by  Mr.  Grimshaw  was  not  a  new 

one,  and,  as  ho  observed,  had  been  studied  by  Swain- 

merdam  and  others  in  the  last  century.    Many  doubtful 

lointsjwere  cleared  up  later  by  Dr.  II.  Landois,  who,  in 

867,  published  Die  Ton-  und  Stimmapparate  der  In- 

secten,  which  treats  the  subject  in  a  most  exhaustive 


manner.  M.  Girard,  in  the  book  above  alluded  to, 
entitled  Les  Abeilles,  in  describing  the  various  sounds 
produced  by  the  bee,  makes  constant  reference  to 
Landois.  Mr.  Grimshaw  refers  to  Mr.  Cheshire;  but 
in  justice  to  those  who  have  written  before  him,  we 
must  point  out  that  he  has  added  nothing  to  what 
was  already  known,  and  appears  to  have  taken  his 
information  from  Girard,  even  to  the  'plaited  and  fringed 
curtains  lying  behind  the  edges  of  the  spiracle'  (see  pp. 
■55-00  of  the  work  above  mentioned).  He  does  not 
appear  to  have  paid  much  attention  to  Landois's  work,  or 
he  would  not  have  made  the  ludicrous  mistake  he  has  in 
the  title,  wdiich  he  gives.  To  call  a  '  Stimmapparate ' 
(voice  apparatus)  a  '  Stummaparate '  (dull  apparatus), 
to  say  the  least  is  droll.  In  1868  Marey  registered,  by  the 
'  graphic  method,'  the  number  of  vibrations  of  the  wings, 
and  the  tone  produced  in  consequence;  but  Girard  points 
out  that  these  experiments  are  very  uncertain,  owing  to 
the  difficulty  of  performing  them.  The  chairman  pointed 
out  this  difficulty  ;  and  it  is  also  shown  by  the  fact  that 
Landois  gives  the  notes  formed  by  the  wing-beats  of  the 
bee  as  representing  440  vibrations,  wdiereas  the  graphic 
method  only  gives  100,  but  he  also  observes  that  when 
the  bee  is  tirid  the  vibrations  decrease  to  330.  Girard 
says  the  humming  sound  is  not  produced  by  the  wings 
only ;  and  an  example  he  gives  is  that  of  a  humble  bee 
(Bombus  terrestris,  hwtorum,  or  lapidarius),  which,  if 
shut  up  in  a  box,  and  the  wings  are  only  producing  a 
slight  tremulous  motion,  a  loud  humming  noise  will  be 
heard— a  sign  of  anger  or  fear.  If  the  spiracles,  he  says, 
be  stopped  with  wax,  the  humming  will  cease.  Cha- 
brier  and  Burmeister,  as  well  as  Landois,  have  recog- 
nised three  different  tones  :  1st,  produced  by  the  wing- 
beats  ;  2nd,  by  the  vibration  of  the  abdominal^  rings ; 
and,  3rd,  the  most  acute  and  intense,  from  the  action  of  a 
true  vocal  apparatus  placed  in  the  stigmatic  orifices. 
We  were  pleased  to  find  a  reference  made  by  Mr.  Meggy 
to  an  article  which  appeared  a  couple  of  years  ago  in  a 
German  magazine  on  the  subject. 

That  bees  possess  a  voice  nas  been  long  admitted; 
and  Baron  von  Berlepsch,  Oettl,  Dr.  Pollmann,  and 
many  others,  have  described  the  various  sounds.  Sta- 
hala  has  given  to  the  sounds  different  meanings, 
whether  correct  or  not  we  cannot  say ;  at  any  rate 
it  is  generally  supposed  that  they  are  understood  by 
the  bees.  For  instance,  he  says,  if  in  winter  one  taps 
the  hive  and  a  loud  '  Iluumm'  is  heard,  it  is  a  sign  that 
the  bees  have  their  queen  and  sufficient  food.  The  loud 
'  Dzi-dzi'  is  heard  when  both  stores  and  bees  are  dwin- 
dling. The  loud  '  Dziiiiii'  will  be  heard  when  they  are 
too  cold.  '  Iluuuuuu'  is  produced  by  queenless  stocks 
both  in  summer  and  winter.  A  loud  '  Wuh-wuh-wuh  ' 
is  only  heard  when  breeding  is  going  on,  but  never  when 
the  hive  is  queenless  or  has  an  unfertilised  queen.  Be- 
sides these  there  are  some  dozen  other  sounds  given, 
such  as  those  produced  by  the  young  queens  and  bees  in 
anger  or  otherwise. 

When,  however,  we  come  to  the  question  of  hearing, 
we  encounter  a  very  much  greater  difficulty.  The 
depressions  on  the  antemife  have  long  been  observed,  and 
in  1838  A.  Lefebvre  published  his  Note  sur  le  sentiment 
olfactif  des  Insectes,  in  which  he  describes  these  as 
organs  of  smell ;  and.  in  1847  Erichson  held  the  same 
views  in  his  De  fahriea  et  usu  Antennarum  in  Insectis. 
In  1850  Ed.  Perils  continued  Erichson's  observations, 
and  published  (arriving  at  the  same  results)  his  Memoire 
sur  le  siege  de  I'Odorat  dans  les  Artieules ;  and  more 
recently,  in  1881,  G.  Hauser  published  an  elaborate 
treatise,  in  which  he  went  most  exhaustively  into  the 
question,  entitled  Physiologische  und  histologische  TJnter- 
suchungen  i'tber  das  Oeruchsoi-gan  der  Insecten,  winch  is 
by  far  the  most  important  work  we  have  on  the  subject, 
and  he  also  arrives  at  the  same  conclusion,  and  is  fol- 
lowed by  Schiemenz  in  1883,  who  holds  the  same  opinions. 
On  the  other  hand,  we  find  Dr.  Braxton  Hicks,  in 

February' 10,  1887.] 



1860,  in  Lis  paper,  On  certain  Sensor;/  Organs  in  Insects 
hitherto  undescribed,  states  '  that  there  is  every  reason 
to  think  that  the  antennal  organs  are  those  of  hearing.7 
This  view  he  also  expresses  in  The  Honey  See,  published 
by  him  in  conjunction  with  J.  Samuelson.  Again,  in 
1878,  we  find  V.  Graber  writing  and  holding  a  similar 
view  in  Vber  neue,  otocystenartige  Sinnesorgane  der  In- 
secten  ;  and  also  Paolo  Mayer,  Sopra  certi  organi  di  senso 
nelle  Antenne  dei  Ditferi  in  1878. 

That  they  are  organs  of  hearing  is  by  no  means  proved, 
and  Mr.  Cheshire's  is  only  an  opinion  which  adds  nothing 
to  what  is  already  known.  It  would  be  interesting  if 
Mr.  Grimshaw  would  try  his  experiments  with  a  micro- 
phone on  bees,  for  Sir  John  Lubbock,  who  had  an  ex- 
tremely sensitive  microphone  sent  him  by  Professor  Bell 
and  attached  it  to  the  under  side  of  one  of  his  ants'  nests, 
could  distinguish  nothing  but  the  ants  walking  about. 
But  he  says, '  It  is,  however,  far  from  improbable  that 
ants  may  produce  sounds  entirely  beyond  our  range  of 
hearing.  Indeed,  it  is  not  impossible  that  insects  may 
possess  senses  or  sensations  of  which  we  can  no  more 
form  an  idea  than  we  should  have  been  able  to  conceive 
red  or  green  if  the  human  race  had  been  blind.  The 
human  ear  is  sensitive  to  vibrations  reaching  at  the  out- 
side to  38,000  in  a  second.  The  sensation  of  red  is  pro- 
duced when  470  millions  of  millions  of  vibrations  enter 
the  eye  in  a  similar  time ;  but  between  these  two 
numbers  vibrations  produce  on  us  only  the  sensation  of 
heat;  we  have  no  special  organs  of  sense  adapted  to 
them.  There  is,  however,  no  reason  in  the  nature  of 
things  why  this  should  be  the  case  with  animals,  and  the 
problematical  organs  possessed  by  many  of  the  lower 
forms  may  have  relation  to  sensations  which  we  do  not 
perceive.'  He  further  describes  structures  which  ho 
only  says '  may  very  probably  be  auditory  organs.'  That 
bees  should  hear  seems  reasonable ;  but  it  has  not  yet 
been  satisfactorily  proved  where  the  auditory  organs  are 
situated,  and  certainly  the  weight  of  evidence  so  far  is  in 
favour  of  these  depressions  on  the  antenna;  being  con- 
sidered olfactory. 

Another  question  of  interest  and  importance  brought 
before  the  meeting  by  Mr.  Grimshaw,  was  that  of  using 
an  essential  oil  to  prevent  bee-stings.  The  idea  of  using 
something  as  a  preservative  is  also  not  a  new  one,  and 
carbolic  acid,  oil  of  tar,  a  solution  of  clay,  and  other 
things  have,  from  time  to  time,  been  recommended ; 
but  none  of  these  would  be  very  pleasant  on  the  face. 
Some  years  ago  we  came  across  a  receipt  which 
was  said  to  be  a  sure  preservative  against  stings  of 
every  sort,  including  those  of  the  bee  and  mosquito: — 
i  oz.  oil  of  peppermint,  §  oz.  oil  of  winter-green,  i  oz. 
spirits  of  camphor,  and  J  oz.  of  glycerine:  the  mixture  to 
he  well  shaken  before  use,  and  to  be  rubbed  on  sparingly 
over  the  exposed  parts  of  the  body.  We  have  never 
tried  ir,  as  we  do  not  fear  a  sting  or  two,  and  can 
manage  very  well  with  smoke  or  carbolic  acid ;  but 
there  may  be  those  who  would  like  to  do  so,  and  report 
their  experience.  In  a  list  we  have  before  us  of  Messrs. 
Burgoyne,  Burbidges,  Cyriax  &  Parries,  the  price 
quoted  for  oil  of  winter-green  is  1*.  9d.  an  ounce,  and  as 
there  is  no  difficulty  in  cultivating  Gaultheria  pro- 
cumbens,  we  do  not  see  why,  if  there  were  a  demand  for 
it,  the  plant  could  not  be  grown.  It  is  very  common 
in  America,  grows  freely  in  this  country  in  a  peat 
border,  and  is  easily  increased  by  division.  If,  however, 
it  can  be  made  artificially,  and  is  equally  as  good,  there 
would  be  no  necessity  at  all  for  cultivating  the  plant. 
Bee-keepers  will  owe  Mr.  Grimshaw  a  debt  of  gratitude 
for  bringing  this  matter  before  the  meeting,  and  also  in 
his  able  article  on  bee  -  subjugators,  on  p.  7  of  this 
year's  Journal,  in  which  he  goes  into  the  question  very 
thoroughly.  We  hope  his  endeavours  to  get  essence 
of  spircca  manufactured  cheaply  will  succeed,  and  that 
he  will  be  rewarded  by  finding  it  as  efficacious  as  he 

We    have   received  from  Mr.  W.  Boughton  Carr  a 
specimen  of  his  new  '  metal  end '  for  frames,  and  by  his 
kindness,  are  enabled  to  give  our  readers  illustrations  of 

A,  Top  view  of  frames,  with  '  metal  ends,'  showing  frames  spaced 
at  usual  distance  of  1  ^  from  centre  to  centre. 

the  manner  in  which  it  is  used.  This  metal  end  is  dif- 
ferent to  any  of  those  in  common  use,  and,  in  our 
opinion,  removes  many  of  the  objections  raised  against 

B  The  same,  with  frames  spaced  to  allow  a  quarter  inch  between 
the  face  of  combs. 

them.  Since  Mr.  Abbott  first  introduced  broad  shoulders 
in  England,  in  1873,  this  manner  of  keeping  the  frames 
at  the   proper    distance    apart    has    been    extensively 

C,  View  of  under  side  of  frames,  showing  the  '  metal  end '  of  centre 
frame  drawn  back  for  closing  up  to  the  quarter  inch  distance  without 
altering  the  level  of  either  upper  or  lower  side  of  frames.  D,  Sec- 
tional view  of  '  metal  end '  from  the  outside.  E,  Perspective  view  of 
ditto  from  the  inside.     (D  and  E  are  full  sisc.) 

adopted.  Lately,  however,  metal  ends  in  one  form  or 
another  have  come  into  use,  but  their  shape  is  such  that 
a  frame  furnished  with  them  could  not  be  conveniently 
used  in  a  hive  where  there  are  no  such  ends  used.  The 
ordinary  cast-metal  end 
is  so  thick  on  the  under 
side  of  the  top  bar,  that 
the  rabbet  on  which  it 
slides  has  to  be  cut 
deeper  to  accommodate 
it ;  and  if  a  frame  with- 
out these  ends  be  used, 
it  necessarily  stands  be- 
low the  level  of  the  top 
of  the  hive  at  least  an 
•Jth  of  an  inch,  and  is 
brought  so  much  closer  to  the  bottom  board.  Another  ob- 
jection to  them  is  that  the  distance  between  the  frames  is 
fixed,  and  they  could  not  be  brought  closer  together.  The 
new  metal  end  which  we  have  before  us  gets  over  these 




[February  10,  1887. 

difficulties  and  can  be  used  in  any  hive  where  they  have 
not  been  previously  used,  and  in  other  hives  a  very 
trifling  alteration  would  make  them  equally  serviceable. 
Mr.  Carr's  end  (figs  1)  and  E)  is  made  of  tin,  stamped 
out  of  one  piece  and  being  made  by  machinery,  the 
greatest  accuracy  is  secured.  It  fits  on  the  frame  end 
like  a  collar,  and  can  be  slipped  on  and  off  very  easily, 
the  mouth  of  the  collar  having  the  sides  (//,  fig.  E)  un- 
soldered, there  is  sufficient  spring  in  them  to  grip  hold  of 
the  wood  and  to  retain  the  end  at  any  part  it  may  be 
placed.  Fig.  A  shows  the  ends  pushed  up  against  the 
side  bar  of  the  frame,  and  in  this  way  provides  the  usual 
distance  of  1  ■&  from  centre  to  centre.  If,  however,  Ave 
wish  to  bring  the  frames  closer  together  so  as  to  allow 
only  I  of  an  inch  between  the  face  of  the  combs,  we  have 
merely  to  slip  back  the  ends  on  every  alternate  frame  as 
in  Fig.  B,  and  our  object  will  be  accomplished. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  if  such  ends  are  used  when  they 
are  pushed  back,  the  wood  of  the  frame  comes  in  contact 
with  the  top  of  the  runner,  but  as  the  tin  of  the  metal 
end  is  so  thin,  the  level  of  the  frames  is  not  perceptibly 
altered.  The  possibility  of  moving  the  frame  laterally 
we  consider  an  important  improvement,  and  one  that 
will  be  appreciated  by  those  who,  like  ourselves,  have  ob- 
jected to  any  projection  on  the  frame-ends. 

For  many  years  we  have  advocated  bringing  the  frames 
to  \\  inches  from  centre  to  centre  for  the  purpose  of  pre- 
venting the  production  of  useless  drone  brood.  This 
was  impossible  with  the  ordinary  ends  ;  but  with  these 
even  those  who  have  not  acquired  the  skill  or  patience 
to  adjust  their  frames,  are  enabled  within  certain  limits, 
to  do  so  mechanically,  without  the  danger  of  bringing 
them  too  close  together  and  thus  injuring  the  brood. 
Those  who  have  used  ends  of  the  old  pattern  and  wish 
to  adopt  these,  would  have  to  raise  the  metal  runners  an 
eighth  of  an  inch,  and  if  these  are  not  used,  an  eighth 
inch  strip  of  wood  must  be  nailed  on  to  the  rabbet. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  advantages  claimed  by 
the  inventor  for  this  new  metal  end  over  the  ordinary 
one  now  in  use  : — 

1.  The  triangular  J-inch  projection  for  gauging  the  dis- 
tance between  the  frame  and  side  of  the  hive  is  done  away 
with  as  of  no  real  use  whatever,  the  distance  being  ac- 
curately kept  by  the  end  of  top  bar  working  against  the 
outer  wall  of  the  hive. 

2.  Being  made  of  tin,  instead  of  cast  metal,  the  Jr-inch 
bearing  on  which  the  top  bar  rests  in  the  old  style  of  '  end  ' 
is  replaced  by  a  collar  of  tin  passing  all  round  the  bar,  and 
this  collar  being  no  thicker  than  paper,  neither  stands  up 
above  tops  of  frames,  nor  raises  the  frame  up  perceptibly 
on  the  under  side,  from  the  bevelled  runner  on  which  it 

3.  They  give  the  long-desired  lateral  movement  which 
enables  the  bee-keeper  to  alter  the  spacing  of  frames  at 
certain  times,  for  certain  purposes.  This  alteration  can  be 
effected  very  rapidly  without  removing  a  frame,  and  almost 
without  disturbing  the  bees. 

4.  No  alteration  is  made  in  the  distance  between  bottom 
bar  and  floor-board,  nor  does  it  interfere  with  the  level  of 
tops  of  frames  if  the  '  ends  '  are  removed  altogether. 

5.  They  are  put  on  and  taken  off  more  easily,  and  when 
on  are  far  more  secure. 

6.  They  cannot  drop  off  through  shrinkage  of  top  bar, 
and  may  be  tightened  up  in  a  moment  if  they  should  be- 
come loose. 

7.  They  combine  extreme  lightness  with  strength,  and, 
while  as  cheap,  are  less  liable  to  breakage  than  '  ends  ' 
made  of  type  metal. 

8.  The  '  end  '  makes  a  perfect  gauge  for  enabling  manu- 
facturers to  produce  top  bars  of  uniform  width  and  thick- 
ness. (The  want  of  uniformity  in  this  respect  has  long 
been  felt.) 

9.  There  is  no  need  to  remove  the  '  end  '  when  extracting 
honey.  The  reduced  size  of  projecting  shoulder  allowing  it 
to  pass  through  the  ordinary  mesh  of  wire  used  for  cages. 



Mr.  Grimshaw's  Paper,  on  the  Vocal  Organs  of 



Mr.  Meggy  thanked  Mr.  Grimshaw  for  the  interesting 
facts  he  had  laid  before  them,  and  would  be  glad  to 
know  whether  he  had  seen  an  article  which  appeared 
about  a  couple  of  years  ago  in  a  German  magazine  in 
reference  to  the  sounds  made  by  bees.  The  writer 
stated  that  he  had  observed  forty  different  sounds  made 
by  bees,  from  which  he  inferred  that  the  latter  must 
have  means  of  communication  by  sound.  These  par- 
ticulars were  made  known  before  Mr.  Cheshire  brought 
out  his  work,  and  before  special  attention  had  been  called 
to  the  question. 

Mr.  Grimshaw  was  sorry  that  he  had  not  read  the 
article  referred  to.  He  had  had  various  theories  on  the 
subject,  and  had  been  obliged  to  dismiss  them  almost  as 
soon  as  formed.  He  was  in  hopes  about  twelve  months 
ago  that  some  interesting  discoveries  would  be  made  by 
a  gentleman,  whose  research  was,  however,  unfortunately 
stopped  by  death.  He  had  proposed  at  swarming  time 
time  to  introduce  the  receiver  of  a  microphone  in  the 
hive,  and  at  the  following  season  turn  the  microphone  on 
to  the  bees  at  the  mouth  of  the  hive,  so  as  to  see  whether 
he  could  produce  the  same  state,  of  contentment.  He  had 
heard  of  cases  where  one  lot  of  bees  in  quite  a  distant 
part  of  the  manipulating  tent  have  ascended  up  their 
wall  or  post  upon  hearing  the  agreeable  noise  made  by 
the  driving  in  a  skep  going  on  in  another  part  of  the 

The  Chairman  thought  that  Mr.  Cheshire  drew  a  dis- 
tinction between  buzzing  and  humming,  the  buzzing 
being  connected  with  the  wings,  and  the  humming  with 
the  spiracles.  He  (the  Chairman)  had  gathered  from  Mr. 
Grimshaw's  paper  that  it  was  through  the  spiracles  the 
varying  sounds  were  emitted,  whilst  the  noise  made  by 
the  wings  did  not  vai'y  at  all.  It  would  be  interesting 
to  know  whether  the  peculiar  sound  they  were  all 
acquainted  with  was  affected  in  pitch  according  to  the 
speed  of  the  wings'  vibrations  or  the  way  in  which  the 
air  escaped  through  the  spiracles.  One  would  imagine 
that  it  was  far  more  difficult  to  make  a  distinction  of 
sounds. by  wings  than  by  spiracles. 

Mr.  Webster  said  the  difference  of  sound  iu  the  wing- 
vibrations  was  easily  explained.  In  the  case  of  a  tuning- 
fork  with  extra  long  prongs  the  vibrations  would  be  less 
frequent  than  with  shorter  prongs,  and  the  sound  pro- 
duced consequently  deeper  than  that  which  resulted  from 
quicker  vibrations;  and  there  was  no  doubt,  that  the 
high  or  low  notes  were  governed  by  the  pace  of  the  wing- 

Mr.  Grimshaw  indorsed  Mr.  Webster's  opinion.  The 
notes  varied  in  the  musical  scale  pro  rata  with  the 
number  of  wing-beats.  The  drone  sounds  were  low 
tones  compared  to  the  sharp,  shrill  sounds  of  the  busy 
workers,  whose  wings  were  quickly  beating.  If  one 
placed  his  ear  immediately  outside  a  frame-hive,  tones  of 
all  kinds  could  be  heard. 

The  Chairman  remarked  that  when  hanging  in  a 
cluster  they  could  not  vibrate  their  wings. 

Mr.  Grimshaw  had  no  doubt  in  his  own  mind  that, 
independently  of  the  wing-sounds,  the  noises  heard  in 
the  hive  were  produced  by  the  bees  conversing  together 
—  perhaps  arranging  to  kill  the  queen  or  drones. 
(Laughter.)  He  fully  believed  that  they  did  converse 
as  intelligently  as  other  members  of  the  animal  kingdom. 
Their  brain  weight  in  comparison  with  the  weight  of 
their  body  ranked  very  high  indeed,  much  higher  than 
the  ant,  so  much  praised  by  Sir  John  Lubbock. 

In  reply  to  tho  Chairman,  who  asked  whether  Mr. 
Grimshaw  believed  that  the  chief  means  of  communica- 

February  10,  1887.] 



tion  possessed  by  bees  was  through  the  voice,  and  not 
by  touch,  the  latter  gentleman  said  that  he  was  not 
prepared  to  speculate  so  much  as  that.  It  was  well 
known  that  the  olfactory  organs  of  bees  were  sin- 
gularly acute,  and  in  a  high  state  of  development. 
They  could  trace  flowers  at  great  distances  by  smell. 
He  could  not  hazard  a  conjecture  as  to  the  principal 
means  of  their  intercommunication,  but  he  thought  that 
the  vocal  organs  could  claim  their  due  share.  They 
were  not  given  without  an  object.  It  was  necessary  for 
bees  to  intercommunicate,  and  it  was  fair  to  assume  that 
the  vocal  organs  took  part  in  such  intercourse. 

The  Chairman  said  that  some  of  Huber's  experiments 
went  to  show  that  if  the  queen  were  separated  from  the 
rest  of  the  hive  the  bees  could  not  be  assured  of  the 
safety  of  the  queen  unless  they  could  touch  her.  They 
were  quite  near  enough  to  tali,  but  could  not  tell  one 
another  that  the  queen  was  safe. 

Mr.  Grimshaw  thought  that  if  the  organs  of  touch 
were  the  only  means  of  communication  the  news  passed 
with  extraordinary  rapidity. 

Mr.  Meggy  thought  Huber's  experiments  threw  some 
doubt  on  the  question  of  intercommunication  by  hear- 
ing, and  he  suggested  that  Mr.  Grimshaw  should,  during 
the  following  summer,  undertake  to  repeat  Huber's  ex- 

Mr.  Baldwin  said  that  he  had  tried  to  make  the  bees 
raise  queens  while  the  queen  was  present.  He  had 
divided  a  hive  and  placed  two  pieces  of  perforated 
zinc  with  a  space  of  more  than  half  an  inch  between  the 
halves.  The  bees,  however,  did  not  attempt  to  raise 
queens ;  but  after  he  removed  the  queen  they  started 
doing  so  on  both  sides  of  the  division.  In  the  first 
instance  they  could  not  touch  the  queen,  but  evidently 
knew  that  she  was  there. 

Mr.  Grimshaw  said  he  founded  his  views  on  the  law 
of  nature.  Every  organ  had  its  use,  and  he  contended 
that  as  the  bees  were  provided  with  vocal  and  auditory 
organs  they  must  use  them.  These  organs  were  not 
rudimentary,  but  perfect. 

Mr.  Meggy  said  he  was  satisfied  that  Huber  was 
wrong,  and  he  hoped  that  Mr.  Grimshaw  would  not 
hesitate  to  repeat  the  experiments  of  that  naturalist 
because  he  was  a  man  of  great  fame. 

Captain  Campbell  explained  some  experiments  he  and 
his  son  had  adopted  in  reference  to  the  vocal  and 
auditory  organs  of  bees. 

Mr.  Haviland  would  like  to  know,  in  reference  to  Mr. 
Baldwin's  experiments,  whether  the  entrances  of  the 
divided  hive  were  close  together,  and  whether  the  bees 
had  access  to  each  part  by  running  in  and  out ;  because 
if  the  entrances  were  so  close  together  that  the  bees  of 
one  division  could  return  to  the  other,  they  would  be 
able,  of  course,  to  communicate  with  one  another. 
Huber  particularly  requested  that  other  people  woidd 
test  his  observations.  There  was  no  doubt  that  several 
of  the  conclusions  he  came  to  were  not  perfectly 
accurate,  and  it  would  be  a  good  thing  if  they  could  be 
tested  again.  He  had  often  wondered  why  Mr.  Cheshire 
or  others  had  not  done  so.  If  Mr.  Cheshire  would  say 
what  sort  of  experiments  would  be  the  most  advan- 
tageous to  try,  a  great  deal  of  evidence  would  soon  be 
accumulated.  He  (the  speaker)  would  like  to  know 
which  sound  Mr.  Cheshire  attributed  to  the  air  coming 
out  of  the  spiracles  against  the  wings.  The  ordinary 
sounds  made  by  the  bees  when  flying  were  caused  by 
the  beating  of  the  wings  against  the  air.  The  wings 
did  not  come  near  the  spiracles  in  the  act  of  flight.  The 
only  other  noise  made  by  the  wings  he  thought  was 
similar  to  the  piping  of  queens,  that  was  the  rubbing 
of  the  wings  together  the  same  as  grasshoppers  did. 
He  put  three  young  queens  recently  hatched  in  an  ob- 
servatory hive,  after  having  cut  off  their  wings.  The 
bees  killed  two  of  those  queens,  and  were  very  angry 
with  the  other  queen  for  twenty-four  hours.    She  ran 

about  to  escape  them ;  wherever  she  stopped  she  piped, 
although  there  was  no  other  queen  in  the  hive. 

Mr.  Grimshaw  said  he  drew  a  distinction  between 
buzzing  or  humming,  and  the  vocal  sounds.  In  his 
opinion  the  noises  heard  when  the  bees  were  compara- 
tively at  rest  were  the  vocal  sounds,  and  were  caused 
by  the  blowing  of  air  in  and  out  on  the  plaiting  or 
curtain  which  was  within  the  spiracle,  and  also  on  the 
edges  of  the  wings.  He  contended  that  if  they  could 
hear  (and  they  were  furnished  with  auditory  hollows) 
they  could  speak. 

Mr.  Baldwin  said  the  hive  he  referred  to  was  known 
as  a  twin  hive  with  entrances  at  opposite  ends.  It 
had  one  entrance  at  the  south  and  the  other  at  the 
north.  He  divided  it  and  put  in  the  division  a  piece  of 
perforated  zinc,  and  turned  the  hive  round  to  east  and 
west.  He  left  the  bees  with  the  perforated  zinc  division 
about  five  days,  and  there  was  no  attempt  to  raise 
queens.  He  then  divided  the  brood,  giving  eggs  to  both 
parts  of  the  hive,  and  put  in  the  double  division  with 
about  f  inch  between,  and  then  the  bees  did  not  attempt  to 
raise  queens.  The  queen  in  the  one  part  was  continually 
egg-raising.  As  they  refused  to  raise  queens  with 
the  double  division,  he  took  away  the  queen,  when  they 
started  raising  queens. 

The  Chairman  considered  Mr.  Baldwin's  experiment 
went  far  towards  disproving  the  accuracy  of  Huber's 
observations,  but  the  result  of  Mr.  Baldwin's  research 
seemed  to  him  unanswerable,  except  on  the  theory  that 
bees  could  speak  and  hear.  Still,  whatever  might  be  the 
purpose  for  which  their  auditory  and  vocal  powers  were 
given  them,  he  thought  it  was  going  too  far  with  the 
present  knowledge  at  command  to  suppose  that  these 
powers  were  capable  of  being  employed  in  the  same  way 
by  the  bees  amongst  themselves  as  those  of  human  beings. 
On  behalf  of  the  company  present,  he  heartily  thanked 
Mr.  Grimshaw  for  his  interesting  paper. 

Mr.  Samhels  then  exhibited  a  new  and  improved 
section  crate. 

Fig.  1. 

Kg.  2. 

Mr.  Sambels  explained  that  his  super  crate  was  the  same 
as  he  bad  shown  at  the  last  quarterly  Conference  of  the 
Hertford  branch  of  the  Herts  B.K.A.  But  a  description 
of  it  was  not  given  at  the  time  in  the  B.  B.  Journal  for 
want  of  space,  consequently  he  had  brought  it  to  this 
meeting  that  those  present  might  have  an  opportunity  of 
criticising  it.   He  was  not  a  manufacturer  of  bee-keepers' 



[February  10,  1887. 

appliances,  but  had  designed  it  for  his  own  use,  because 
he  thought  it  combined  all  the  good  points  that  he  had 
seen  in  others,  as  well  as  a  few  that  he  had  seen  no- 
where else.  Proceeding  to  take  it  to  pieces,  he  said  the 
crate  was  made  of  four  pieces  of  board  4j  inches  deep, 
which  was  exactly  the  depth  of  the  sections  he  intended 
to  use.  The  bee-space  was  a  separate  frame  of  four  pieces 
of  wood,  as  seen  at  B,  Fig.  1,  and  in  section  at  B,  Fig.  2, 
it  was  rabbeted  out  to  give  greater  strength  for  removing, 
when  stuck  down  with  propolis.  On  the  insides  of  the 
two  sides  of  the  crate  were  tacked  two  fillets  -iV  of  an  inch 
square  to  form  a  bee-space  round  the  end  of  each  row  of 
sections.  In  the  front  end  of  the  crate  were  fitted  two 
iron  thumb-screws,  T,  Fig.  1,  with  brass  thumb-pieces 
and  nuts,  which,  when  screwed  tightly  against  a  sliding 
board,  pressed  the  latter  tightly  against  the  sections  and 
dividers,  and  so  held  all  in  position  by  pressure.  The  bee- 
space  was  made  separate  from  the  crate  to  allow  of  the 
crate  being  inverted  without  removing  the  bee-space.  He 
did  not  believe  any  amount  of  inverting  would  increase  the 
amount  of  honey  stored  in  any  one  hive  if  the  bees  were 
kept  from  idleness  by  other  methods,  but  he  believed  in- 
verting supers  at  the  proper  time  would  decrease  the  number 
of  '  pop-holes '  in  the  sections.  The  dividers  (D,  Fig.  2) 
were  perforated  with  slots,  to  allow  the  bees  free  access 
from  one  row  of  sections  to  another ;  they  were  also  cut 
sufficiently  short  at  the  ends  for  a  similar  purpose.  He 
had  two  sections  fitted  with  foundation  on  Mr.  Cornell's 
plan,  which  was  done  for  the  especial  benefit  of  his 
Hertford  friends,  but  he  would  like  to  point  out  a  plan 
of  fixing  foundation  they  had  been  using  in  Herts  for  the 
past  two  years :  it  was  recently 
explained  by  some  contributor, 
whose  name  he  did  not  re- 
member, in  the  Journal.  It 
consisted  of  simply  running  a 
saw-kerf  the  length  of  the  end 
quarter  of  each  section,  and 
having  folded  the  section  as 
seen  in  fig.  S,  the  foundation 
was  then  placed  in  position, 
and  the  second  flap  of  the  sec- 
tion closed  on  it,  holding  it 
secure.  He  need  scarce  point  out  that  was  not  practical 
for  the  narrow  strip  at  the  bottom,  unless  you  used  four- 
piece  sections,  but  was  a  great  saving  of  time  and  trouble. 
He  would  also  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  his  sections 
had  '  ways '  on  all  four  sides. 

(Mr.  Sambels  requests  us  to  state  that  having  had 
several  inquiries  already  since  the  Hertford  Conference, 
to  save  the  time  of  his  friends  and  himself,  he  has 
placed  the  original  super- crate  in  the  hands  of  Mr. 
Blow,  who  will  be  happy  to  supply  purchasers  in  the 
usual  way.) 

The  Chairman  expressed  the  indebtedness  of  the 
meeting  to  Mr.  Sambels  for  his  kindness  in  laying 
before  them  his  new  contrivance. 

Mr.  Webster  then  exhibited  his  frame  swivel  (see  p. 
33,  January  27),  which  was  invented  for  the  purpose 
of  doing  away  with  the  necessity  of  using  both  hands  to 
lift  a  frame  out  of  the  hive.  By  means  of  the  swivel  one 
hand  only  was  employed  for  lifting  the  frame,  whilst  the 
other  was  free  for  manipulations.  The  swivel  was  also 
contrived  to  permit  of  the  frame  being  turned  round  while 
held  up.  He  also  exhibited  another  invention  of  a  similar 
character  which  needed  a  pin  to  be  put  through  every 

The  Chairman  considered  it  a  very  ingenious  idea, 
and  complimented  Mr.  Webster,  at  the  same  time 
suggesting  that  the  grippers  should  be  made  wider  and 
stronger,  so  that  a  frame,  when  filled,  might  be  held 
securely,  lie  thought  it  would  most  probably  come  into 
general  use. 

Mr.  Webster  then  exhibited  his  fumigator,  which  was 
intended  to  be  used  with  carbolic  acid,  and  was  con- 

Fig.  3. 

structed  to  prevent  any  of  the  acid  being  blown  on  to 
the  hands  of  the  manipulator.  He  had  not  used  smoke 
for  two  3rears,  and  had  found  that  carbolic  answered 
every  purpose  of  smoke. 

Captain  Campbell  said  when  the  bees  were  really 
savage  a  few  drops  of  ammonia  must  be  put  in. 

Mr.  Webster  said  when  the  bees  were  very  savage  he 
preferred  covering  them  up  and  leaving  them  alone  for 
an  hour  or  two,  until  a  more  favourable  opportunity. 

Mr.  Baldwin  wished  to  know  whether  there  was  any 
special  objection  to  smoke.    He  found  it  answer  very  well. 

The  Chairman  thought  carbolic  of  more  effect  than 
smoke.  Having  failed  with  smoke  on  one  occasion,  ho 
saturated  his  pocket-handkerchief  with  a  very  weak 
solution  of  carbolic,  and  after  wringing  it  out  he  stripped 
off  the  quilt  and  laid  it  on,  when  the  bees  became 
perfectly  quiet  in  a  minute  or  two,  and  he  took  out 
the  frames  without  any  further  difficulty. 

Mr.  Baldwin  related  his  experiences  at  Lichfield,  where 
he  attempted  to  handle  a  hive  of  Cyprian  bees  after 
using  smoke,  and  had  cause  to  regret  his  mistake.  He 
knew  nothing  about  these  particular  bees  when  asked  to 
handle  them,  and  never  expected  to  find  C3'prians  at 
Lichfield.  As  soon  as  he  saw  their  breed,  of  course  he 
altered  his  tactics,  and  proceeded  with  more  care  and 
ultimate  success.  The  whole  affair  was  a  source  of  amuse- 
ment to  the  owner,  who  told  his  friend  of  the  joke  he 
had  played.  There  was  no  doubt  that  the  remedy  to  be 
used  must  vary  according  to  the  breed  of  the  bees. 

Mr.  Blow  said  he  had  almost  abandoned  Cyprians 
altogether,  and  he  thought  all  wise  bee-keepers  would  do 
the  same.  Their  advantages  were  counterbalanced  by 
disadvantages.  Smoke  must  not  be  used  in  handling. 
He  kept  one  stock  just  for  experiments.  If  great  care 
and  gentleness  were  employed,  and  a  long  time  allowed 
for  manipulations,  the  operator  could  avoid  being  stung, 
but  otherwise  they  were  uncontrollable.  Carbolic  acid 
was  no  better  than  smoke  for  Cyprians.  That  breed  of 
bees  was  not  suited  to  the  English  climate,  but  if  they 
were  kept  they  must  be  handled  upon  Mr.  Raynors 
system,  that  was,  with  the  utmost  care  and  gentleness. 

Mr.  Baldwin  said  it  would  be  difficult  to  follow  Mr. 
Webster's  advice  in  the  bee  tent  by  putting  off  manipu- 
lations when  the  bees  were  angry,  which  would  cause 
great  dissatisfaction  to  an  audience. 

Mr.  "Webster  admitted  this,  and  said  he  had  no  ob- 
jection to  smoke,  but  the  fumigator  was  far  more  con- 
venient, involving  much  less  trouble. 

Mr.  Grimshaw  laid  before  the  meeting  a  sample  of  his 
'  apif  uge,'  which  he  believed  to  be  a  genuine  sting-pre- 

At  this  juncture  Mr.  Garratt  took  the  chair  on  the 
retirement  of  the  Rev.  F.  G.  Jenyns,  who  was  compelled 
to  leave  the  meeting. 

Mr.  Stanford  said,  in  reference  to  the  oil  of  winter- 
green,  that  Mr.  R.  Sproule,  of  the  Irish  Association,  ob- 
tained some  early  in  the  season,  and  certainly  its  effects 
were  magical. 

Mr.  Webster  remembered  that  Mr.  Hart  brought  a 
bottle  of  the  oil  to  the  Reading  Show,  which  was 
described  as  containing  a  preventive  of  bee-stings.  Mr. 
Cheshire  took  the  bottle  home  with  him. 

Mr.  Sambels  asked  whether  the  plant  referred  to  was 
not  similar  to  meadow-sweet,  of  which  there  was  plenty 
to  be  obtained. 

Mr.  Grimshaw  replied  that  an  immense  quantity  of 
that  plant  would  be  required  to  obtain  a  few  drops  of 
essential  oil  by  distillation. 

Mr.  Haviland  said  that  the  danger  during  manipula- 
tions was  not  confined  to  the  operator.  He  always  had 
fears  for  the  safety  of  persons  looking  on,  or  moving 
about  near  at  hand. 

The  Chairman  commented  on  the  interesting  dis- 
cussion which  had  taken  place,  and  said  he  was  sure 
all  bee-keepers  would  be  pleased   to  know  that  some- 

February  10,  188?.] 



thing-  had  been  discovered  which  would  assist  them 
greatly  in  controlling  their  bees.  He  thought  the  meet- 
ing would  desire  to  express  its  best  thanks  to  those 
gentlemen  who  had  so  kindly  introduced  subjects  for 
consideration.  By  their  aid  the  Conversazione  had  been 
most  pleasing  and  profitable.  The  company  were 
specially  indebted  to  Mr.  Grimshaw  for  his  very  able 

Mr.  Grimshaw  thanked  the  Chairman  for  his  kind 
remarks.  "Without  presuming  to  claim  credit  for  any- 
thing original  in  discovery,  invention,  or  research,  it 
always  afforded  him  immense  gratification  if  he  could 
be  the  means  of  starting  an  interesting  discussion.  He 
concluded  b}r  expressing  his  acknowledgments  for  the 
patience  with  which  they  had  listened  to  him. 

The  proceedings  then  terminated. 


A  meeting  of  this  Society  was  held  on  the  29th  ult.  at 
the  Church  Institute,  Leeds,  Thomas  Clark,  Esq.,  Burley- 
in-Wharfedale,  in  the  chair. 

After  the  conclusion  of  official  business,  the  hon.  sec. 
(G.  II.  L.  Richards,  Esq.)  made  a  proposal,  seconded  by 
Mr.  Daniel,  of  Horsforth,  and  carried  unanimously,  That 
a  paragraph  report  of  the  meeting  be  drawn  up  and  dis- 
seminated amongst  the  newspapers  in  suitable  parts  of 
the  count}',  embodying  Mr.  Grimshaw's  suggestion  that 
off-shoots,  or  district  societies,  are  the  best  means  by 
which  County  Association  work  can  be  efficiently  carried 
on  in  a  county  so  vast  in  extent  as  our  own  ;  that  a  single 
body  of  workers,  however  diligent,  cannot  do  justice  to 
subscribing  members  so  far  away  from  the  central  body ; 
and  that  subscribers  cannot  be  expected  to  go  to  the 
expense  and  trouble  of  attending  meetings,  &c,  so  far 
away  from  their  own  district  as  the  official  body  neces- 
sarily is;  and  that  bee-keepers  in  various  parts  of 
Yorkshire  are  hereby  earnestly  desired  to  assist  in  sys- 
tematising  the  work  of  the  county  by  uniting  together 
iu  forming  district  associations,  appointing  their  own 
district  secretary,  having  perfect  self-government,  fixing 
their  own  terms  of  subscription,  &c.  Also,  that  by  a 
subscription  to  the  parent  society  of  5s.  per  annum  per 
branch  society,  the  district  secretary  and  another  member 
of  such  district  society  thus  become  members  of  committee 
of  the  Yorkshire  County  Association.  They  would  be- 
sides have  the  advantage  of  the  bee-tent  for  shows,  of 
purchasing  requirements  in  large  co-operative  quantities 
at  reduced  rates,  and  of  participating  in  competition  for 
prizes,  and  exhibiting  honey  for  sale,  &c,  at  honey  fairs,  &c. 

It  was  also  decided  that  the  hon.  sec.  be  instructed  to 
subscribe  for  a  copy  of  the  British  Bee  Journal. 

A  proposal  by  Mr.  Richards,  seconded  by  Mr.  Dodgson, 
of  Skipton,  to  the  effect  that  Mr.  R.  A.  H.  Grimshaw,  of 
Horsforth,  be  appointed  joint  hon.  sec.  with  himself,  was 
carried  unanimously. 

The  question  of  the  Saltaire  Exhibition  was  then 
brought  forward  by  Mr.  Richards,  who  said  he  had 
offered  (to  the  Exhibition  Committee)  to  have  exhi- 
bitions of  bee-manipulations  every  Wednesday  afternoon 
provided  the  expenses  were  paid,  but  he  could  not  lay 
before  the  meeting  any  definite  decision  as  yet. 

Respecting  the  recent  strictures  on  the  Association  in 
the  B.  B.  J.  the  hon.  sec.  gave  a  satisfactory  explanation 
as  to  why  they  had  not  been  replied  to  by  him. 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  members  of  the  Worcester- 
shire B.  K.  A.  will  be  held  at  the  Guild  Hall,  Worcester, 
on  Saturday,  February  10,  at  Sp.m.  In  the  unavoidable 
absence  of  the  President,  Earl  Beauchamp,  the  chair  will 
be  taken  by  Walter  Holland,  Esq.,  Mayor  of  Worcester, 
one  of  the  Vice-Presidents  of  the  Association. 

The  members  of  the  Middlesex  B.  K.  A.  are  reminded 
that  their  Annual  Meeting  will  be  held  on  Thursday,  the 
10th  inst.,  at  105  Jermyn  Street,  at  5.30  p.m. 

Cams  pontic  lite. 

The  Editor  does  not  hold  himself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed 
by  his  correspondents.  No  attention  will  be  token  of  anonymous  com- 
muni  cat  i'o  lis,  and  correspondents  arc  requested  to  write  on  one  side  of 
the  paper  only,  and  give  their  veal  names  and  addresses,  not  necessarily 
for  publication,  but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith.  Illustrations  should 
be  drawn  on  separate  pieces  of  paper. 

Communications  relating  to  the  literary  department,  reports  of 
Associations,  Shows,  Meetings,  Echoes,  Queries,  Boohs  for  Review, 
&c,  must  be  addressed  only  to  'The  Editor  of  the  "British  Bee 
Journal,"  c/o  Messrs.  Strangeways  and  Sons,  Tower  Street,  Upper 
St.  Martin's  Lane,  London,  W.  C  All  business  com  munications  relating 
to  Advertisements,  &c,  must  be  addressed  to  Mr.  J.  Hucele,  King's 
Langley,  Herts  (see  2nd  page  of  Advertisements). 

***  In  order  to  facilitate  reference,  Correspondents,  when  speaking  oj 
any  letter  or  query  previously  inserted,  will  oblige  by  mentioning  the 
number  of  the  letter,  as  well  as  the  page  on  which  it  appears. 


[808.]  Those  of  your  readers  who  have  followed  this 
subject  through  your  columns  during  the  last  few  months 
will  be  considerably  diverted  to  know  that  I  might  have 
'  saved  my  wind  to  blow  my  porridge  with  '  until  the  last 
letter  from  me  appeared.  The  hon.  sec.  does  not  take 
nor  read  the  British  Bee  Journal,  so  that  all  our  appeals 
and  complaints  did  not  reach  him.  Now,  however,  he  is 
posted  up  somewhat,  through  the  kindness  of  a  friend  in 
sending  him  a  few  copies  of  the  B.  B.  J.  This  resulted 
in  a  courteous  invitation  being  sent  me  by  Mr.  Richards 
to  attend  a  meeting  of  the  Y.  C.  A.,  with  results  which 
will  be  found  in  another  column  of  the  Journal. 

To  prevent  a  recurrence  of  our  worthy  hon.  sec.  not 
being  kept  au  courant  with  '  what  is  going  on,'  my  first 
proposal  (carried  unanimously)  as  a  member  of  the  Y.C.  A. 
was  that  the  Association  do  henceforth  subscribe  for  one 
copy  of  the  B.  B.  J.,  to  be  filed  by  the  hon.  sec. 

A  satirical  friend  litis  suggested  that  I  have  been 
dexterously  translated  into  the  '  upper  house.'  Eh 
Men!  nous  verrons.  I  don't  care  what  house  it  maybe 
called  if  it  only  give  birth  to  measures  beneficial  to  the 
bee-keeping  fraternity,  viz.,  active  district  associations. 
— R.  A.H.  G. 


[809.]  With  reference  to  your  article  and  '  A  Worker's 
letter  in  your  issue  of  the  B.  B.  J.  for  this  week  I  should 
like,  with  your  permission,  to  make  one  or  two  remarks 
on  the  subdivision  of  County  Associations.  I  feel  the 
more  prompted  to  do  this  from  having  read  Mr.  Grim- 
shaw's different  letters  in  relation  to  the  York  Association, 
and  also  'Amateur  Expert's '  most  (in  my  opinion)  valuable 
suggestion,  in  the  current  number  of  the  B.  B.  J.,  in  reply 
to  that  gentleman. 

With  regard  to  the  subdivisions  of  County  Asso- 
ciations it  may,  'perhaps,  be  of  some  slight  service  if 
you  would  kindly  make  known  the  terms,  &c,  upon 
which  the  Hants  and  Isle  of  Wight  Bee-keepers'  As- 
sociation proceeded  to  carry  out  this  very  idea, — ■'  the 
subdivision  of  the  county,' — now  more  than  twelve 
months  ago.  Some  two  years  ago  a  Village  Bee  Club 
was  started  here  in  Swanmore,  and  in  the  course  of  a 
year  its  numbers  had  so  increased  that  it  was  deemed 
advisable  to  hold  a  meeting  of  its  members  and  to  elect 
regular  officers  and  committee.  This  was  done,  and  the 
neighbouriug  villages  hearing  of  our  doings  came  in  to 
join  us,  until  our  Village  Club  had  swollen  to  the  extent 
of  fifteen  villages  and  some  eighty  members.  .  I  was  a 
member  of  the  Hants  County  Association  ^and  also  was 
chosen  Secretary  of  the  Village  Club,  and  as  such  began 
to  feel  that  if  we  went  on  as  we  were  going,  we  must 
eventually  come  into  antagonism  with  the  County  As- 
sociation itself.  In  this  difficulty  I  wrote  to  our  Hon. 
County  Secretary,  explaining  the  whole  thing  to  him ; 
he,  I  must  say,  met  me  in  the  most  handsome  and 
gentlemanly  manner,  and  the  result  of  our  correspon- 
dence was  that  a  special  general  meeting  of  our  Village 



[February  10,  1887. 

Club  was  cnlled,  and  I  moved  a  resolution  that  we 
should  he  affiliated  to  the  Hants  County  Association. 
This,  to  my  pleasant  surprise,  after  some  argument  was 
carried  unanimously.  We  thus  became  part  and  parcel 
of  the  Hants  Association,  no  longer  in  antagonism  to,  but 
working  in  all  good  fellowship  and  harmony  with  it. 

The  terms  of  our  amalgamation  were  as  follows : — 
First  of  all  we  were  to  have  our  own  officers,  and  to 
govern  ourselves  by  our  own  Committee,  &c. ;  also  to 
have  our  own  rules.  On  our  subscriptions,  as  an  affilia- 
tion fee,  we  pay  to  the  County  Association  the  amount 
of  25  per  cent,  we  retaining  the  75  per  cent  for  our 
own  purposes,  such  as  prizes  at  shows,  expenses  of 
lectures,  printing,  &c.  For  the  said  affiliation  fee  of 
25  per  cent  the  County  Association  agree  to  consider  all 
our  members  full  members  of  their  body  and  entitled  to 
all  their  benefits. 

I  do  not  know,  Mr.  Editor,  if  I  have  already  trespassed 
too  much  on  your  space,  but  I  should  like  to  be  allowed 
to  say  that  the  above  scheme  has  now  worked  thoroughly 
well  with  us  here  for  more  than  twelve  months,  and 
I  think  that  after  that  amount  of  trial  I  may  fairly 
recommend  it. 

A  word  also,  if  I  may,  as  to  holding  simple  lectures  on 
bee-keeping.  Last  year  we  held  a  series  in  different 
villages,  and  the  amount  of  astonishment  expressed  at 
the  different  views,  by  people  who  had  hardly  any  idea 
what  bee-keeping  is,  was  very  great.  New  members 
at  once  flocked  in,  and  already  this  year  I  have 
several  members  joining  who  were  convinced  by  the  last 
year's  lectures ;  so  much  good  did  I  consider  they  did, 
that  another  series  begins  on  Monday  next,  February 

I  shall  be  most  happy  more  fully  to  explain  anything 
should  any  reader  of  the  B.  B.  J.,  or  member  of  a  County 
Association,  wishing  to  help  his  over-worked  (and  at 
the  best  of  times  they  have  a  lot  to  do)  County  Secretary, 
care  for  any  further  details. 

In  conclusion,  I  enclose  you  a  copy  of  our  rules  and 
officers,  and  also  our  last  year's  report. — H.  W.  West, 
Hon,  Sec,  Hants  and  Isle  of  Wight  Bee-keepers'  Associa- 
tion, Swanmore  Branch.,  Feb,  5. 


[810.]  In  the  Journal  for  January  27th,  under  the 
heading  '  Gleanings,'  there  is  a  paragraph  relating  how 
an  American  gentleman  succeeded  in  preventing  swarms 
settling  in  high  trees  by  using  what  is  called  a  '  Yankee 
queen-stick.'  I  have  attained  the  same  end  by  placing 
a  round  felt  hat  on  end  of  a  long  pole,  and  holding  it  up 
among  the  bees.  It  does  not  seem  to  be  of  much  use 
raising  the  hat  among  the  swarming  bees  till  once  they 
are  on  the  point  of  settling,  then  place  the  hat  as  close 
as  possible  to  the  spot  where  they  are  preparing  to 
cluster.  This  seems,  in  my  experience,  to  be  a  condition 
of  success.  It  is  simply  a  modification  of  Langstrotli's 

Early  last  summer  I  told  a  neighbouring  bee-keeper 
of  the  plan,  and  when  his  bees  swarmed,  and  were 
beginning  to  cluster  in  a  low  bush,  he  stuck  an  empty 
hive  in  centre,  and  the  bees  at  once  took  possession. 

I  would  recommend  bee-keepers  whose  hives  may 
stand  near  trees,  or  high  thorn  hedges,  to  try  the  method, 
being  careful  to  attend  to  what  appears  to  me  to  be  the 
condition  of  success — placing  the  hat  as  near  as  possible 
to  the  spot  where  the  swarm  is  preparing  to  cluster. 
This  seems  to  be  the  experience  of  our  American  friends 
as  well.: — John  Petebs,  Gourock,  Scotland,  5th  February. 

of  a  bee,'  I  would  say,  last  August  I  was  on  a  vist  to  a 
friend  near  London,  and  being  in  his  green-house  I  noticed 
a  small  bee,  about  half  the  size  of  our  common  hive  bee, 
busy  at  a  reel  on  a  shelf.  I  found  he  visited  this  reel 
and  had  nearly  filled  the  hollow  with  small  pieces  of  the 
vine  leaf,  cut  beautifully  round,  and  wedged  into  the 
hole.  After  replacing  the  reel  I  watched  the  little 
fellow  over  and  over  again  go  to  the  vine,  cut  a  leaf  and 
then  fix  it  into  the  hole  with  some  glutinous  matter.  I 
do  not  know  what  became  of  it.  I  have  also  often 
noticed  the  same  kind  of  bee  visit  holes  in  posts  in  our 
garden  here,  and  deposit  an  extraordinary  quantity  of 

I  do  not  think  there  was  any  mistake  on  the  part  of 
the  bee. — Be.  W.,  Cowley,  St.  John. 

[811.]  In  reference  to  your  correspondent  wishing  to 
know  if  others  have  noticed  similar  behaviour  in  a  bee, 
which  ho  mentions  under  the  title  of  '  Curious  mistake 

[812.]  I  am  reluctant  to  believe  that  one  of  our 
beloved  and  dear  little  friends  made  the  mistake  men- 
tioned in  the  above  paragraph.  The  reel  of  cotton  is  so 
very  unlike  the  cell  of  a  bee.  It  is  much  more  probable 
that  it  was  the  work  of  the  rose-leaf  cutter.  This  '  little 
busy  bee '  builds  its  nest  in  the  crevice  of  a  wall  or  in 
chinks  in  timber-work,  and  in  using  the  reel  of  cotton  it 
was  carrying  out  its  usual  instinctive  propensities.  The 
only  mistake  made  was  in  taking  the  reel  for  a  permanent 
abode.  The  rose-leaf  cutter  is  smaller  than  our  black 
bee,  but  might  easily  have  been  mistaken  for  one  by  a 
casual  observer.  It  is  a  great  pest  to  florists,  as  it 
disfigures  the  roses  by  cutting  hundreds  of  small  circular 
pieces  out  of  the  leaves.  It  commences  its  nest  by  putting 
at  the  far  end  a  plug  of  these  pieces ;  then  comes  a 
supply  of  pollen,  next  an  egg,  then  more  pollen,  then 
another  layer  of  leaves,  and  so  on  until  it  has  filled  up  its 
apartment.  Probably  in  another  hour  it  would  have 
filled  up  the  hole  in  the  reel.  It  is  a  pity  that  this  was 
not  preserved. 

I  wonder  if^it  would  interest  the  readers  of  the  Journal 
if  I  now  go  on  to  tell  of  a  great  puzzle  I  got  into  last 
summer  in  respect  to  the  proceedings  of  a  rose-leaf 
cutter  P  If  I  do  I  fear  I  shall  be  too  diffuse  and  weari- 
some, but  that  I  can't  help.  I  must  begin  by  writing 
about  a  garden-seat  I  made.  Its  manufacture  may  give 
a  useful  hint  to  some  of  our  amateurs.  The  basis  or 
stand  was  the  frame  of  an  old  sofa.  On  this  I  nailed 
two  boards  of  inch  stuff,  each  a  foot  wide ;  next  a 
reclining  back  of  the  same  stuff,  then  end-boards  for 
arms,  cut  in  curves  as  tastefully  as  lack  of  artistic  skill 
and  bad  chisels  would  permit.  Oh,  but  j'ou  can't  think 
how  grand  it  looked  when  finished  and  painted !  I 
placed  it  on  a  small  lawn  on  the  southern  side  of  a  high 
grassy  bank,  which  the  inhabitants  of  this  country — 
certainly  '  a  peculiar  people,'  but  possibly  not  very 
'  zealous  of  good  works ' — perversely  call  a  ditch.  Thus 
sheltered  it  made  a  very  pleasant  lounge  on  a  summer's 
day.  Yes,  don't  be  impatient,  I  am  coming  to  my 
subject  now.  I  was  sitting  on  this  §eat  one  day  in  June 
or  July,  when  I  saw  a  bee  come  out  of  a  crack  between 
the  two  boards  forming  the  seat,  close  to  the  end-board 
or  arm.  I  was  wondering  for  a  minute  or  two  where  it 
came  from,  when  it  came  back,  bearing  in  its  mandible 
a  circular  bit  of  leaf.  Another  minute  of  wondering, 
and  out  it  came  once  more.  I  suppose  it  made  a  dozen 
or  more  journeys  while  I  waited  and  watched.  Well 
enough  I  might  be  puzzled,  for  the  crack  seemed  to  lead 
to  nowhere.'  In  my  extremity  I  called  in  a  friend  who 
is  well  known  hereabouts  for  his  scientific  attainments, 
and  who  is  indeed  of  world-wide  fame  by  his  publica- 
tions and  work  in  connexion  with  ocean  telegraphy.  He 
came,  and  after  a  minute  examination  of  the  premises 
taken  possession  of  by  the  bee,  he  was  quite  as  much 
bewildered  as  1  had  been.  There  seemed  to  be  no  place 
beyond  the  crack  to  which  the  bee  could  get  access. 
This  crack  we  could  readily  explore.     The  arm  was 

February  10,  1887.] 



nailed  flush  on  to  the  seat,  and  over  the  end  was  placed 
a  piece  of  wood  covering  the  joint.  My  friend  measured 
and  tapped  and  stood,  watch  in  hand,  timing  the  hee, 
which  made  an  entrance  and  exit  once  in  about  three 
minutes.  Nowhere  to  go !  Then  what  became  of  the 
multitudinous  loads  it  carried  into  the  crack  ?  The 
learned  and  the  unlearned  might  have  been  seen  on  their 
knees — nay,  prone  upon  the  grass — looking  earnestly, 
prying  in  all  directions,  but  they  failed  to  solve  the 
mystery.  The  next  day  1  took  off  the  strip  of  wood 
nailed  between  the  arm  and  seat,  to  see  if,  by  any 
chance,  a  hollow  place  had  inadvertently  been  left.  But 
no,  all  was  solid.  There  was  no  visible  interstice  but 
the  open  crack. 

In  my  despair,  I  then  most  reluctantly  resolved  to  take 
off  the  end,  or  arm,  which,  as  I  have  said,  was  made  of 
inch  stuff.  With  some  difficulty  I  accomplished  this, 
for,  with  the  usual  result  of  amateur  carpentry,  I  had 
succeeded  in  nailing  it  on  so  very  tight  that  for  a  long 
time  it  refused  to  come  asunder.  At  length  the  mystery 
was  revealed.  The  arm  had  formed  part  of  a  large 
American  box,  the  boards  of  which  were  joined  by  what, 
I  believe,  is  called  the  '  groove-and-tongue '  method.  I 
had  quite  forgotten  that  the  edge  of  the  arm  I  had  nailed 
to  the  seat  contained  the  groove.  So  here  was  a  narrow 
channel  running  the  whole  length  of  the  arm,  about 
twenty  inches  long,  and  crossing  the  crack.  Into  this 
channel,  right  and  left  of  the  crack,  the  bee  had  been 
working,  and  had  nearly  filled  it  up  with  rose-leaves, 
pollen,  and  eggs.  In  due  time,  but  for  m}r  interference, 
the  progeny  would  have  come  forth  to  add  to  the  troubles 
of  rose  cultivators. 

This  is  my  diffuse  and  prolix  story.  I  could  scarcely 
expect  the  Editor  to  find  it  of  sufficient  interest  for 
publication  but  for  the  fact  that  at  this  season  there  iu 
less  than  usual  to  be  said  about  bees. — C.  C.  P.,  Valentia, 
County  Kerry,  January  22,  1887. 


[813.]  The  incident  related  by  Harold  Adcock  in  your 
issue  of  the  20th  instant,  reminded  me  of  a  similar  occur- 
rence I  witnessed  last  autumn.  When  a  wasp  flew  in  at 
the  open  dining-room  window,  and  after  careering  rapidly 
round  the  room  above  the  heads  of  the  family,  who  were 
seated  at  the  table,  suddenly  darted  into  one  of  a  series 
of  deep  circular  holes,  each  about  the  size  of  a  honey- 
comb cell,  which  embellished  the  edge  of  the  oak  mantel- 
shelf. After  remaining  a  few  seconds  he  emerged,  and 
flying  straight  to  the  open  window  disappeared. 

On  searching  the  hole  we  found  he  had  deposited  a 
small  line  green  caterpillar,  many  insect  remains  were 
entombed  also  in  the  same  repository,  so  doubtless  he  had 
been  in  the  habit  of  utilising  the  ornamental  aperture 
as  a  store-room. 

Subsequent  cold  winds  necessitated  the  closing  of  the 
windows,  no  further  opportunity  was  therefore  afforded 
of  watching  the  interesting  movements  of  this  erratic 
specimen  of  '  Vespa  vulgaris.'  —  Emily  Cexveiihouse, 
The  Hundred  Acres,  Sutton,  Surrey,  Jan.  30. 


[814.]  "We  need  scarcely  wait  for  the  appearance  of  the 
February  number  of  the  Bee -keeper's  Magazine,  as 
advised  by  Mr.  Jas.  A.  Abbott  in  the  Journal  last  week 
(801),  to  see  Mr.  Heddon's  own  disclaimer  of  the  ad- 
vantages (?)  of  the  half  bee-space,  or  the  good  points 
that  he  now  claims  for  his  new  hive,  as  he  has  given 
them  to  the  world  on  page  789  of  the  Canadian  Bee 
Journal  for  Dec.  29th,  1886,  and  also  in  his  circular 
for  1887  to  his  customers  and  friends.  His  own  words 
are : — 

'  The  combined  experience  of  my  foreman,  students,  and 
myself,  during  the  past  season,  brings  us  unanimously  to  a 

conclusion  somewhat  at  variance  with  those  with  which  we 
entered  the  season  of  188G. 

'  After  the  first  inversion  of  the  brood-combs  which  secures 
the  complete  filling  of  the  frames,  we  never  care  to  invert 
them  again.  When  the  brood-chamber  is  large  and  deep, 
by  virtue  of  its  being  composed  of  two  brood-sections,  the 
interchanging  of  them  accomplishes  all,  and  better,  than 
can  be  accomplished  by  inverting.  When  the  brood  - 
chamber  is  contracted  to  one  case,  it  is  then  so  small  and 
shallow  that  all  the  favourable  conditions  that  could  result 
from  inverting  are  always  present.  In  regard  to  reversing 
surplus  sections,  we  find  the  following  serious  objections  to 
inverting  them  by  whole  cases. 

'  If  the  combs  are  not  sufficiently  developed  to  be  properly 
attached  to  the  sides  of  the  sections,  they  will  fall  over, 
making  a  bad  mess.  On  the  other  hand,  if  they  are  pretty 
nearly  all  capped  over  and  then  reversed,  they  will  either 
be  finished  without  being  attached  at  the  top  at  all,  or  else, 
what  is  oftener  the  case,  be  ridged  and  made  to  look  bungled 
as  they  are  attached  to  the  bottom-piece,  now  at  the  top  of 
the  case.  They  are  also  not  so  white  and  beautiful  as  those 
not  so  reversed.  There  is,  however,  a  short  period  in  the 
development  of  these  little  surplus  combs  in  which  inverting 
results  in  all  the  advantages  ever  claimed  for  it ;  but  as  it 
is  a  fact  that  the  combs  of  a  whole  case  are  rarely  all  at  this 
stage  of  development  at  one  time,  we  are  unanimously  in 
favour  of  inverting  them  by  wide  frames  .... 

'  In  the  light  of  the  foregoing  we  unanimously  advise 
making  the  new  hive  with  full,  rather  than  half  bee-spaces, 
as  was  adopted  when  considering  both  systems  three  years 
ago.  This  will  also  save  much  complication  when  using 
the  new  hive  in  the  same  apiary  with  other  style  of  hives 
with  fidl  bee-spaces.  The  grand  functions  of  the  hive 
consist  first,  in  the  arrangement  by  which  the  combs  can 
be  divested  of  queens  or  workers,  and  their  conditions 
instantly  determined  without  the  labour  of  removing  or  ex- 
posing them  to  robber  bees.  Second,  a  brood  chamber 
divided  in  horizontal  sections.  Third,  the  break-joint 
honey-board  as  used  with  the  new  hive.  Fourth,  the  set 
screws  for  tightly  compressing  the  frames  to  avoid  propolis, 
and  to  support  them  when  we  may  desire  to  invert  them.' 

My  quotation  is  rather  long-winded,  but  from  it  I 
conclude :  (a)  '  Spreading  brood,'  as  we  practise  it,  is 
equally  as  good  as  Mr.  Heddon's  '  inverting,'  or,  as  he 
now  recommends, '  interchanging.'  (b)  If  the  season  is 
bad  no  amount  of  inverting  section  cases  will  get  the 
sections  finished  off,  quickly,  white  and  clean,  and  with 
few  '  pop-holes,'  while  in  a  good  honey  flow  most  of  ns 
have  not  much  to  complain  of  on  that  score,  if  our  stocks 
are  strong.  The  removal  of  the  centre  rows  of  sections 
and  placing  the  half-finished  outside  ones  in  their  places, 
we  scarcely  need  Mr.  Heddon  to  tell  us,  is  advisable  some- 
times, (c)  How  Mr.  Heddon  can  clear  his  frames  from 
queen  and  workers  more  quickly  and  easily  than  we  can 
from  our  ordinary  standard  frame  hives  I  shall  be  happy 
to  learn,  at  present  I  don't  see  it.  (d)  The  '  break-joint 
honey-board '  is  with  us  an  '  improvement '  that  we  have 
relegated  to  the  limbo  of  antiquity,  (e)  The  set  screws 
for  sections  may  be  useful,  but  for  brood  frames  we  shall 
at  present  decline  their  use  with  thanks,  (f)  The  dis- 
tance the  Americans  are  ahead  of  us,  and  the  amount 
they  can  learn  us,  if  this  is  their  '  latest  and  best,'  is  very 
infinitesimal  indeed. — Amateue.  Expert. 


All  queries  forwarded  will  be  attended  to,  and  those  only  of  personal 
interest  will  be  answered  in  this  column. 

Castle  Douglas.— 1.  Ends  of  Sheet  Metal.— Yowc  end  is 
ingeniously  fonned,  bur  we  do  not  consider  it  as  good  as 
the  cast  metal  ends  at  present  in  use,  and  the  important 
space  of  J  inch  between  frame  and  hive  side  is  not  kept. 
There  would  be  also  a  vast  amount  of  propolization. 
2.  Fixing  Foundation.— -Your  plan  of  only  partly  dividing 
the  top  bar  by  a  saw-cut  on  the  under  side,  so  that  it 
might  be  sprung  open  to  receive  the  sheet,  would  not  be 
so  convenient  as  having  the  cut  through  it.  The  small 
grip  upon  the  sheet  would  not  in  all  cases  be  sufficient  to 



[February  10, 1887. 

prevent  falling,  and  the  nails  would  not  bring  the  top  bar 
down  flat,  but  would  allow  it  to  remain  concave  on  the 
upper  surface. 

W.  Wilson. — 1.  Sleep  Overthrown. — By  the  syrup  running 
cut,  the  combs  are  certainly  broken  down.  When  righting 
it  you  should  have  removed  the  floor-board  and  replaced 
the  combs,  keeping  them  as  nearly  as  possible  in  place  by 
putting  two  or  three  sticks  through  them.  They  will  now 
be  fixed  together  in  a  mass,  giving  you  more  trouble  to 
separate ;  still,  you  had  better  do  so  the  first  warm  day 
before  brood  is  in  progress.  If  you  have  some  bar-frame 
hives  and  some  stored  combs,  it  would  be  as  well  to 
make  up  a  set  of  four  or  five,  drive  the  bees  and  hive 
them  on  them,  giving  them  the  broken  combs  to  clear 
out  when  weather  permits.  2.  Bees  in  Skcp  Dead. — Your 
neighbour  must  have  made  a  mistake  as  to  the  age  of  the 
hive.  A  swarm  of  1885  could  not  have  existed  until  now 
without  brood  combs.  From  the  combs  being  so  small, 
and  no  brood  having  been  raised  in  them,  it  must  have 
been  a  late  cast  or  virgin  swarm  of  1886  which  lost  the 
queen,  and  consequently  died  out.  3.  Inversion. — Had  you 
placed  a  sheet  of  excluder  between  the  skeps  when 
inverting,  the  combs  would  have  been  built  down- 
wards in  the  top  one  instead  of  continued  upwards,  as 
was  the  case.  Your  plan  of  inverting  frames  by  a  piece 
of  hoop-iron  pivoted  to  the  end  bar  is  similar  to  Neigh- 
bour's plan.  Your  experience  of  the  combs  being  less 
liable  to  damage  in  extracting  after  inversion,  owing  to 
their  being  built  and  fixed  to  all  sides  of  the  frames,  is  in 
accordance  with  others'. 

0.  W. — If  the  honey  in  the  outside  frames  is  not  granulated 
the  bees  will  reach  it  through  the  winter  passages,  and 
use  it  when  the  temperature  is  sufficiently  warm.  Mean- 
while warm  candy — made,  as  you  propose,  of  fine  sugar 
and  syrup— placed  over  the  cluster  will  be  advisable,  until 
you  can  examine  the  hive. 

M.  Htjmtbet.— Observatory  hive,  Dysentery,  Quilts,  &c— 
The  hive  may  be  cleaned  a  second  time,  but  the  bees  are 
not  in  sufficient  numbers  to  draw  out  foundation.  Con- 
tinue te  feed  with  candy.  Toward  April  you  may  give 
syrup.  If  the  bees  survive  they  will  require  to  be  re- 
inforced with  young  bees  at  spring.  You  may  change  the 
damp  floor-boards  ;  you  will  then  discover  which  hives 
are  attacked  by  mice,  and  by  reducing  the  size  of  entrance 
may  keep  them  out  in  future.  You  are  quite  right  in 
changing  damp  quilts  for  dry  ones. 

F.  W.  C. — Honoring. — Spring  FJmoers. — Separating  Doubled 
Hives. — If  the  removal  had  been  made  a  month  earlier 
there  would  have  been  less  chance  of  bees  returning. 
During  the  winter  months  we  constantly  move  colonies 
short  distances,  and  never  lose  bees  to  any  extent  worth 
naming.  If  fine  days  occur  soon  after  removal,  a  few 
bees  will  fly  around  the  old  spot,  but  eventually  return  to 
their  hive.  Possibly  a  sudden  change  of  temperature 
chilled  the  bees.  You  will  find  the  colonies  none  the 
worse  in  the  end.  Your  spring  flowers  are  much  earlier 
than  ours.  We  have  no  bloom  at  present,  neither  furze, 
crocus,  nor  snowdrop.  Our  experience,  too,  differs 
respecting  condemned  bees,  of  which  we  have  about 
twenty  lots,  and  have  often  had  more  during  many  past 
years,  but  have  no  robbing ;  indeed,  when  possessed  of 
plentiful  stores,  they  are  far  less  given  to  robbing  than 
the  Eastern  races  of  bees.  To  separate  your  double 
hives,  at  any  time  during  mild  weather  inject  smoke  into 
the  lower  hive,  so  driving  the  bees  into  the  upper  one, 
which  remove  at  once  from  the  lower,  placing  it  on  a 
fresh  floor-board,  and  setting  it  on  the  old  stand.  Then 
examine  the  lower  hive,  and  transfer  any  frames  con- 
taining brood  to  the  centre  of  the  other,  making  room  for 
them  by  abstracting  sealed  or  empty  combs.  Any 
adhering  bees  may  be  shaken  on  a  board  in  front  of  the 
populated  hive,  or  on  the  top  of  the  frames.  A  careful 
look-out  must  be  kept  for  the  queen  when  manipulating 
the  lower  hive.  Another  plan  is  to  separate  the  two  hives, 
placing  each  on  separate  floor-boards,  and  manipulating 
each  hive  singly,  transferring  queen,  bees,  brood,  and 
sufficient  store  of  sealed  honey,  to  one,  and  reserving 
the  remaining  combs  for  future  use.  The  operation  is  very 
simple  and  should  be  quickly  performed.  Separate  the 
hives  with  a  chisel,  blow  in  a  little  smoke,  and  operate 

towards  evening  to  avoid  robbing.  We  advise  you  to 
break  up  the  combs  of  heather  honey ;  it  would  be  bad 
policy  to  give  them  to  a  swarm.  Messrs.  Turner, 
Badcliffe-on-Trent,  Notts,  advertise  in  our  columns  a 
very  useful  '  Squeezer '  for  heather  honey,  which  is  of 
more  value  than  other  kinds  of  honey,  and,  from  its 
greater  density,  of  less  value  to  the  bees.  It  is  very  likely 
that  you  may  find  the  bees  domiciled  in  the  upper  hives, 
in  which  case  you  have  simply  to  remove  the  lower.  In 
that  case  the  first  plan  suggested  is  the  best. 

Amateuk. — Queenless  Stock. — In  all  probability  your  bees 
became  queenless  and  deserted,  to  join  some  other  colony, 
on  one  of  the  fine  mild  days  on  which  the  bees  were 
flying  freely,  since  the  departure  of  the  late  severe 
weather ;  or  they  might  have  dwindled  and  been  driven 
out  by  robbers.  This  might  have  occurred  immediately 
after  packing  for  winter  from  injury  to  or  loss  of  queen. 

B.  Chapman. — 1.  Tar. — Yes.  Stockholm  and  gas  tar  should 
be  heated  nearly  to  boiling  point,  and  well  mixed,  being 
allowed  to  cool  before  the  spirit  of  turpentine  is  added. 
The  more  turpentine  used  the  quicker  the  mixture  dries. 
A  pint  of  turpentine  to  ten  pints  of  tar  will  do,  or  two 
of  turps  to  ten  of  tar,  if  you  wish  it  to  dry  quickly.  We 
do  not  paint  over  the  tar,  but  if  any  other  colour  is 
desired  it  may  be  done.  2.  Deep  Frame. — There  has 
been  no  authorised  decision  in  regard  to  a  deeper  frame 
than  the  Standard.  From  10  in.  to  12  in.  deep  by  12  or 
11  in.  long  is  a  good  size.  Your  experience  with  the 
deeper  frame  is  the  same  as  our  own.  Abbott's  frame 
increased  in  depth  to  14  in.  would  be  rather  too  deep. 
We  should  prefer  12  in.  depth.  3.  Bee  Farm. — Judging 
from  your  description  of  the  four-acre  piece  of  land,  with 
its  surroundings  of  woods,  limes,  hawthorn,  &c,  we 
should  think  it  a  good  speculation  at  a  moderate  rent. 
4.  Plteasants. — Pheasants  do  not  devour  bees,  neither  do 
fowls,  but  we  have  seen  them  occasionally  pick  tip  a 
drone.  5.  Becoming  Experts. — We  can  hardly  advise  you 
as  to  your  sons  becoming  experts.  If  handy,  industrious, 
honest,  and  anxious  to  learn,  young  men  of  from  seventeen 
to  nineteen  years  of  age  would  find  no  difficulty,  we 
should  think,  in  making  arrangements  with  some  of  our 
larger  apiarists  on  the  terms  you  suggest.  Mr.  Simmins, 
we  believe,  trains  young  men  ;  probably  others  also  who 
are  possessed  of  large  and  well-managed  apiaries. 

W.  C.  T. — There  should  be  no  difficulty  in  your  obtaining 
information  respecting  the  examination  for  a  third-class 
certificate.  Mr.  Kent,  hon.  sec.  of  the  Cornwall  B.  K.  A., 
Truro,  would  be  pleased  to  give  you  the  desired  in- 

Far  Nokth. — The  samples  of  enamel  cloth  forwarded  are 
suitable  for  placing  on  tops  of  frames.  Nos.  1  and  2  are 
the  best  for  the  purpose. 

B.  E.  Lloyd. — Both  samples  of  Porto  Bico  are  good  ;  but 
No.  2  brown  is  the  more  suitable  for  feeding  bees  on  Mr. 
Simmins'  plan. 

C.  C.  M. — There  is  no  occasion  for  suspecting  foul  brood 
in  the  hive  from  which  the  frame  forwarded  came.  The 
comb  is  healthy  and  the  honey  in  good  condition.  The 
comb  was  slightly  mouldy,  and  the  hive  must  have  been 
damp.  We  consider  the  measures  taken  were  the  best 
that  could  have  been  adopted  for  the  preservation  of  the 
remaining  bees. 

H.  L. — The  foundation  remaining  from  last  year  may  be 
advantageously  utilised  this  season.  You  can  remove  the 
brittleness,  and  render  it  fit  for  use  by  hot  water.  Let 
it  be  hot  to  the  hand ;  about  one  pint  of  boiling  to  two 
of  cold  will  be  right.  Just  hold  the  sheet  in  the  water 
for  half  a  minute. 

J.  H. — Your  letter  respecting  the  Yorkshire  Bee-keepers' 
Association  has  been  received  with  thanks  ;  but  we  con- 
sider, now  that  Mr.  Grimshaw  has  consented  to  be  co- 
secretary  with  Mr.  Bickards,  and  new  hopes  are  enter- 
tained for  the  future  success  of  the  Association,  that  it 
Would  be  more  discreet  not  to  publish  it. 

Beceived  from  Mr.  John  Smith,  the  Boyal  Nursery, 
Clewer,  Windsor,  a  packet  of  seeds,  sought  after  by  bees, 
containing  twelve  assorted  varieties,  with  full  directions  for 

February  10,  1887.] 



Beceived  from  Mr.  Henry  Dobbie,  Cringlefold,  Norwich, 
Descriptive  Catalogue  of  Vegetable  and  other  Seeds,  Herbs,  Ac. 

Cohbection. — Useful  Hints,  p.  45,  7  lines  from  end,  for 
and  the  close-ended  frames  being  dispensed  with,  read  but 
the  close-ended  frames  have  not  been  dispensed  with. 

We  liave  reports  of  several  County  Associations  in  type,  to 
which  ice  hope  to  give  insertion  in  our  next  issue. 

.gfhow   jgtnnouncements. 

Giving  Name  and  Address  of  Secretary,  Date  and  Place  of 
Show,  Date  of  Closing  Entries.  Terms :  Three  Insertions 
and  under,  Two  Shillings  and  Sixpence ;  additional  inser- 
tions, Sixpence  each.  No  charge  made  to  those  Associations 
whose  Shows  are  announced  in  our  general  Advertising 

July  11-15. — Eoyal  Agricultural  Show  at  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne.    Entries  close  May  12.     J.  Huckle,  Kings  Langley. 

August  3-5. — Yorkshire  Agricultural  Society  at  York, 
Secretary,   H.  L.   Eickards,   Poole,  near  Leeds. 

business  directory. 

The  Name  and  Address  and  Business  of  any  Manufacturer 
will  be  inserted  in  this  List,  under  one  heading,  for  One 
Pound  per  annum.  Additional  headings,  Five  Shillings 
extra.  Advertisers  in  '  The  Bee  Jo.urnal,'  whose  orders 
amount  to  Five  Pounds  per  annum,  will  be  inserted  Free. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Appleton,  H.  M.,  256a  Hotwell  Eoad,  Bristol. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Buktt,  E.  J.,  Stroud  Eoad,  Gloucester. 

Edey  &  Son,  St.  Neota. 

Hole,  J.  E.  W.,  Tarrington,  Ledbury. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Meadham,  M.,  Huntington,  Hereford. 

Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Eegent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothabd,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

The  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 

Wren  &  Son,  139  High  Street,  Lowestoft. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

British  Honey  Co. ,  Limited,  17  King  William  St. ,  Strand. 

Country  Honey  Supply,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Eegent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Benton,  F.,  Munich,  Germany. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Eegent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Simmins,  S.,  Eottingdean,  near  Brighton. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Lyon,  F.,  94  Harleyford  Eoad,  London,  S.E. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Eegent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Eegent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts 


MR.  J.  A.   ABBOTT 

EGS    to   announce    that   he    has   returned    from    his 
American  Tour,  having  made  most  favourable  ar- 

^pf     rangements  for  the  supply  of 

SECTIONS,   HIVES,  Ac.,  Ac. 

It  is  now  arranged  that  he  will  continue  to  trade  in 
conjunction  with  his  Brothers,  and  he  therefore  requests 
that  all  business  letters  be  addressed 

ABBOTT    BROTHERS,    Southall. 


[Feb.  10,  1887. 



Choice  Selected  Collection  of 

SOUGHT  AFTER   BY  BEES.     Free  by  post,  2/6. 


JOHN  SMITH,  The  Royal  Nursery,  Clewer,  Windsor,  Berks. 

1  lb.  3/-  or  i/io. 
Dealers  and  others  apply  for  List  (110  Illustrations), 
G.  STOTHARD,   WELWYN,   HERTS,  a  232 

0  J  Y  /**  A  O   Having   had  many  enquiries   from 

OUxjrVfVi  those  who  cannot  obtain  the  right 
kind,  we  now  oiler  Genuine  PORTO  RICO,  on  rail  at 
Brighton,  21s.  percwt.,  lis.  56-lbs.,  5s.  9d.  28-Ibs.  DUTCH 
CRUSHED,  best  for  Syrup,  22s.  6d.  per  cwt.,  lis.  6d.  56-lbs., 
6s.  2S-lbs.  Quantities  of  not  less  than  2  cwt.  of  Dutch 
Crushed,  direct  from  London,  at  19s.  Gd.  per  cwt.  ;  not  less 
than  10  cwt.  Porto  Rico,  at  18s.  For  Cash  only  with  Order. 
No  Samples  sent,  as  we  recommend  only  what  we  would 
use  ourselves.     Subject  to  fluctuations  in  Market. 

Address:  Simmins'  Factory,  Brighton.    (161) 


J-ewt.  bag,  5/3 ;  J-cwt.  bag,  10s.  3d. ;  2-ewt.  bags  @  19/0  cwt. 
W.  B.  WEBSTER,  Wokingham,  Berks.  21 


IWHjL   send  to  any  address  26  varieties    of    BEE- 
FLOWER  SEEDS,  including  the  Noted  CHAPMAN 
HONEY  PLANT,  for  2s.  post  paid.     GARDEN  SEEDS.— 

1  will  send  21  packets  of  Garden  Seeds  to  any  address  for 
2s.  Gd.  post  paid.  BAR-FRAME  HIVES  with  Straw 
bodies,  the  hive  least  affected  by  heat  or  cold.  My  Hives 
and  Appliances  are  all  forwarded  carriage  paid,  and  re- 
turnable if  not  approved  on  arrival.  Please  send  your 
address  on  post-card,  and  I  will  send  Descriptive  and 
Priced  Catalogue  post  free.  Address  John  Mooke,  Seed 
Merchant,  Market  Place,  and  Prospect  Farm,  Warwick. 

RARE  BARGAINS.— Owing  to  change  of  Pat- 
tern, I  have  bought  Mr.  Blow's  OLD  PATTERN 
HIVES,  '  Standard'  size.  10/6  for  7/6,  15/0  for  12/0,  21/0 
for  18/0.  Two  Cork  Hives,  35/0  for  25/0  ;  Cowan,  27/6  for 
24/0,  all  new.  DARK  FOUNDATION,  1/5  per  lb.  MELI- 
LOTUS  LEUCANTHA,  2/6  per  100.  Address  E.  Jackson, 
Welwyn,  Herts. 

QCREW  CAP  JARS.— Fifty  2-gross  Cases  of 
IO  new  Straight  Shape  1-lb.  JARS  to  be  Sold  at  a  great 
reduction,  together  or  separately.  Address  Fredk.  Pear- 
son, Stockton  Heath,  Warrington. 

EARLY  BEE  FLOWERS.  — Plant  now.— 
Strong  Plants  of  ARABIS  and  LIMNANTHES,  1/9 
per  100,  free.  Address  S.  S.  Goldsmith,  Boxworth,  St. 
Ives,  Hunts. 

be  sold  cheap.  Apply  to  C.  Cust,  3  Temple  Terrace, 
Dorchester.  a  2347 

I J  Is.  8d.  per  doz.  STANDARD  FRAMES,  with  Metal 
Ends  complete.  Is.  Gd.  per  doz.  All  made  of  best  Pine, 
with  saw-cut  for  Foundation.  Sample,  3  Stamps,  free. 
Terms  for  quantities.    Address 

A.  GREEN,  Selston,  Alfreton.        a  2350 



Clark's  Patent  Climax  Hives. 

IN  order  that  these  Hives  may  be  more  generally  known, 
the  Licensee  has  determined  to  give  away  among  Pur- 
chasers of  undermentioned  Goods  during  this  February, 
One  Dozen  No.  2,  and  Half-dozen  No.  1  HIVES  (full  par- 
ticulars given  in  last  year's  Advertisement),  at  the  rate  of 
one  among  every  thirty  Purohasers,  to  be  distributed  by  a 
lottery,  to  conduct  which  he  will  endeavour  to  obtain  the 
assistance  of  persons  of  known  integrity.  Purchasers  of 
any  two  articles  above  Is.  to  have  one  chance,  and  each 
2s.  Gd.  one  chance ;  every  further  2s.  Gd.  an  additional 

N.B. — In  order  to  have  a  chance  of  securing  one  of  these 
Hives  gratis,  Orders  must  be  sent  in  during  February,  as  the 
lottery  will  take  place  early  in  March  and  Hives  at  once 
forwarded  to  respective  Winners. 


Finest  quality  White  Basswood  A  SECTIONS,  i\  x  4J  x 
2,  per  100,  3s.;  500,  lis.;  1000,  21s.  5Jx6J,  per  100, 
3s.  Gd.  ;  500,  13s. ;  1000,  25s.  PURE  FOUNDATION, 
BROOD,  per  lb.  2s. ;  5  lbs.,  Is.  lOd.  ;  5  lbs.  to  25  lbs.,  Is.  9Jd.  ; 
SUPER  ditto,  per  lb.  2s.  9d.  SMOKER  (Bingham),  2s."9d. 
EXTRACTOR,  10s.  *  VEILS,  Is.  3d.  PINE'S  METAL 
ENDS,  per  gross,  7s. 


Set  of  36  best  Cast  Steel  Black  Bits  and  Iron  Brace,  15s.  Gd. 
Beech  Brace,  Lignum  head,  26  Bits  ditto,  18s.  Gd.  Set  of 
12  Cast  Steel  Chisels,  from  1  in.  down,  5s.  Gd.  Handles, 
2d.  each.  Tenon  Saw  File,  3id.;  Hand  Saw,  id.  Marking 
Guages,  9d.  Mortice  ditto,  from  2s.  Gd.  to  3s.  Gd.  Best 
Twist  Gimlets,  assorted,  three,  10Jd.  Small  Hammer,  Is. ; 
larger,  Is.  Gd.  Name  Stamps,  Steel,  id.  per  letter.  Oil 
Stones  from  Is.  to  3s.  Best  Smoothing  Planes,  2 in.  3s.  Gd,, 
21  is.,  2J  4s.  3d.  Best  Jack  Plane,  4s.  9d.  Best  Try  Plane, 
6s.  6d.  Best  Cast  Steel  Hand  Saw,  22  ins.,  4s. ;  24  ins., 
4s.  6d.  Tenon  Saw,  14  ins.,  Iron  Back,  3s.  9d. ;  Brass  ditto, 
5s.  6d.  Dove-tail  Saw,  3s.  2  ft.  Rules,  2  fold,  Is.  and  Is.  6d.; 
4  fold,  Is.  3d.  to  2s.  3d.  Spokeshave,  Is.  Id.  Squares,  6  in., 
Is.  8d.;  9  in.,  2s.  3d.;  12  in.,  3s. 

Kindly  oblige  by  adding  sufficient  postage  for  small 
packages  of  goods. 

All  Orders  to  be  addressed  to   W.    J.    GREEN, 

Hive  Works,  Eriar  Street,  Sudbury,  Suffolk. 

a  232s 





By  T.  W.  COWAN,  F.G.S.,  F.R.M.S. 

J.      HTJCKLE,      KINGS      X,  -A.  3ST  G-Ij  E  1T- 

THOMAS  B.  BLOW  has  for  SALE,  suitable 
for  a  BEE  and  POULTRY  FARM,  18  Acres  of 
Land  in  Northamptonshire,  on  borders  of  Bedfordshiie, 
with  HOUSE  and  suitable  OUTBUILDINGS.  Contains  a 
bed  of  Valuable  BUILDING  STONE,  and  has  Frontage  to 
Street  of  large  Village.  For  Plan,  Particulars,  and  Price, 
apply  to  T.  B,  Blow,  Welwyn. 

Communications  to  the  Editor  to  be  addressed  '  Strangeways'  Printing  Office,  Tower  Street,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  w.c' 

[No.  243.     Vol.  XV.] 

FEBRUARY  17,  1887. 

[Published  Weekly.] 

(Sfottorial,  Unfixes,  $r. 



{Continued  from  page  43.) 


1.  The  beginner  should  never  make  a  start  on  a 
large  scale.  He  had  better  commence  with  one  or 
two  hives,  and  increase  as  he  gets  experience,  not 
forgetting  that  there  is  a  great  deal  to  learn — 
although  not  more  than  any  one  of  ordinary  intelli- 
gence can  manage — before  he  can  expect  to  be  a 
successful  bee-keeper. 

2.  The  best  time  to  commence  is  in  the  spring, 
and  it  can  be  either  by  the  purchase  of  a  swarm,  or 
a  stock  of  bees,  in  a  skep  or  a  wooden  hive.  If  the 
bee-keeper  decide  on  the  purchase  of  a  hive,  he 
should  secure  this  from  the  nearest  bee-keeper  of 
his  neighbourhood  in  the  beginning  of  April.  If  he 
is  not  able  to  afford  the  cost  of  such  a  hive,  he  will 
have  to  begin  with  a  swarm,  which  he  should  secure 
in  May  or  the  beginning  of  June. 

3.  If  he  has  had  no  previous  experience  in  keeping 
bees,  it  would  be  better  for  him  to  consult,  and  get 
the  help  of,  the  county  expert ;  or  if  he  is  not  able 
to  do  this,  to  enlist  the  services  of  a  practical  bee- 
keeper in  his  district. 

4.  Should  he  not  be  able  to  get  any  such  help, 
he  must  try  and  get  a  swarm  from  a  hive  which 
was  known  to  have  swarmed  the  previous  season, 
because  the  queen  of  such  a  swarm  would  be  a 
young  one  and  in  her  prime.  The  larger  the 
swarm,  the  better.  The  bee-keeper  can  judge  the 
strength  of  the  swarm  by  its  weight  or  measure. 
Three  pounds  of  bees,  or  a  little  more  than  a  gallon, 
would  be  a  medium  swarui ;  and  five  pounds,  or 
about  seven  quarts,  would  be  a  good  swarm. 

5.  Much  greater  care  should  be  exercised  in 
purchasing  an  old  hive,  and  it  should  be  well 
examined  before  it  is  taken.  If  in  a  skep,  blow  in 
a  little  smoke  at  the  entrance,  and  after  a  few 
minutes  turn  it  up.  The  hive  should  be  full  of 
bees,  and  these  can  be  driven  down  with  a  few 
more  puffs  of  smoke.  (Instead  of  smoke  carbolic 
acid  can  be  used ;  but  this  will  be  explained  in 
another  chapter.)  Examine  the  combs,  and  see 
that  they  are  free  from  mould,  and  if,  on  pushing 
them  apart,  brood  is  found,  it  shows  that  the  queen 

is  present.  The  combs  should  be  straight  and 
regular,  coming  down  to  the  bottom  of  the  hive. 
If  the  combs  in  such  a  hive  are  not  too  black  or 
old,  it  can  be  purchased,  especially  if  it  had 
swarmed  the  previous  season.  This  hive  can  be 
kept  for  supplying  swarms,  or  the  bees  can  be 
driven  and  the  combs  transferred  to  a  frame-hive 
in  the  manner  to  be  explained  later. 

6.  If  the  purchase  of  a  frame-hive  has  been 
decided  upon,  the  same  observations  should  be 
made  while  the  bee-keeper  is  taking  out  the  combs 
and  examining  the  hive.  If  the  operator  is  a  skil- 
ful oue,  and  his  movements  are  carefully  watched 
by  the  beginner,  this  will  be  as  good  as  a  lesson 
for  him. 

7.  Make  up  your  mind  to  be  guided  by  the 
instructions  given  for  at  least  two  years,  with 
what  help  can  be  obtained  from  the  expert  or  a 
friend,  and  only  after  that  try  experiments. 


We  noted  in  our  account  of  the  meeting  of  Herts 
bee-keepers  at  Hertford  that  Mr.  T.  B.  Blow,  of  Welwyn, 
exhibited  a  hive  on  the  reversing  principle,  and  at  the 
time  we  had  not  space  to  describe  it,  but  we  promised 
to  do  so  in  some  future  number. 

Mr.  Blow  has  endeavoured  to  combine  in  this  hive 
the  use  of  the  shallow  bars  suitable  for  extracting 
purposes  or  to  hold  sections,  and  the  ordinary  Standard 

Fig.  1  shows  the  floor-board,  which  is  so  constructed 
as  to  have  a  full  entrance  the  whole  width  of  the  hive 

so  that  very  efficient  ventilation  is  secured  in  the  hottest 
weather,  and  the  risk  of  swarming  through  overheating, 
&c,  is  avoided.  A  half  bee-space  is  fitted  round  three 
sides  of  the  floor-board,  and  to  the  front  is  fixed  the 
porch.  This  is  a  feature  not  at  all  noticed  in  the  foreign 
reversible  hives,  but  is  of  great  importance,  not  only  as 



[February  17,  1887. 

a  shelter  from  the  sun's  rays,  but  as  a  roof  to  prevent 
water  getting  on  the  alighting  board  and  rendering  the  bees 
chilled  when  they  are  returning  home  during  a  sudden 
storm  in  the  spring. 

P'rorn  the  illustrations,  2  and  8,  it  will  be  seen  that 
each  body  will  hold  ten  bar  frames  and  one  dummy.  To 
the  dummy  springs  are  attached,  and  the  frames  are 
held  firmly  in  place  by  this  means  and  each  box  can  be 

Fig.  3. 

readily  inverted  without  any  danger  of  the  bars  falling 
out.  It  is  claimed  that  spring  dummies  have  an  advantage 
over  screws,  as  the  pressure  from  the  springs  is  alwavs 
constant,  whereas   if   any  shrinkage   takes   place,  the 

Fig.  4. 

pressure  from  screws  will  cease,  and,  again,  if  screws 
are  wood  they  swell  when  exposed  to  wet,  or  if  iron 
they  rust. 

Each  frame  will  contain  three  1-lb.  sections,  thus  a 
hive  with  two  super  boxes  on  will  hold  sixty  pounds. 
Dividers  can  be  very  easily  applied,  and  if  used  have 
four  slots,  enabling  the  bees  to  get,  very  free  access  to 
all  parts  of  the  combs. 

Two  of  the  bodies  form  a  hive  that  will  take  standard 
bar  frames,  see  fig.  3,  so  that  the  introduction  of  these 
shallow  invertible  boxes  does  mean  that  the  appliances  at 
present  in  use  are  to  be  thrown  aside  as  useless.  To  keep 
the  boxes  in  exact  position,  one  upon  another,  it  was  ori- 
ginally intended  to  use  buttons,  as  in  the  Stewarton  hive, 
and  as  shown  in  the  engravings,  but  loose  tongues  of 
wood  have  been  found  to  answer  better,  more  especially 
when  two  boxes  are  used  with  standard  bars  for  wintering 
purposes.  A  queen-excluding  dummy  with  half  bee- 
space  in  each  side  is  used  between  the  body  boxes  and 
super  boxes.  Fig.  4  shows  the  hive  complete  with  two 
body  boxes  and  two  supers. 

At  the  meeting  referred  to,  this  hive  was  very  favour- 
ably received  as  a  step  in  the  right  direction. 

On  page  115,  Vol.  XIII,,  was  given  a  full  description 
of  several  styles  of  feeders  invented  by  Mr.  Simmins — 
viz.,  the  Commercial,  the  Frame,  and  the  Amateur 
Feeders.  The  principal  feature  in  these  feeders  is  that 
they  dispense  with  cooking,  and  reduce  sugar  to  syrup 
without  stirring  by  the  addition  of  water  in  certain  pro- 
portions. The  loaf-sugar  and  cold  water  should  be  put 
in  the  feeder  in  the  proportion  of  1  lb.  of  sugar  to  half- 
pint  of  water.  Warm  water  should  be  used  in  cold 
weather,  or,  if  preferred,  at  all  times  ;  though  if  cold  be 
used  the  sugar  will  soon  be  reduced  to  syrup.  The  Self- 
acting  Syrup-Can,  recently  brought  out  by  Mr.  Simmins, 
is  fitted  with  a  lining  of  perforated  zinc,  and  the  syrup 
is  made  on  the  principle  of  the  above  feeders ;  and  as  the 
trouble  of  cooking  or  mixing  sugar  and  water  is  thus  done 
away  with,  it  will  be  found  a  great  saving  of  time,  and 
will  prove  a  great  accommodation  in  all  apiaries  where 
the  practice  of  feeding  with  syrup  is  still  adhered  to. 


Weather. — A  fortnight's  fine  weather,  with  several 
days  of  brilliant  sunshine,  and  high  temperature,  have 
effectually  aroused  the  bees  and  enticed  them  forth  in 
search  of  pollen,  of  which  at  present  they  find  but  little. 
The  nut-bushes,  laden  with  catkins  and  shedding  pollen 
abundantly,  have  been  our  chief  source  of  supply,  the 
crocus  and  snowdrops  not  yet  having  made  their  appear- 

Spring  P'lowers. — Soon,  however,  we  may  hope  to 
welcome  these  sweet  harbingers  of  spring,  together  with 
mezereon,  the  bloom  of  the  elms,  poplars,  furze,  aconites, 
et  hoc  genus  onme,  gladdening  our  hearts,  as  well  as  the 
bees,  after  the  long  and  trying  winter,  now,  as  we  hope, 
drawing  to  its  close,  although,  while  writing,  severe 
frost  has  again  appeared,  and  the  clouds  are  threatening 

Manipulating.— The  late  fine  weather  may  have 
tempted  the  inexperienced  to  manipulate  too  freely,  the 
ill  effects  of  which  will  soon  become  apparent  from  the 
dwindling  of  the  population  where  the  brood-nest  has 
been  broken  or  much  disturbed.  At  this  early  period 
we  cannot  too  strongly  urge,  upon  all,  the  absolute 
necessity  of  abstaining  "from  interference  with  colonies 
further  than  merely  raising  quilts,  supplying  food  where 
it  is  required,  and  a  change  of  floor-board,  all  of  which 
operations  should  be  performed  with  the  minimum  of 

Feeding,— Consumption  of  stores  by  strong  colonies, 

February  17,  1887.] 



during  the  late  fine  weather,  will  have  become  more 
rapid ;  and  it  behoves  the  careful  apiarist  to  have  an  eye 
to  this  matter,  and  not  to  allow  his  forwardest  and  best 
stocks  to  perish  from  want  of  food.  Often  have  we 
beheld  this  piteous  sight — hives  literally  full  of  bees 
utterly  prostrated  by  famine — the  dead  and  dying  bees 
blocking  the  entrances,  covering  the  floor-boards,  or 
languidly  clustering  between  the  combs  emptied  of  their 
honey,  but  partly  filled  with  starving  brood.  Prevent 
the  occurrence  of  so  painful  a  catastrophe  by  a  timely 
supply  of  food.  Soft  warm  candy,  or  sealed  honey, 
should  still  be  given. 

Moderate  Supply. — Soon,  in  finer,  warmer  weather, 
syrup  will  be  admissible,  precautions  against  robbing- 
being  taken,  and  care  being  exercised  against  too  rapid 
feeding,  for  if  colonies  arc  overfed,  mischief  will  result 
from  filling  up  the  brood-combs  and  thus  giving  a  check 
to  the  production  of  brood.  Food  supplied  in  excess 
is  almost  as  bad  as  starvation.  This  warning  becomes 
more  necessary  where  colonies  are  only  moderate  in 
strength  and  confined  by  division-boards  to  a  few  combs. 
In  such  case  the  brood-iiest  is  quickly  filled,  breeding 
altogether  ceases,  and  day  by  da}'  the  colony  becomes 
smaller  until  the  end  comes. 

Small  Colonies. — Hence  building  up  small  colonies  is 
a  work  requiring  much  care  and  judgment,  lacking 
which  it  is  far  better  to  unite. 

Equalisation. — Here  one  of  the  great  advantages  of 
moveable  combs  is  realised.  Given  a  small  colony  with 
little  food  or  brood,  and  a  large  one  with  abundance — or 
the  converse — what  more  easy  than  to  transpose  brood 
or  honey,  and  thus  to  equalise  the  two,  always  pro- 
viding that  frames  are  interchangeable  ?  But  whatever 
manipulation  may  be  deemed  necessary  at  this  early 
season,  '  when  'twere  done  'twere  well  'twere  done 
quickly,'  that  no  chance  of  robbing  and  consequent 
encasement  of  queens  may  be  afforded. 

Motto  for  'Journal.' — Thinking  of  Shakespeare 
reminds  one  that  '  our  Journal '  is  sadly  in  want  of  a 
motto.  Why  should  we  not  have  one,  and  what  better 
one  could  we  adopt — in  these  days  of  sedition,  change, 
home  rule,  misrule,  and  what  not — than  'Stick  to  your 
Journal.' — Cijmheline,  Act  iv.  Scene  2.  (Shakespeare.) 
Yes,  we  say  emphatically,  if  you  have  the  interests  of 
bee-keepers  —  whether  cottagers,  amateurs,  or  profes- 
sionals— at  heart,  '  Stick  to  your  Journal!  Not  that  we 
apprehend  sedition  in  our  camp,  but  we  would  have  all 
our  fraternity  loyal  and  true,  and  eager  to  extend  its 
circulation  to  all  classes  of  our  fellow-countrymen  by  all 
means  in  their  power,  realising,  as  we  do  in  our  own 
person,  how  great  would  have  been  the  advantage 
derived  in  our  younger  days  from  the  perusal  of  such 
an  organ.  Post  tenebras  lux!  and  the  deprivation  of 
'  the  Journal '  now  would  assuredly  cause  the  deprived 
justly  to  exclaim, '  Quanta  sunt  tenebree  !  vie  mihi!  vte 
mihijVce!'  ('How  great  the  darkness  to  me  !  Woe  to 
me,  woe  to  me  be ! ') 

Queenlessness  may  generally  be  discovered  when 
the  bees  begin  their  spring  flights.  Listlessnes3  or  in- 
activity, carrying  in  little  or  no  pollen,  sluggishness  or 
want  of  alacrity  in  entering  the  hive  on  returning  from 
the  fields,  restlessness  exhibited  by  going  in  and  out  of 
the  hive  in  an  inquiring  manner,  indisposition  to  defend 
the  hive,  are  all  more  or  less  signs  of  the  loss  of  queen. 
Colonies  acting  thus  should  be  examined  at  the  earliest 
opportunity,  and  will  generally  be  found  to  possess 
neither  eggs,  brood,  nor  queen,  in  which  case  an  early 
union  should  be  made  with  some  other  colony. 

Spring  Management. — Next  in  importance  after  a 
good  and  safe  system  of  wintering,  we  place  spring 
management ;  and,  with  a  view  to  honey  production, 
the  first  requisite  is  to  obtain  large  colonies  by  the  time 
the  honey  harvest  begins.  It  is  of  no  use  for  hives  to 
possess  the  maximum  of  population  when  the  harvest  is 
nearly  over.     It  must  be  a  very  weak  colony,  or  a  very 

poor  queen,  that  cannot  raise  the  population  to  '  boiling 
point '  during  a  plentiful  harvest,  but  after  this  the  bees 
aro  merely  consumers  instead  of  producers  until  another 
harvest  arrives.  Evident  as  the  truth  of  this  statement 
must  appear  to  $ny  one  for  a  moment  considering  the 
matter,  how  many  there  are  who  keep  bees  on  the  plan 
of  getting  their  colonies  up  to  full  strength  just  when 
the  honey  harvest  ends !  It  may  be  from  want  of  care, 
knowledge,  or  experience,  or  from  not  doing  things  at 
the  proper  time,  or,  indeed,  from  a  variety  of  causes ; 
but  certain  it  is  that  with  many  bee-keepers  this  is  the 
rule  and  not  the  exception.  Again,  therefore,  we  re- 
iterate our  former  advice  to  keep  no  weak  colonies,  but 
to  make  it  a  rule  to  have  all  strong  and  full  of  bees  by 
the  end  of  May  or  the  beginning  of  June,  when  the 
white  clover  commences  to  bloom.  Sometimes  and  in  a 
few  districts  surplus  may  be  obtained  from  fruit-bloom, 
but  in  this  climate,  with  its  frequent  cold  and  late 
spring's,  it  is  very  rarely  indeed  that  bees  can  do  more 
than  supply  their  own  necessities  of  daily  consumption 
before  the  time  above  mentioned,  even  in  our  southern 
counties.  If  we  take  the  7th  of  June  as  the  general 
time  at  which  colonies  should  be  ready  for  the  harvest, 
then  six  weeks  previously — i.e.,  about  the  25th  of  April 
— preparations  should  commence  for  raising  the  popula- 
tion of  the  hives  by  stimulating  to  brood-rearing,  by 
judicious  and  careful  brood-spreading,  by  the  union  of 
weak  colonies,  and,  in  all  these  operations,  by  the  least 
possible  interference  with  or  manipulation  of  the  bees 
and  their  hives.  By  such  means  we  venture  to  say  that 
half-a-dozen  strong  colonies  thus  prepared  will  collect 
more  honey  than  a  score  of  others  which  have  been  left 
to  their  own  devices  or  treated  according  to  ordinary 
methods,  whether  the  object  be  comb  or  extracted 
honey.  Our  ideas  on  stimulation  and  brood-spreading 
we  hope  to  give  in  future  '  Hints,'  also  advice  as  to  the 
manner  and  time  of  the  general  spring  overhauling  or 
examination  of  colonies, — which  is  not  yet. 

Patents. — A  more  general  inclination  appears  to  be 
springing  up  amongst  English  inventors  of  apicultural 
appliances  to  resort  to  the  Patent  Office  for  protecting 
their  inventions.  The  recent  reduction  in  fees  for 
patenting,  and  the  reasonable  sum  for  which  provisional 
protection  for  a  period  of  nine  months  can  be  obtained, 
together  with  the  unscrupulous  manner  in  which  any 
unpatented  article  or  idea  is  seized  upon  by  other  in- 
terested persons,  readily  accounts  for  this  development. 
Mr.  Root,  editor  of  American  Gleanings,  some  time  ago 
made  the  following  statement  in  regard  to  the  same 
subject  from  an  American  point  of  view  : — '  I  am  very 
glad  indeed  to  note  the  disposition  among  bee-keepers 
of  forbearing  to  copy  the  works  of  each  other,  patent  or 
no  patent.  The  supply  dealer  who  would  unhesitatingly 
copy  something  well  known  to  be  the  property  of 
another,  without  getting  the  privilege  of  doing  so,  by 
purchase  or  otherwise,  would  very  likely  lose  more  than 
he  made,  so  strong  is  the  disposition  of  our  people  to 
give  honour  to  whom  honour  is  due.'  He  would,  be  a 
very  bold  man  who  would  endorse  this  statement  if  it 
were  applied  to  Englishmen.  And  yet  we  have  always 
believed  that  honour  and  honesty  prevailed,  to  say  the 
least,  in  as  great  a  degree  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic  as 
on  the  other.  The  subject  has  of  late  been  repeatedly 
brought  under  our  notice  by  inventors  submitting  thoir 
novelties  for  inspection  and  advice,  almost  invariably 
with  the  proviso  that  the  invention  is  to  be  protected, 
and  must  therefore  be  considered  private  and  confidential. 
Amongst  the  last  articles  with  which  we  have  been 
favoured  are  a  standard  frame,  and  sections  of  various 
sizes  and  shapes,  by  our  old  friend,  Mr.  James  Lee, 
which  bid  fair  in  our  estimation  to  hold  the  field  against 
all  comers.  So  great  is  the  ingenuity  displayed,  and 
yet  so  perfect  the  simplicity,  that  we  shall  be  much 
deceived  if  the  invention  does  not  command  a  very 
large  sale  both  in  England  and  America,  in  both  "of 



[February  17,  1887. 

which  countries  we  understand  that  it  is  intended  to 
take  out  patents.  More  at  present  we  must  not  divulge, 
except  that  it  is  in  contemplation  to  provide  perfect 
machinery  for  turning'  out  the  articles  in  the  large  quan- 
tities likely  to  be  demanded.  The  specimens  forwarded 
to  us  are  of  the  most  perfect  and  accurate  construction, 
and  when  arrangements  are  completed,  can  be  supplied 
at  the  present  prices  of  good  frames  and  sections  both 
here  and  in  America.  We  believe  that  hives  on  the 
same  principle  will  be  supplied  also,  but  a  specimen  of 
these  we  have  not  yet  seen.  The  reproach,  if  there  be 
any  truth  in  it,  that  for  our  best  ideas  in  apicultural 
appliances  we  are  indebted  to  Americans,  is  surely  being 
wiped  out,  and  now  we  are  going  to  turn  the  tables  upon 
our  cousins.  Can  we  fancy  ourselves  sending  sections 
to  Amei'ica,  and  actually  manufacturing  them  in  that 
country,  instead  of  receiving  them  from  thence  ?  '  So 
the  world  wags,  so  the  world  wags.' 

Preparing  Hives,  Supers,  &c. — We  well  remember 
the  late  Mr.  Pettitt,  of  Dover,  exclaiming  loudly  against 
painting  hives,  because,  as  he  maintained,  it  prevented 
the  escape  of  moisture  from  the  interior,  an  idea  con- 
trary to  the  natural  instinct  of  the  bee,  which  leads  it  to 
cover  the  interior  walls  of  its  domicile  with  varnish,  or 
propolis,  to  prevent  the  escape  of  heat  or  moisture. 
Hence  we  find  experienced  apiarists  recommending  a 
coating  of  varnish  to  he  applied  to  the  inner  walls  of 
modern  frame-hives.  A  composition,  formed  of  two- 
thirds  resin  and  one-third  beeswax,  should  be  melted, 
mixed  well  together,  and  applied  warm  with  a  brush, 
care  being  taken  to  brush  it  well  into  the  corners  and 
cracks,  thus  saving  the  bees  much  labour  at  a  season 
when  time  and  labour  mean  honey.  Mr.  Heddon  re- 
commends lubricating  the  hive  bearings  with  tallow, 
and  rubbing  it  well  into  the  wood,  when,  he  says,  you 
will  enjoy  the  luxury  of  removing  covers,  supers,  honey 
cases,  &c,  in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye,  without  a  snap, 
jar,  or  bee  protest. 



The  annual  meeting  of  this  Association  was  held  on 
Thursday,  February  3rd,  at  the  George  Hotel,  Ayles- 
bury, when  there  were  present  the  Eev.  J.  Hill  in  the 
Chair,  the  Kev.  E.  K.  Clay,  the  Eev.  F.  S.  Sclater  (Hon. 
Secretary),  Mr.  W.  Sturdy,  &c.  The  Secretary  read 
the  annual  report  and  balance-sheet. 

The  Committee  congratulated  the  Association  on  the 
fine  exhibit  of  honey  which  secured  for  Buckinghamshire 
the  fourth  prize  in  Class  I.  at  the  recent  South  Kensing- 
ton Show,  and  which  included  honey  collected  from 
thirty-eight  different  bee-masters.  Lectures  have  been 
given  at  Amersham  and  Wolvcrton,  whilst  the  bee-tent 
has  been  usefully  employed  at  Stoke  Green,  High  Wy- 
combe, Denham,  Mentmore,  and  Oving.  Experts'  work 
has  been  chiefly  done  through  the  local  advisers,  to 
whom  the  thanks  of  the  Association  are  due.  The 
honey  census  has  been  very  partially  collected  this  year, 
through  the  failure  of  members  to  make  a  return  as 
requested.  Returns  were  received  from  fifty-five  mem- 
bers. Honey  yield : — Extracted,  2018  lbs. ;  1-lb.  sections, 
2506;  2-lbs.,  p  ;  other  supers,  103  lbs.;  wax,  48  lbs. 
The  Association  was  able  to  sell  at  a  good  price  the 
whole  of  the  honey  taken  to  London.  From  the  balance- 
sheet  it  appeared  that  there  was  a  deficit  on  the  year  of 
12/.  Is.  2d. 

Baron  F.  de  Rothschild,  M.P.,  was  elected  President 
for  the  ensuing  year,  and  the  other  officers  were  re- 

The  annual  drawing  for  three  hives  afterwards  took 
place,  the  winners  being,  1st,  Mr.  W.  Garrett,  Fenny 
Stratford;  2nd,  Mr.  J.  Elliott,  Wicken;  3rd,  Mr,  C. 
Middleton,  Eton. 


The  fifth  annual  general  meeting  of  the  Derbyshire 
Bee-keepers'  Association  was  held  in  the  Guildhall  on 
Friday,  21st  January,  1887.  Col.  Sir  H.  Wilmot,  Bart., 
V.  C.  C.  B.,  presided,  and  amongst  those  present  were 
the  Rev.  J.  Wadham,  and  Messrs.  W.  Newton,  W.  Wilks, 
W.  Handley,  D.  Cooper,  A.  Cooper,  Holmes,  Fearn, 
Johnson,  Austin,  Sims,  Boden,  Atkins,  and  Hodder. 
We  extract  Hhe  following-  from  the  Report  for  the  past 
year  :— 

'  The  Committee,  in  setting  before  you  their  fifth 
Report,  are  glad  to  be  able  to  congratulate  the  members 
of  the  Association  upon  the  sure  and  steady  progress 
which  has  characterised  their  efforts  for  the  past  year, 
and  upon  the  permanent  position  it  has  now  attained  in 
the  count}'.  The  number  of  subscribing  members  is  now 
350,  which,  with  twenty-three  donors  to  the  prize  fund, 
makes  a  total  of  373  as  against  267  last  year.  After 
paying  all  expenses,  we  are  able  to  carry  forward  a 
balance  of  25/.  16s.  2s  d. ;  the  sum  being  71.  8s.  id.  in 
1885.  The  annual  show  for  1886  was,  by  permission  of 
the  Committee  of  the  Derbyshire  Agricultural  Society, 
held  in  connexion  with  theirs,  on  September  8th  and  0th, 
and  was  a  great  success.  The  number  of  exhibitors  was 
about  the  same  as  last  year,  but  the  apparatus  showed  a 
marked  improvement.  The  quantity  of  honey  was  much 
larger,  and  its  quality  pronounced  by  the  judges  to  be  of 
the  first  order.  The  Committee,  in  concluding  their 
Report,  desire  to  point  out  the  good  accruing  to  the 
Society  from  the  various  lectures  held  in  different  parts 
of  the  county,  and  trust  that  the  members  generally 
will  do  all  in  their  power  to  advance  the  cause  of  the 

The  President  (the  Duke  of  Devonshire)  and  Vice- 
Presidents  were  re-elected.  Mr.  Copestake  was  re- 
appointed Treasurer,  and  Mr.  W.  T.  Adkins,  Secretary. 
The  Secretary  then  moved  the  re-election  of  the  District 
Secretaries,  which  was  carried.  The  draw  for  the  two 
prize  hives  next  took  place,  the  successful  members  being 
Mr.  G.  Griffin,  Clay  Cross,  and  Mr.  J.  Dowens,  Foxlow, 
Buxton.  It  was  decided  to  allow  the  Secretary  a  sum 
of  10/.  per  annum  for  his  services,  instead  of  5/.  as 
hitherto  accorded. 


The  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Essex  Bee-keepers'  Asso- 
ciation was  held  on  Saturday  evening  at  the  Corn 
Exchange,  Chelmsford,  Mr.  G.  H.  Aubrey  presiding. 
There  were  also  present  Messrs.  F.  H.  Meggy  (hon. 
secretary),  Reginald  Christy,  Leonard  Brown,  Edmund 
Durrant,  F.  Maryon,  W.  T.  Braddy,  W.  Debnam, 
and  others.  The  annual  report  and  accounts  were 
presented.  The  report  recapitulated  the  work  of  the 
year,  and  recommended  that  from  the  1st  of  January 
agricultural  labourers  should  be  admitted  to  the  benefits 
of  membership  on  ihe  payment  of  a  subscription  of  Is. 
per  annum.  The  financial  statement  showed  that,  not- 
withstanding the  heavy  expenditure  during  the  past  year 
entailed  by  the  holding  of  county  shows,  and  the  large 
number  of  members  visited  by  the  expert  and  receiving 
copies  of  the  Bee  Journal,  the  income  for  the  year  balancad 
the  expenditure  and  left  a  small  surplus  to  carry  forward. 
It  was  shown  that  there  were  about  ninety  new  members, 
the  total  number  of  members  and  donors  being  over  300. 


The  annual  meeting  of  the  members  of  the  above 
Association  was  held  on  Monday,  January  31st,  in  the 
Woolhope  Club  Room,  at  the  Free  Library,  when  there 
was  a  good  attendance.  Dr.  Chapman  was  voted  to  the 

From  the  annual  statement  of  accounts  it  appeared 

February  17,  1887.] 



tlint  there  was  a  balance  in  favour  of  the  Association  of 
187.  19s.  Ad.  The  report  stated  that  the  season  had  been 
moderately  favourable,  and  fair  yields  were  reported 
from  most  districts,  the  honey  not  being'  contaminated 
with  honey-dew  so  much  as  last  year.  Three  private 
demonstrations  had  been  given  in  the  gardens  of  mem- 
bers with  most  satisfactory  results,  and  the  report  dwelt 
upon  the  advantages  of  this  plan  to  cottage  bee-keepers 
who  did  not  attend  horticultural  shows.  Demonstrations 
were  also  held  in  connexion  with  the  horticultural  shows 
at  Hereford  (St.  Peter's)  and  Boss.  Honey  fairs  had 
been  organized  in  different  parts  of  the  county  with 
much  success,  and  the  Association  had  taken  a  part  in 
the  Exhibition  at  South  Kensington. 

On  the  election  of  officers  Mr.  Rankin  was  unani- 
mously re-elected  President.  The  Committee,  with  the 
exception  of  those  members  who  had  resigned,  were  re- 
elected, and  the  Rev.  James  Oakley,  the  Rev. — -  Herbert, 
Mr.  Edgar  Morris,  and  Mr.  Spencer  were  added  to  it. 
Mr.  Watkins  was  re-elected  as  Secretary,  the  work  he 
had  done  for  the  Association  having  been  warmly  eulo- 
gised. Messrs.  Hole  and  Meadham  were  elected  experts, 
and  Mr.  F.  James  representative  to  the  Bee-keepers' 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  Glamorgan  B.  K.  A.  was 
held  at  Cardiff  on  Thursday,  February  3rd,  C.  F. 
Gooch,  Esq.,  in  the  chair.  The  Report  and  Balance- 
sheet  were  passed.  After  the  election  of  Committee 
and  Chairman,  the  latter  referred  in  very  warm  terms 
to  the  past  services  of  the  Hon.  Sec,  Mr.  E.  Thornton, 
and  he  was  sure  all  the  members  would  regret  that 
he  felt  it  necessary  to  resign.  A  cordial  vote  of 
thanks  was  given  to  Mr.  Thornton  for  his  past  services. 
Mr.  Clark,  Penarth,  was  elected  hon.  sec,  and  Mr.  W. 
Gay,  4  Flora  Street,  Cathays,  Cardiff,  was  elected  hon. 
asst.  sec.  and  expert  for  the  County.  Messrs.  D.  A. 
Thomas,  Ysgnboaven,  and  0.  F.  Gooch,  Cardiff,  were 
elected  representatives  for  the  County.  Mr.  W.  Gay, 
certified  expert  of  the  B.B.K.A.,  and  expert  of  the 
county,  then  read  a  paper  on  the  profitable  management 
of  a  hive,  &c.  A  general  discussion  followed.  A  vote 
of  thanks  to  the  chairman  concluded  the  proceedings. 


The  general  annual  meeting  of  this  Association  was 
held  on  Saturday,  January  20th,  at  the  Old  Town  Hall, 
Leicester.  Mr.  Carter,  of  Mill  Hill  House,  Leicester, 
was  voted  to  the  chair. 

The  Report  and  Balance  Sheet  were  adopted.  A  dis- 
cussion then  followed  on  the  ways  and  means  of  im- 
proving the  position  of  the  Association  ;  and  as  the  em- 
ployment of  an  expert  to  visit  the  members  was  thought 
likely  to  be  beneficial  in  this  direction,  it  was  proposed 
by  Mr.  Meadows,  seconded  by  Mr.  J.  Cooper,  and  carried, 
that  the  prize-money  usually  offered  for  appliances  be 
applied  towards  paying  the  expenses  of  an  expert. 

Proposed  by  Mr.  Fosbrook,  seconded  byMr.  Foxon,  and 
carried,  That  arrangements  be  made  for  an  expert  to  visit 
the  apiaries  of  such  members  as  required  his  assistance. 

After  a  short  discussion  on  the  difficulties  members 
found  in  disposing  of  their  honey,  it  was  proposed  by  the 
Rev.  M.  A.  Thomson,  seconded  by  Mr.  Meadows,  and 
carried  unanimously,  That  a  honey  fair  be  held  in  the 
current  year  in  accordance  with  Rule.X. 

The  business  of  electing  Committee  and  Officers  was 
then  proceeded  with.  The  re-election  of  the  Secretary 
was  coupled  with  a  gratuity  of  three  guineas,  and  a 
hearty  vote  of  thanks  to  him  and  his  wife.  A  special 
vote  of  thanks  to  the  Leicestershire  Agricultural  Asso- 

ciation for   their  liberality  was  passed.    The  meeting- 
closed  with  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Chairman. 

Both  before  and  after  the  meeting  Mr.  W.  P.  Meadows 
interested  the  bee-keepers  present  by  exhibiting  and  ex- 
plaining the  working  of  the  Jones-IIeddon  and  the 
Bebington  hives. 


The  annual  meeting  was  held  at  the  Clarendon  Hotel 
on  Wednesday,  January  20th,  when  there  was  a  large 
number  of  members  present.  The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl 
of  Jersey  (President)  occupied  the  Chair. 

The  Secretary  presented  the  balance-sheet,  from  which 
it  appeared  that  the  total  receipts  amounted  to  331. 7s.  3d., 
while  the  expendituie  reached  35/.  2s.,  being  a  balance 
on  the  wrong  side  of  1/.  14s.  9d.  The  report  stated 
that  the  number  of  those  who  have  joined  the  Society 
during  the  year  was  no  less  than  01 ;  thus,  notwith- 
standing the  loss  of  25  members,  there  is  a  net  increase 
of  30  members,  bringing  the  total  membership  of  the 
Society  from  102  to  138.  A  spring  tour  had  been 
undertaken  by  Messrs.  Perry  and  Cobb,  the  former 
taking  the  northern,  the  latter  the  southern  part  of  the 
county.  The  autumn  tour  was  carried  out  by  Mr. 
Cobb  alone.  Nearly  every  member  was  visited,  and 
had  his  bees  examined,  and  advice  given  to  him.  It 
was  decided  not  to  hold  a  show  this  year,  partly  on 
account  of  the  expense  incurred  the  previous  year,  and 
partly  because  it  was  hoped  that  an  offer  which  was 
made  to  secretaries  of  flower  shows  would  accomplish 
the  same  object  as  a  honey  show.  The  bee-tent  again 
visited  several  places,  viz.,  Henley  (two  days),  when  the 
Berks  Association  also  sent  a  tent  with  exhibits  of 
honey,  bee-furniture,  and  appliances ;  Trinity  College, 
on  the  occasion  of  the  Royal  Horticultural  Show  at 
Commemoration  ;  Headington,  Watlington,  Woodstock, 
and  Shipston.  At  the  latter  place  the  Rev.  II.  Barton 
acted  as  expert. 

On  the  election  of  officers  Earl  Jersey  was  re-elected 
President ;  the  Rev.  F.  C.  Dillon,  Secretary ;  the  Vice- 
Presidents  were  re-elected,  and  the  following  were 
elected  Local  Secretaries : — The  Rev.  H.  Sturges  (Wit- 
ney), the  Rev.  W.  Neame  (Islip),  the  Rev.  D.  Thomas 
(Cuddesdon),  the  Rev.  C.  "Williams,  of  Benson  (Wat- 
lington district),  Mr.  W.  C.  Hayes  (Chipping  Norton), 
Mr.  Scrivener  (Bicester),  Mr.  C.  Harris  (Oxford),  and 
Mr.  T.  Hughes,  of  Combe  (Woodstock  district). 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  meeting  the  Earl  of  Jersey, 
with  characteristic  generosity,  handed  the  Secretary  an 
amount  to  cover  the  deficit  on  last  year's  account. 


The  bee-keepers  of  Horsforth  have  met,  and  come  to 
the  following  conclusions: — 1.  The  society  shall  be  called 
the  Horsforth  District  Bee-keepers'  Association.  2.  The 
annual  subscription  shall  be  2s.  Gd.  3.  That  monthly 
moveable  meetings  at  convenient  centres  be  summoned 
b3r  the  hon.  secretary,  for  purposes  of  mutual  improve- 
ment in  bee-culture.  4.  That  5s.  be  at  once  forwarded 
to  the  hon.  sees,  of  the  Yorkshire  Bee-keepers'  Asso- 
ciation, thereby  qualifying  the  Hon.  Sec.  and  another 
member  as  County  committee-men,  in  accordance  with 
the  recent  resolution  of  the  Y.B.  K.  A.  5.  That  bee- 
keepers within  the  district  desirous  of  joining  the  Asso- 
ciation be  hereby  invited  to  communicate  at  once  with 
the  district  secretary.  0.  That  the  district  hon.  sec. 
be  N.  F.  G.  Burniston,  Esq.,  Throstle  Nest  Apiary, 
Horsforth,  near  Leeds.  7.  That  the  treasurer  and  dis- 
trict adviser  be  A.  W.  Henderson,  Esq.,  Bank  Terrace, 

The  members  at  the  close  of  the  meeting  congratulated 
themselves  upon  being  the  first  to  have  the  honour  of 
taking  this  new  departure  in  our  county. 



[February  17,  1887. 


The  Editor  does  not  hold  himself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed" 
by  his  corespondents.  No  attention  will  be  taken  of  anonymous  com- 
munications, and  correspondents  are  requested  to  write  on  one  side  of 
the  paper  only,  and  give  their  real  names  and  addresses,  not  necessarily 
for  publication,  out  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith.  Illustrations  should 
be  drawn  on  separate  pieces  of  paper. 

Communications  relating  to  the  literary  department,  reports  of 
Associations,  Shows,  Meetings,  Echoes,  Queries,  Boohs  for  Review, 
&c,  must  be  addressed  only  to  *The  Editor  of  the  "British  Bee 
Journal,"  cfo  Messrs.  Strangeways  and  Sons,  Tower  Street,  Upper 
St.  Martin's  Lane,  London,  W.  C  Ml  business  communications  relating 
to  -Advertisements,  &c.,  must  be  addressed  to  Mr.  J.  Huckle,  King's 
Langley,  Herts  (see  2nd  page  of  Advertisements). 

***  In  order  to  facilitate  reference,  Correspondents,  when  speaking  oj 
any  letter  or  query  previously  inserted,  will  oblige  by  mentioning  the 
number  of  the  letter,  as  welt  as  the  page  on  which  it  appears. 


[815.]  You  did  me  the  honour  of  asking  me  to  occa- 
sionally pen  a  few  lines  for  the  Journal.  Nothing  would 
afford  me  greater  pleasure  than  to  do  so  if  I  were  per- 
suaded that  anything  I  could  write  would  be  of  interest  or 
profit  to  your  readers.  I  certainly  owe  }'OU  and  your  con- 
stituents a  debt  which  cannot  be  paid  by  me  in  this  way. 
I  have  no  faith  in  my  ability  to  teach  the  British  bee- 
keeper the  mysteries  of  his  craft.  I  know  them  now  too 
well  to  doubt  their  skill  in  these,  or  to  esteem  my  own 
in  any  way  superior  to  theirs.  I  am  conscious  enough 
of  the  fact,  however,  that  I  owe  both  them  and  you  a 
heavy  debt  of  gratitude,  and  would  discharge  it  (in  part) 
in  this  way.  But  how  shall  I  place  the  first  item  to  the 
credit  side  of  my  account  with  you  ?  is  the  question  that 
suggests  itself  to  me.  I  repeat,  Not  by  a  lesson  in  bee- 
keeping certainly.  Let  present  circumstances  then  suggest 
my  topic. 

It  is  ten  o'clock  p.m.  The  family  have  retired,  and  I 
sit  alone  at  the  table  with  a  bright  fire  blazing  in  the 
grate.  The  temperature  of  the  room  is  about  05°. 
The  glass  outside  registers  3°  below  zero.  What  a 
difference  in  temperature  between  the  within  and  the 
without !  You  say,  How  intensely  cold  it  must  be  to 
cause  the  mercury  to  drop  so  low !  Methinks  your 
sympathies  go  out  to  the  unfortunate  men  and  women 
who  are  compelled  to  be  out  on  such  a  night,  and  you 
bless  your  stars  your  home  is  in  Old  England  and  not  in 
Canada.  What  are  McKnight's  feelings  you,  perchance, 
ask  yourself  ?  Well,  they  are  those  of  the  poet  when  he 
wrote — 

'  Backward,  turn  backward,  0  Time,  in  your  flight, 
And  make  me  a  boy  again  just  for  to-night ! ' 

for  I  hear  the  merry  jingling  of  the  sleigh-bells  and  the 
rollicking  laughter  of  a  happy  sleighing  party  out  for  a 
pleasure  drive.  Wrapped  in  their  warm  robes  they  skim 
over  the  well-beaten  snow  road,  the  hoofs  of  the  horses 
keeping  time  to  the  '  tinkling  of  the  bells,'  and  the 
hilarity  of  the  party  raised  to  its  highest  pitch  by  the 
bracing  air  of  a  genuine  typical  Canadian  winter  night. 
The  earth  is  blanketed  with  the  '  beautiful  snow,'  a  foot 
and  a  half  thick  ;  the  air  is  as  still  as  death,  the  moon 
looks  down  from  a  cloudless  sky  and  her  rays  are  reflected 
back  with  such  brilliancy  that  the  very  stars  are  chased 
out  of  the  firmament.  It  is  not  a  night  for  Canadian 
youth  to  huddle  together  by  the  '  ingleside,'  but  such  an 
one  as  they  love  to  meet  with  one  another  on  the  hill- 
side and  engage  in  the  exciting  sport  of '  toboggen '  sliding 
— strike  across  country  on  snow-shoes,  or  drive  out  in 
sleighing  parties.  It  is,  I  repeat,  just  such  a  night  as 
Canadian  youth  delight  in,  and  will  suffer  nothing  by 
comparison  with  one  of  sleet  and  wind  or  of  heavy  hang- 
ing clouds  without  either. 

Bray  don't  pity  us  because  of  the  severity  of  our 
climate.  We  don't  need  your  commiseration  on  this 
score.  But  how,  you  ask,  does  it  affect  your  bee- 
keepers? Well,  it  necessitates  a  different  mode  of 
winter  management  from  that  practised  by  our  British 

brethren.  It  makes  winter  protection  a  necessary  element 
on  success.  We  winter  in  two  ways — indoors  and  out. 
The  indoors  method  I  need  not  dwell  upon,  as  you  do  not 
need  to  practise  it.  Every  house  has  its  cellar,  and  most 
people  keep  their  bees  where  they  keep  their  roots  and 
perishable  vegetables.  A  few  have  '  bee-houses '  specially 
constructed  for  wintering  their  pets.  Those  who  winter 
on  the  summer  stands  use  double-walled  hives,  or  some- 
thing better  than  a  simple  outer  case.  These  double- 
walled  hives,  however,  are  the  exception  and  not  the 
general  rule. 

I  shall  attempt  to  briefly  describe  the  method  generally 
practised  in  outdoor  wintering.  It  consists  of  an  outer 
case  with  some  kind  of  packing  between  and  above. 
This  outer  case  is  constructed  in  the  following  way,  with 
modifications  here  and  there.  First  make  a  rough  stand 
five  or  six  inches  wider  every  way  than  the  bottom 
board  of  the  hive.  Now  set  your  hive  on  this  stand  with 
the  centre  of  the  bottom  board  over  the  centre  of  the 
stand.  The  stand  will  then  project  five  or  six  inches 
every  way  beyond  the  outer  limits  of  the  bottom  board. 
Now  make  a  case  the  outer  limits  of  which  will  corre- 
spond with  the  outer  limits  of  the  stand.  This  case  must 
be  open  at  bottom  and  top  ;  the  top  of  this  case  should 
be.six  inches  higher  in  front  than  back  and  about  twice 
the  height  of  the  hive.  When  this  case  is  placed  over 
the  hive  it  rests  on  the  stand,  which  makes  a  nicely 
fitting  bottom  for  it.  The  front  of  this  case  must  have 
an  opening  below  corresponding  with  the  entrance  to  the 
hive.  Now  erect  a  nice  little  bridge  between  the  hive 
and  the  outer  case  that  will  permit  the  bees  free  access 
to  the  outer  world,  and  preventing  the  packing  when  put 
in  from  blocking  up  this  passage.  The  hive  is  now  sur- 
rounded by  a  case  with  an  empty  space  between  and 
around  of  some  five  inches  or  so.  Before  packing  between 
and  above  the  hive  itself  must  be  prepared.  This  ia 
usually  done  by  spreading  a  quilt  over  the  top  of  the  bar- 
frames.  This  quilt  should  be  a  little  larger  than  the  top 
of  the  hive.  The  empty  super  is  now  placed  on  the  top 
of  the  hive  and  this  keeps  the  quilt  securely  in  its  place. 
The  case  is  now  ready  for  the  packing,  and  the  best 
material  for  this  purpose  is  cork-dust,  such  as  fresh 
grapes  from  the  Mediterranean  are  usually  put  up  in. 
The  next  best  is  dry  saw-dust,  such  as  may  be  procured 
in  a  factory  where  dry  deals  and  boards  are  repped  in ; 
saw-dust. from  green  logs  should  never  be  used.  Cut 
straw,  dry  leaves  or  chaff  will  do,  hut  not  so  well. 
Whatever  material  is  used  it  should  be  well  packed 
around  and  over  the  hive  right  up  to  the  roof  of  the 
case.  The  quilt  over  the  bars  precludes  the  possibility 
of  the  packing  getting  to  the  cluster.  A  roof  or  top, 
projecting  a  little  over  the  frame,  is  now  put  on  and  the 
work  is  done.  Some  people  place  a  device  on  top  of  the 
bars  and  under  the  quilt  to  allow  the  bees  a  passage  over 
the  top  bars.  I  have  put  them  away  both  with  and 
without  this  device  and  found  no  difference  in  wintering. 
The  front  of  the  case  being  higher  than  the  back  causes 
the  roof  to  shed  the  rain  freely.  I  did  up  fourteen 
stocks  in  this  way  last  year  and  the  rain  came  through 
the  winter  finely.  I  have  over  forty  put  away  at  the 
present  moment,  and  I  have  no  fears  for  their  safety. 

Brobably  you  prepare  your  own  bees  for  winter  in 
some  such  way.  If  so  this  paper  will  be  neither  interest- 
ing nor  profitable  to  your  readers. — R.  McKnight, 
Owen  Sound,  Ontario. 

[816.]  A  correspondent  under  the  above  heading, 
B.  B.  J.  p.  G05,  writes  in  a  tone  which  can  scarcely  be 
passed  in  silence  with  justice.  I  am  in  a  position  to  speak 
witli  knowledge  of  the  Caledonian  Show ;  it  is  not  far 
from  the  home  of  my  parents,  not  far  from  my  present 
place  of  residence,  and  I  have  been  in  the  placo  many 

February  17,  1887.] 



In  the  first  place,  the  Caledonian  Show  is  not  what 
we  know  as  a  large  show.  The  directors  of  such  a  show 
as  the  Caledonian  generally  know  but  little  about  bee- 
keeping, and  it  is  considered  one  of  the  most  insignificant 
of  the  departments.  The  prizes  only  extend  to  the  best 
10  lbs.  of  extracted,  or,  iu  a  mistake,  they  may  even  say 
strained  honey,  and  the  best  10  lbs.  of  comb  honey. 

Now,  at  just  such  a  show  I  have  seen  a  pan  of  broken 
comb  take  the  first  prize  from  beautifully  filled  sections, 
and  the  dark  inferior  grades  of  honey  get  the  preference 
because  the  judges  knew  nothing  about  bee-keeping,  and 
they  think  such  looks  more  natural. 

We  must  remember  that  bee-keeping  has  made  won- 
derful progress  during  the  last  few  years,  and  the  know- 
ledge the  bee-keepers  possess  has  not  yet  been  trans- 
mitted to  the  general  public,  or,  at  least,  only  in  a  small 
measure.  So  much  so,  that  at  our  Provincial  Exhibition 
last  year,  when  showing  goods  to  the  judges,  they 
glanced  over  the  list,  and  then  remarked,  '  Wax  and 
honey  extractor,  is  that  not  all  the  same  thing  ?'  But  is 
that  an  indication  of  the  state  of  apiculture  in  our  land  ? 
Far  from  it. 

The  hives  spoken  of  at  Caledonia  were  either  frame- 
hives,  or  the}'  were  there  as  a  joke,  or  a  curiosity.  I 
have  no  hesitancy  in  saying  this  as  bee-keepers  know 
better  in  that  locality.  No  intelligent  bee-keeper  uses  the 
box-hive.  I  have  been  amongst  many  bee-keepers  during 
the  last  five  or  six  years ;  and  with  the  exception  of  the 
second  year  when  I  went  to  a  box-hive  locality,  and  pur- 
chased seventy-nine  stocks  in  such  hives  and  transferred 
them  during  fruit-bloom,  I  have  rarely  seen  a  box-hive. 

There  are,  however,  quite  a  few  in  exceptional 
localities  in  Ontario,  although,  I  believe,  more  in  the 
province  of  Quebec.  Ontario  is  the  honey-producing 
part  of  Canada,  at  present  however.  These  remarks, 
coupled  with  my  previous  one  on  Canadian  hives,  will,  I 
think,  throw  sufficient  light  upon  the  question.  I  regret 
that  Mr.  S.  T.  Pettit,  the  President  of  our  0.  B.  K.  A., 
should  have  found  it  necessary  to  leave  England  before 
the  time  when  the  British  and  Canadian  bee-keepers 
met ;  there  would  have  been  another  Canadian  to  assist 
in  throwing  additional  light  upon  bee-keeping  as  con- 
ducted here.  The  conversational  powers  of  a  few  (three) 
must  have  been,  at  times,  taxed  to  the  utmost. 

I  have  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  with  Mr.  J.  A. 
Abbott  of  Southall,  London,  England,  and  spent  an 
afternoon  partly  journeying  by  rail  with  him.  I  learned 
very  much  of  interest  and  solid  profit  from  him,  and  had 
a  very  pleasant  time.  It  is  a  bad  season  to  judge  of  bee- 
keeping in  Canada,  but  I  think  Mr.  Abbott  will  have 
gleaned  sufficiently  to  be  in  a  position  to  endorse  the 
majority  of  the  statements  made,  or  the  tenor  of  them. — 
R.  F.  Holtermann,  Brantford,  Canada. 


[817.]  Last  season  I  followed  the  instruction  in  your 
admirable  article  on  doubling,  and  as  a  consequence  had 
large  stocks  and  no  swarms.  I  have  six  hives,  and  my 
average  was  sixty-one  pounds  per  hive,  section  and  ex- 
tracted, taldng  the  4J  x  4{  section  at  one  pound.  The 
previous  season,  commencing  with  three  stocks  and  in- 
creasing by  natural  swarming  to  six,  I  had  an  average  of 
eighty-three  pounds  per  hive.  The  difference  in  the  season 
would  account  for  this  increased  result.  There  is,  how- 
ever, one  drawback  to  this  method  of  doubling ;  that  is, 
brood  in  the  upper  boxes.  One  of  my  hives  had  four 
bodies,  holding  twelve  frames  in  the  lower  hive,  ten  in 
the  others,  and  had  brood  in  the  middle  frame  of  all  the 
upper  boxes  in  September,  which  was  a  great  incon- 
venience in  extracting ;  and  when  1  had  worked  the  hive 
gradually  down,  I  found  the  lowest  compartment  quite 
empty  of  brood  or  honey.  In  another  hive  what  held 
twenty-two  frames  in  the  body  and  twenty  in  the  upper, 
I  had  brood  in  both,  and  a  quantity  of  drone-comb  drawn 

out  between  the  two  tiers  of  frames  and  well  up  into 
some  of  the  upper  ones.  I  therefore  think  that  some 
kind  of  queen-excluder  should  be  used  above  the  frames 
in  the  lower  body ;  not  excluder-zinc,  which  I  consider 
an  abomination,  and  would,  in  all  probability,  make  the 
bees  swarm ;  but  either  by  strips  of  wood  on  the  top  of 
the  frames  leaving  the  required  width  between,  or  a  pro- 
perly made  board  to  fit  the  hive,  with  long  strips  cut  out 
of  it,  or  the  top  bar  made  wide  enough  to  prevent  the 
queeu  going  up.  I  have  no  difficulty  with  queens  in  my 
sections,  and  the  tees  seem  to  find  no  hindrance  to  their 
working  by  having  to  pass  through  the  narrow  strips  of 
the  section.  The  hive  that  gave  me  the  best  result  last 
year  was  one  with  twenty-five  frames  in  the  body  and 
sections  above.  I  had  108  lb.  sections  on  at  one  time, 
and  full  of  bees,  but  owing  to  the  season  had  only  sixty- 
three  completed.  Can  you  suggest  any  plan  to  overcome 
this  difficulty  ?— W.  II.  Jenkins. 

[You  do  not  say  so,  but  we  presume  you  have  yowx 
frames  fixed  by  broad  shoulders  or  some  other  means, 
to  the  regulation  distance  apart  of  about  li  in.  from 
centre  to  centre.  This,  we  think,  is  the  main  cause  why 
you  have  brood  right  up  into  the  top  storey.  We  keep 
the  two  lower  storeys  for  brood  and  bring  the  combs  to 
lj  in.  from  centre  to  centre,  but  when  we  add  our  third 
storey  the  frames  in  this  are  placed  at  lj  in.  from  centre 
to  centre.  The  queen  seldom  rises  into  this  storey  as 
the  combs  are  too  thick  for  her  to  lay  in,  and  they  form 
a  better  barrier  to  the  storey  above  than  any  queen- 
excluder.  We  tried  boards  with  slits  in  them  the  same 
as  Heddon  now  uses  before  we  used  excluder  zinc  more 
than  twelve  years  ago,  when  we  worked  large  supers, 
but  as  they  were  constantly  shrinking  and  expauding 
they  did  not  exclude  the  queen  from  the  supers.  We 
have  placed  a  square  of  enamel  cloth  over  the  frames 
li  in.  smaller  all  round  than  the  top  of  the  hive,  and  this 
prevents  both  queen  and  bees  from  passing  up  the 
centre,  which  is  the  most  likely  place  for  the  queen  to 
use  in  going  up.  It  is  carrying  out  the  principle  of  the 
Stewarton  hive,  in  which  the  openings  into  the  supers 
are  on  either  side  of  the  brood  nest.  Another  way  is, 
when  you  put  on  a  third  storey  to  remove  all  combs 
containing  honey  in  the  lower  hives,  and  to  put  them 
into  the  upper  hive,  placing  them  If  in.  from  centre  to 
centre,  and  giving  the  lower  storeys  empty  combs  for 
the  queen  to  lay  in.  When  combs  are  only  used  for 
extracting  there  is  not  such  an  objection  to  the  queen 
going  up  as  there  is  when  sections  are  worked.  Still 
an  endeavour  should  be  made  to  keep  the  queen  to  the 
two  lower  boxes  and  secure  honey  in  the  two  upper 
ones. — -Ed.] 


[818.]  Having  in  November  and  December  read  the 
various  opinions  in  the  B.  B.  J.  as  to  the  danger  of 
keeping  honey  in  zinc  vessels,  and  having  myself  in  use 
a  large  galvanised  iron  reservoir  obtained  during  the 
summer  from  Messrs.  Abbott,  I  without  delay  bottled 
off  its  contents,  which  had  been  standing  about  ten 
weeks,  into  glass  jars,  and  at  the  same  time  made  a  care- 
ful chemical  examination.  I  may  say  that  the  vessel 
had  been  in  use  all  through  the  summer  and  autumn,  the 
quantity  of  honey  it  contained  varying  according  as  I 
drew  off  and  sold,  or  added  to  the  store.  It  had  never 
been  cleaned  or  emptied.  As  the  result  of  analysis,  I 
could  find  no  trace  of  zinc  in  any  of  the  clear  honey 
bottled  off.  I  found,  however,  on  washing  out  the  dregs 
with  hot  water,  that  the  washings  had  a  metallic  taste, 
and  contained  a  considerable  quantity  of  zinc  salts  in 

I  draw  the  conclusion  that  the  action  on  the  hive  is 
confined  to  the  film  of  honey  in  immediate  contact  with 
it,  which  remains  adherent  and  does  not  diffuse  through 
the  main  mass  unless  it  is  rubbed  off  and  stirred  up.  As 
there  must  always  be  risk  of  such  disturbance,  the  use  of 



[February  17,  1887. 

unprotected  galvanized  reservoirs  cannot  be  considered 
free  from  danger. 

To  arrive  at  something  certain  as  to  the  energy  of  the 
chemical  action,  I,  on  the  30th  of  November,  cleaned  a 
piece  of  sheet  zinc  six  inches  by  two  inches,  having  a 
surface  of  twenty-four  square  inches.  And,  after  weighing 
it  on  a  delicate  chemical  balance,  I  immersed  it  in  half  a 
pound  of  clear  pure  honey  contained  in  a  covered  glass 
beaker  which  I  kept  on  the  chimney-shelf  from  day  to 
day,  occasionally  warming  on  the  hob  and  stirring  with 
a  glass  rod.  I  took  out  the  zinc  a  few  times,  washed  it 
with  distilled  water,  and  re-weighed.  The  weights  were 
as  follows:  — 


Nov.  30,  1886.     Original  weight  of  clean  zinc  =  29-0250 

Dec.    1      „        Weight  after  immersion  =29-0134 

„      2      „  „  „  „  =29-0075 

„    1-1      „  „  ,,  ,,  =28-9990 

Jan.  29,  1887.  „  „  „  =28-9910 

Total  loss  of  weight  in  two  months  =  0-034  grammes  or 
0-52  grains  of  metallic  zinc.  The  action  is  thus  seen  to 
be  slow  and  of  no  great  amount  even  with  the  assistance 
of  heat  and  stirring. 

I  intend  to  varnish  the  inside  of  my  reservoir.  Can 
any  of  your  readers  say  whether  the  ordinary  varnish 
sold  as  'White  Hard'  spirit  varnish,  would  answer  the 
purpose  of  protection  without  giving  a  taste  to  the 
honey? — R.  E.  Lloyd. 


[819.]  I  am  delighted  to  see  your  leader  on  this  sub- 
ject, it  gives  all  your  readers  the  lines  to  work  on,  and  I 
need  not  say  how  my  ideas  exactly  coincide. 

'  Amateur  Expert,'  who  is  always  terse  and  business- 
like, even  in  his  most  playful  vein,  places  me  under 
obligations  to  him  for  his  valuable  hints.  I  shall  make 
it  a  point  to  try  and  pierce  the  veil  of  his  incognito, 
which  he  freely  admitted  nearly  fell  (or  was  torn)  from 
the  statue  at  one  of  the  Canadian  gatherings. 

These  very  hints  of  '  A.  E.'  (without  any  effort  on  my 
part)  have  brought  me  letters  asking  for  advice  as  to  the 
formation  of  District  Associations,  and  my  help  in 
lecturing  in  various  parts  of  our  county;  with  each  of 
these  I  have  complied,  and  so  will  continue  to  the  fullest 
extent  of  my  leisure,  but  our  county  is  so  large  and 
individual  exertion  so  seemingly  barren  of  results,  that 
a  score  or  two  working  enthusiasts  might  be  imported 
from  our  champion  counties  with  the  greatest  advan- 
tage to  us.  My  time,  however,  is  so  full}'  occupied  by 
business  that  I  must  often  let  the  will  go  for  the  deed. 

There  is  a  splendid  harvest  of  young  bee-keepers  who 
are  longing  for  the  Society  and  mutual  pleasure  of  asso- 
ciation, but  the  workers  (may  I  say  the  high  and  dry  P) 
are  hard  to  move.     They  do  not  fear 

'  Lest  they 
By  thousands  tumble  from  their  honey'd  dome 
Into  a  gulph  of  blue  sulphurous  flame.' 

Enthusiasm  is  wanting  amongst  those  who  have  learnt 
their  bee-keeping  by  practice  and  current  literature 
without,  association,  and  they  appear  now  desirous  of 
sipping  their  nectar  under  their  own  hedges.  To  all 
such  '  high  and  dry '  I  now  appeal  for  the  sake  of  those 
others  who  want  light  and  leading.  The  Yorks  B.  K.  A. 
have  now  (before  '  A  Worker's '  suggestion  in  a  recent 
issue  was  made)  passed  a  resolution  inviting  the  bee- 
keepers of  various  parts  of  Yorkshire,  without  more  ado, 
inform  themselves  into  District  Associations,  no  matter 
how  small.  These  are  to  be  entirely  self-governed 
and  self-officered ;  they  are  to  have  the  fullest  and 
freest  liberty,  and  by  payment  of  5s.  per  annum  per 
Association  to  '  the  County,'  can  have  the  advantage  of 
their  secretary  and  another  member  being  on  the 
committee,  with  themselves  having  all  the  privileges  of 
membership.    So  that  now  nothing  remains  but  for  our 

brethren  in  various  parts  of  Yorkshire  to  organize 
themselves,  and  this  will  be  perhaps  best  done  b}'  one 
or  two  in  each  district  calling,  by  cheap  advertisement 
in  daily  paper,  a  meeting  of  bee-keepers  to  discuss  and 
carry  out  the  idea.     I  would  suggest  as  a  start  that — 

Bradford,  Scarborough,  Doncaster, 

Skipton,  Walton,  Brighouse, 

Harrogate,  York,  Wakefield, 

Thirst,  Hull,  Goole, 

Middlesbrough,  Barnsley,  Harrogate, 

be  the  first  great  districts  (each  of  which  is  equal  to 
some  counties),  to  again  subdivide  some  time  in  the  dim 
and  distant  future  by  the  natural  process  of  development, 
i.e.,  by  the  simple  one  of 

1  When  the  church  can  raise  a  choir, 
Why  then  they'll  raise  a  song,' 

no  matter ,  how  small  the  choir.  So  pull  yourselves 
together,  ye  '  high  and  dry,'  and  let  us  have  some  public 
spirit  for  the  sake  of  the  bees  who  sacrifice  so  much  for 
us  and  our  service.  Don't  let  us  be  saturated  with  the 
spirit  of  this  ditty  : 

'  We're  honey-and-wax-3'oung-rnen, 
We're  wood-nails-and-tacks-young-men, 
Oh,  isn't  it  funny,  we're  going  to  make  honey 
Turn  fast  into  money-youDg-men.' 

It's  all  very  nice  to  think  of 

'  A  golden  hive,  on  a  golden  bank, 
Where  golden  bees  by  alchemical  prank 
Gather  gold  instead  of  honey.' 

'  Ho,  ho,  to  ye, 

Woe,  woe,  to  ye  ' 

if  ye  turn  from  the  warning  in  the  sulphur-pit  couplet. — 
11.  A.  IT.  G.,  Horsforth,  near  Leeds. 


[820.]  The  question  of  the  survival  of  the  fittest 
amongst  bees  is  a  very  important  one,  and  no  doubt 
ought  to  receive  more  attention  than  it  does  at  present. 
We  all  know  that  some  queens  possess  better  qualities 
than  others,  and  we  ought  to  preserve  those  good 
qualities  as  far  as  we  can ;  but  how  can  this  best  be 
done  ?  I  know,  sir,  that  your  advice  is  very  valuable  on 
this  subject,  and  ought  to  be  acted  upon  ;  but  without 
all  act  upon  it,  the  few  will  not  obtain  the  results  ex- 

I  think  it  is  quite  as  important  that  the  drones  should 
be  selected  as  the  queens,  and  here  arises  the  difficulty. 
Supposing  the  strongest  two  hives  in  the  apiary  con- 
taining two  of  the  best  queens  are  chosen  in  the  spring 
for  breeding  queens  and  drones,  it  is  absolutely  necessary 
that  the  drones  be  flying  before  anj'  others  within  a 
radius  of  several  miles,  or  the  probability  is  that  the 
young  queens  will  not  mate  with  the  drones  prepared 
for  them,  and  as  skeps  generally  produce  drones  early, 
there  is  but  little  time  for  getting  a  lot  of  selected 
queens  impregnated  by  selected  drones.  Virgin  queens 
(bees)  are  somewhat  like  the  tender  sex  of  another 
species,  they  prefer  selecting  their  own  husbands,  and 
will  not  always  accept  what  is  offered  them. 

Early  last  June,  a  hive  was  found  to  be  queenless  and 
without  brood.  A  frame  of  brood  was  at  once  given 
and  a  queen  raised  from  that  brood — or  eggs,  rather. 
Her  majesty  began  to  lay  and,  in  due  course,  young  bees 
appeared,  two-thirds  of  which  were,  in  appearance, 
beautiful  Ligurians.     They  are  hybrids,  of  course. 

Now,  sir,  there  was  not  a  single  Ligurian  within  a 
distance  of  thdke  miles,  and  therefore  this  young  queen 
must  have  been  mated  by  a  drone  from  that  distance. 
There  were  plenty  of  English  bees  near  and  doubtless 
many  drones  at  that  time,  but  she  rejected  them. — A. 
Geeen,  Selston,  Alfreton. 

February  17,  1887.] 




[821.]  On  "Wednesday,  the  19th  ult.,  a  thaw  set  in,  and 
upon  visiting  my  hives  I  found  that,  although  shaded  as 
they  were,  the  bright  half-hour's  sunshine  about  noon 
had  tempted  the  bees  out,  and  about  two  hundred  had 
paid  the  penalty,  and  were  to  be  found  upon  the  snow 
and  ice,  apparently  dead.  I  picked  up  about  a  score,  and 
while  engaged  in  conversation  with  another  person  I 
suddenly  became  cognisant  of  a  movement  on  the  part 
of  the  bees  in  my  hand.  As  it  was  evident  the  bees  had 
been  revived  by  the  warmth,  I  heated  a  saucer  in  an 
oven,  and  gathered  up  sufficient  (of  the  to  all  appear- 
ance dead  bees)  to  fill  the  saucer,  and  after  changing  the 
saucer  a  time  or  two  for  one  freshly  heated,  I  had  the 
pleasure  of  seeing  nearly  the  whole  of  the  bees  revive, 
and  return  to  their  respective  hives.  It  was  the  more 
remarkable  as  some  were  taken  from  pools  of  icjr  water, 
and  others  had  small  particles  of  snow  and  ice  clingnig 
to  their  bodies. — G.  N.  Railway. 

[822.]  As  communication  between  Madagascar  and 
the  rest  of  the  world  is  very  slow,  I  have  only  just  heard 
of  the  question  asked  by  '  Colenso  '  as  regards  the  cubic 
contents  of  the  hollow  tree  stated  by  me  to  contain 
about  two  hundred  and  eighty  cubic  feet.  I  must  thank 
'  Colenso  '  for  kindly  pointing  out  a  very  stupid  mis- 
calculation, and  apologise  to  your  readers  for  the  same. 
What  I  should  have  written  was  about  sixty  cubic  feet, 
if  in  my  mind's  eye  I  had  not  seen  a  tree  of  twice  the 
diameter. — C,  P.  C,  Madagascar, 


[823.]  No  reply  to  the  former  query  has  yet  appeared 
in  the  Journal,  which  I  regret,  as  it  is  an  interesting 
subject,  and  evidently  has  an  important  bearing  on  the 
new  system  of  inversion  advocated  by  a  certain  section  of 
American  apiarists,  and  more  lately  brought  before  the 
notice  of  bee-keepers  in  this  country.  The  discussion 
raised  relative  to  the  latter  question  is  instructive.  I  had 
several  opportunities  of  closely  examining  the  Jones- 
Heddon  hive  at  the  Colinderies,  and  from  personal 
observation  I  can  fully  endorse  the  remark  of  J.  M. 
Hooker  (766)  that  hives  of  such  thin  material  are  not 
sufficient  for  use  in  this  country,  and  I  should  never 
think  of  using  them  without  an  outer  case,  and  the 
hive  then  becomes  too  expensive. 

'  Devonshire  Dumpling's '  advice  to  cottagers  to  try 
the  Jones-Heddon  appears  to  me  too  ridiculous  to  notice, 
and  I  can  only  account  for  such  advice  by  supposing 
'  D.  D.'  is  endeavouring  to  grind  his  axe  at  the  expense 
of  the  poor  cottager.  I  am  one  of  those  looking  for 
information  that  can  be  relied  on,  and  if  '  D.  D.'  will 
give  the  particulars  of  his  management,  and  if  he  would 
also  add  the  district  where  his  apiary  is  situated,  it  would 
give  additional  interest  to  the  information.  The  one  or 
two  isolated  cases  given  without  any  particulars  furnish 
no  data  sufficiently  reliable  to  be  a  guide,  and  my  advice 
must  also  be  to  go  slow  with  the  new  system. — W.  Soab, 
1  Sussex  Villas,  Kensington, 


[824.]  I  beg  J.  Lee's  pardon  if  I  misapprehended  his 
views  as  to  invertible  hives.  I  see  it  is  the  Jones- 
Heddon  hive  he  objects  to,  and  not  so  much  the  upside- 
down  plan ;  and  I  am  glad  to  see  J.  Lee  is  making  a 
hive  like  the  Jones-Heddon,  but  one  that  is  adapted  to 
the  British  climate.  So  far,  so  good.  I  see  he  seems 
astonished  at  my  advice  to  cottagers  to  try  it.  Now, 
Mr.  James  Lee,  you  say  that  your  British  Invertible 
hive  requires  no  arguments  to  prove  its  utter  unsuit- 

ability  to  the  cottager,  as  it  required  more  skill  and 
judgment  to  work  it ;  I  say  '  work '  it,  as  some  of  my 
cottage  bee-keepers  might  not  understand  what '  mani- 
pulate '  means.  I  did  not  think  of  advising  a  cottager 
that  was  not  a  bee-keeper,  or  a  Journal  reader,  or  one 
unskilled.  Does  'J.  L.'  think,  after  the  establishment  of 
the  Bee-keepers'  Association  for  so  long,  and  the  British 
Bee  Journal,  with  all  its  useful  information,  that  cottagers 
have  made  no  progress?  Surely  they  are  not  all  kid- 
glove  bee-keepers  that  subscribe  to  the  Journal;  and 
what  does  the  Journal  teach  them  ?  I  venture  to  say 
that  there  are  more  skilled  cottage  bee-keepers  on  the 
weather  side  than  on  the  lee  of  the  ship,  or  the  advice 
of  the  Journal  cannot  be  much  good ;  but  yet  it  has 
come  from  a  monthly  one  to  a  weekly  one,  and  I  fancy, 
Mr.  Editor,  it  is  going  the  right  road  to  be  twice  a- 
week  soon.  I  hope  we  shall  get  some  skilled  cot- 
tagers if  we  have  none  now  equal  to  the  gentlemen 
bee-keepers.  And  how  much  more  skill  does  it  require 
to  work  the  Jones-Heddon  hive  ?  Are  there  British 
Invertible  hives  in  this  country  ?  Has  J.  Lee  had  any 
experience  with  either  ?  by  his  inquiry  I  should  say 
not;  and  as  my  invertible  hive  is  not  very  easy  to  work, 
I  think  the  Heddon  Mve  will  be  easier—more  honey  I 
do  not  expect. — Devonshire  Dumpling. 

[825.]  I  see  J.  M.  Hooker  (803)  is  coming  down  on 
poor  '  Devonshire  Dumpling '  like  a  thousand  of  bricks. 
Poor  'Dumpling! '  I  hope  he  will  escape  in  safet}',  as  I 
have  the  pleasure  of  knowing  him  and  am  well  acquainted 
with  his  mode  of  working.  I  tried  inversion  last  season, 
although  on  a  smaller  scale  than  'D.  D.'  '  J.  M.  H.'  is 
not  far  from  the  mark  in  supposing  '  D.  D.'  '  to  be  one  of 
these.'  I  don't  suppose  '  D.  D.'  will  mind  me  telling 
'  J.  M.  H.'  that  he  had  one  swarm  last  summer  from  a 
right-side-up  hive.  I  can  assure  'A.  E. '  that  a  hot 
dumpling  is  a  '  rum  article  '  for  '  fancy  dealers '  to  close 
their  teeth  on.  I  think  '  D.  D.'  knows  a  little  about 
manufacturing  hives,  as  well  as  how  to  use  them  and  the 
profits  to  be  derived  from  them.  I  have  used  cheese- 
boxes  and  they  answered  very  well,  and  they  are  much 
thinner  than  the  Jones-Heddon.  Our  friend  Neigh- 
bour has  got  a  '  nobby  hive '  which  no  doubt  will  suit 
J.  M.  Hooker,  as  it  is  J  inches  thick  and  prettily 
decorated  with  thumb -screws.  Hurrah  for  Mr.  Sim- 
mins!  I  am  sure  we  are  all  glad  to  see  his  notice  in 
the  valuable  British  Bee  Journal — good  luck  to  them  all, 
dealers,  fancy  dealers,  upside  downers,  and  rightside 
uppers. — Apple  Dumpling. 

The  Bee's  Stino  a  Useful  Tool. — From  lengthened 
observations,  Mr.  W.  F.  Clarke,  a  Canadian,  has  come  to 
the  conclusion  that  the  most  important  function  of  the 
bee's  sting  is  not  stinging,  but  its  use  by  that  wonderful 
creature  as  a  tool.  Mr.  Clarke  says  he  is  convinced  that 
the  most  important  office  of  the  bee's  sting  is  that  which 
is  performed  in  doing  the  artistic  cell  work,  capping  the 
comb,  and  infusing  the  formic  acid  by  means  of  which 
honey  receives  its  keeping  (Qualities.  The  sting  is  really 
a  skilfully  contrived  little  trowel,  with  which  the  bee 
finishes  off  and  caps  the  cells  when  they  are  filled  brimful 
of  honey.  This  explains  why  honey  extracted  before  it  is 
capped  over  does  not  keep  well.  The  formic  acid  has  not 
been  injected  into  it.  This  is  done  in  the  very  act  of 
putting  the  last  touches  on  the  cell  work.  As  the  little 
pliant  trowel  is  worked  to  and  fro  with  such  dexterity,  the 
darts,  of  which  there  are  two,  pierce  the  plastic  cell  surface, 
and  leave  the  nectar  beneath  its  tiny  drops  of  the  fluid 
which  makes  it  keep  well.  This  is  the 'art  preservative' 
of  honey.  Herein  we  see,  says  Mr.  Clarke,  that  the  sting 
and  the  poison-bag,  with  which  so  many  of  us  would  like  to 
dispense,  are  essential  to  the  storage  of  the  luscious  product, 
and  that  without  them  the  beautiful  comb-honey  of  com- 
merce would  be  a  thing  unknown.  This  is  certainly  a  most 
wonderful  provision  of  nature.— Iron, 



[February  17, 1887 

Replies  to  |m, 

*t*  In  their  answers.  Correspondents  are  respectfully  requested  to 
mention  in  oach  instance  the  number  and  the  title  of  the  query  ashed. 

[774.]  Separation  or  Wax  from  Pollen. — I  always  found 
extracting  wax  was  a  messy  job,  as  after  boiling  and  straining 
through  a  cloth,  as  described  by  '  Amateur  Expert,'  I 
buried  cloth,  wax,  and  all,  because  it  was  so  messy,  and  I 
made  up  my  mind  never  so  do  any  more  ;  but  speaking  to 
neighbour  Killiek  on  the  subject,  he  told  me  it  was  an 
unnecessary  trouble,  and  offered  to  lend  me  his  extractor, 
which  offer  I  soon  accepted,  as  he  said  there  was  no  mess  ; 
and  having  a  few  old  combs  that  I  had  not  disposed  of,  I 
followed  his  instructions,  and,  to  my  surprise,  every  morsel 
of  wax  was  extracted,  leaving  all  the  pollen,  &c,  easily  to 
be  cleared  away,  and  the  wax  wanted  no  more  refining. 
It  is  the  best  and  simplest  one  I  ever  saw,  and  every 
cottager  should  have  one  that  has  only  got  a  few  stalls  of 
bees,  as  I  think  we  ought  to  produce  more  wax,  and  get  it 
made  into  foundation,  instead  of  purchasing  so  much,  now 
it  can  be  done  so  easy  with  little  experience,  and  the  times 
won't  allow  us  to  be  too  extravagant. — T.  B. 

ti  cries. 

Queries  and  Answers  arc  inserted  free  of  charge  to  Correspondents 
Whan  more  than  one  query  is  sent,  each  should  be  on  a  separate  piece 
of  paper. 

Our  readers  will  greatly  oblige  us  by  answering,  as  far  as  their  know- 
ledge and  observation's  permit,  the  Correspondents  who  seek  assistance. 
Answers  should  always  bear  the  number  and  title  placed  against  the 
query  replied  to.  Any  queries  unanswered  in  this  way  will  be  answered 
by  the  Editor  and  others. 

[826.]  Crates  of  Thirty -five  Sections.  —  Have  any  of 
your  readers  tried  crates  of  thirty-five  sections  instead  of 
twenty-one?  If  so  I  should  be  glad  to  hear  their  experi- 
ence thereon.  Having  a  hive  suitable  for  storifying,  and 
wishing  to  work  for  sections,  I  thought  of  having  two 
crates  made  to  carry  thirty-five  sections  to  each.  There 
are  nine  frames  in  the  hive  at  present,  well  covered,  and 
with  plenty  of  sealed  stores,  but  when  full  it  takes  fifteen 
frames. — West  Somerset. 

[827.]  Moveable  Frame-hive.  —  To  whom  is  due  the 
honour  of  the  invention  of  the  moveable  frame  hive?  Give 
the  date  or  year. — Douglas. 

[828.]  Glass  Hive. — Who  was  the  first  inventor  of  glass 
hives  ? — Douglas. 

[829.]  Poisonous  Honey. — Is  honey  produced  from  the 
rose-laurel  and  the  yellow  azalea  proved  to  be  poisonous  ? 
If  so,  how  does  it  not  poison  the  bees  when  they  gather 
it? — Douglas. 

(&t\m%  from  %  ptbes. 

Plymstocks,  South  Devon,  Jan.  26th. — The  sun  coming 
out  brightly,  and  the  bees  flying,  I  ventured  to  examine  and 
see  if  there  were  sufficient  stores.  Found  them  rather  short, 
so  shall  have  to  try  Mr.  Simmins'  latest  dodge.  Received 
with  what  equanimity  I  could  the  first  sting  of  the  season. 
I  have  been  wintering  my  three  stocks  under  enamel  cloth, 
and  am  amazed  at  the  result.  They  were  very  short  of 
stores  when  put  into  winter  quarters,  owing  to  an  illness 
which  prevented  me  feeding,  and  yet  they  are  not  entirely 
without  now,  and  wonderfully  strong.  One  lot  was  a  single 
driven  stock  and  they  were  fairly  fed  up  before  I  got  ill, 
they  are  now  nearly  as  strong  as  the  others.  Your  advice 
in  the  '  Correspondents '  column,  Mr.  Editor,  made  me 
hesitate  before  trying  this  plan,  but  '  Useful  Hints  '  decided 
me  for  it,  and  I'm  glad  he  did. — Trevor  Saynor. 

Malvern,  January  28(/i. — To-day  being  beautifully  fine, 
and  bees  flying  freely,  I  took  the  opportunity  to  examine 
my  hives.  I  found  all  in  good  condition,  scarcely  any 
stores  touched,  and  in  one  stock  breeding  had  not  only 
commenced  but  there  was  a  quantity  of  sealed  brood,  and  a 
good  number  of  young  bees  flying  out  for  the  first  time. 
This  is  the  more  remarkable  considering  the  sharp  frosts 
we  have  had. 

Swaninore,  Bisliop  Waltham,  January  29t7i. — After  a  long 
spell  of  very  bad  weather  we  have  at  last  a  few  mild  days 
on  which  it  has  been  possible  for  the  bees  to  get  out  for  a 
flight,  and  of  which  they  have  not  failed  to  avail  themselves. 
The  general  report  of  the  district  is  that  so  far  the  bees 
seem  to  have  wintered  well.  My  own  are  all  apparently 
strong  and  no  signs  of  dysentery. — H.  W.  West. 

North  Leicestershire,  January  31st. — From  December  6th 
to  31st  inst.  (fifty-one  days),  the  bulk  of  the  bees  kept  to 
close  quarters ;  a  few  ventured  out  on  the  18th  and  19th, 
but  only  to  perish  in  the  snow.  Losses  are  almost  nil,  but 
some  stocks  are  very  short  of  food,  apparently  through  late 
breeding  in  October  and  November.  Since  the  20th  the 
bees  have  been  in  flight  daily,  and  seem  very  much  inclined 
to  while  away  their  time  in  robbing  all  round. — E.  B. 

Uttoxeter. — On  February  2nd  I  was  called  upon  by  the 

coachman  fiom  Miss  W ,  with  a  request  to  go  and  see 

her  bees.     I  said  it  was  too  early  to  examine  bees  yet.    But, 

he  said,  Miss  W is  afraid  they  will  be  short  of  food. 

Impossible,  I  said,  I  attended  to  them  myself  in  the 
autumn  and  they  had  abundance.  Being  urged  I  promised 
to  go  on  the  following  Friday  if  it  was  a  nice  day.  Friday, 
February  4th,  was  a  fine  day,  so  I  set  off  to  the  place  in 
question,  a  distance  of  about  five  miles.  The  coachman 
acting  as  my  assistant,  we  commenced  with  No.  1,  a  bar- 
frame  hive.  As  soon  as  the  roof  was  lifted  off  I  said,  Some- 
thing has  been  the  matter  here,  and  was  answered  that  the 
hive  had  been  blown  over  late  last  autumn,  and  George 
(servant-lad)  said  he  had  put  it  all  right  again.  Well, 
I  said,  if  bees  will  winter  this  way,  they  will  winter  nearly 
any  way.  The  bars  were  all  out  of  place,  nearly  cornerways 
in  the  hive,  the  quilt  laid  on  anyhow  just  over  the  cluster, 
there  was  an  opening  in  the  left  front  corner  that  I  could 
get  both  my  hands  in  right  into  the  hive  without  touching 
quilt,  hive,  or  bars.  Well,  I  thought,  this  is  enough  to 
kill  them  all,  such  a  winter  as  we  have  had.  But  the 
bees  were  healthy  and  well  and  numerous.  Their  loss  had 
been  very  small.  It  was  only  the  work  of  a  minute  or  so 
to  put  all  right,  in  doing  so  I  saw  a  patch  of  brood  in 
various  stages  on  one  bar  about  as  big  as  a  five-shilling 
piece.  The  straw  hives  (four  or  five  in  number)  were  then 
examined,  and  floor-boards  cleaned ;  all  were  in  good  order. 
Lastly,  another  bar-frame  hive  was  looked  at,  which  was 
all  right,  only  some  of  the  quilting  a  little  damp  ;  this  was 
changed,  and  all  made  snug  and  comfortable.  I  may  say, 
in  conclusion,  that  this  lady  has  kept  bees  now  for  some 
years,  devoting  time,  attention,  &c,  to  them,  and  every 
penny  profit  realised  is  devoted  to  charitable  purposes, — an 
example  worthy  of  imitation. — F.  Harper,  Uttoxeter,  Staf- 

Fakenham,  Norfolk,  February  1th. — Not  having  opened 
one  of  my  hives  since  August,  and  as  I  did  not  feed  in  the 
autumn  (though  I  had  taken  60  lbs.  from  it),  I  was  anxious 
to  know  what  state  the  bees  were  in.  January  28th  being 
a  very  fine  and  warm  day  I  could  not  resist  the  temptation 
to  look  at  them  (against  instructions).  To  my  great  surprise 
I  found  grubs  and  brood  on  two  frames  which  appeared 
to  be  in  a  forward  state  ;  there  was  plenty  of  food,  very 
few  dead  bees,  and  quilts  perfectly  dry.  Is  it  not  unusually 
early  ?  I  did  not  winter  them  in  the  usual  way  ;  instead 
of  cutting  holes  through  the  combs,  I  left  the  empty  crate 
on,  so  that  the  bees  could  run  over  the  top  of  the  frames. 
I  put  the  wood  dividers  down  to  keep  the  bees  from  getting 
through,  and  then  put  the  quilts  in  the  crate.  I  also  put 
a  piece  of  glass  across,  so  that  I  could  see  the  bees,  and 
left  them  on  twelve  frames.  I  peeped  at  them  several 
times  during  the  very  cold  weather,  and  always  found  them 
between  the  frames  and  crate,  going  from  one  end  of  the 
hive  to  the  other,  and  appeared  very  healthy.  I  have  now 
reduced  the  number  of  frames,  which  is  usually  done  in 
the  autumn.  I  generally  winter  in  that  way,  and  do  not 
reduce  the  number  of  frames  till  early  spring,  and  always 
find  them  in  good  condition, 

Alton,  Feb.  10. — Mice  in  Hives. — Thinking  it  would  be 
of  interest  to  the  readers  of  your  valuable  Journal,  I  here- 
with give  an  account  of  my  finding  traces  of  mice  in  my 
hives.  As  soon  as  the  snow  was  gone,  and  the  weather 
warm,  and  the  bees  were  out  having  a  cleansing  flight,  I 
went  round  my  apiary  to  open  tho  roofs  of  hives  to  give 
them  an  airing  ;  when,  on  opening  one  of  tho  hives — the 
bees  being  placed  at  the  back  part  of  the  hive — I  saw  a  lot 

February  17,  1887.] 



of  dead  bees  on  the  top  of  the  covering,  all  wet,  and  shook 
them  all  off.  I  went  again  next  day,  when  I  saw  a  lot  more 
all  bitten  to  pieces.  I  went  again  the  following  day,  when 
there  was  another  lot,  having  a  hole  bitten  between  the 
wings,  also  a  large  plum-stone  carried  up  with  them.  Being 
at  once  convinced  that  the  bees  did  not  carry  the  stone  up, 
I  put  in  a  trap  for  mice.  Next  morning  there  was  one 
mouse,  second  morning  caught  three,  third  morning  two 
mice,  making  a  total  of  six  mice.  The  trap  was  placed  on 
the  floor-board  inside  of  hive  in  front  of  the  division-board. 
I  have  now  twenty  stocks  of  bees,  which  all  appear  very 
strong.  I  examined  the  one  where  the  mice  had  been  at 
play,  and  found  no  damage  done  by  them,  and,  to  my 
delight,  found  a  large  patch  of  brood,  this  being  on  Satur- 
day the  5th,  it  being  a  very  warm  day;  so,  judging  by  the 
one,  the  bees  are  very  forward  in  this  district.  I  have  not 
lost  one  stock  this  winter. — F.  G.  Ayling. 

Lismore,  Feb.  12. — The  weather  is  very  dry  here,  not  a 
drop  of  rain  these  last  eight  days,  some  of  which  were  sunny 
and  fine,  allowing  bees  to  fly  freely.  Some  days,  however, 
there  were  frosts  at  night  and  light  cold  wind  by  day,  so 
that  the  bees,  on  the  whole,  have  not  had  as  much  benefit 
from  the  crocuses — which  are  now  out  in  sheets — as  might 
have  been  expected ;  still  I  have  seen  a  good  many  little 
orange-coloured  loads  going  into  the  hives.  I  think  my 
bees  have  now  given  up  going  back  to  the  old  site.  I  stuck 
a  big  branch  of  laurel  in  front  of  the  hives,  and  this  seems 
to  have  at  last  attracted  their  attention  to  the  change  of 
locality.  Besides  crocuses  and  snowdrops  and  gorse,  we 
have  in  the  gardens  here  a  good  deal  of  a  dwarf  heath  now 
in  bloom,  on  which  the  bees  work  most  energetically  on 
fine  days,  seeming  to  prefer  it  to  anything.  A  good  deal  of 
hazel  is  also  out.  I  alluded  some  time  ago  to  a  plan  I 
have  adopted  of  feeding  my  hives  in  spring  without  remov- 
ing roofs  or  disturbing  the  cushions,  &c.  I  found  last 
spring  that  some  hives  which  I  tilted  up  a  tiny  bit  in  front, 
and  fed  by  pouring  in  a  little  syrup,  got  on  just  as  well  as 
the  hives  on  which  I  had  elaborate  and  scientific  feeders ; 
so,  for  convenience  sake,  I  have  adopted  the  r>lan  to  all  my 
hives,  only  making  an  entrance  at  back  of  hives  by  means 
of  a  tin  tube  about  J  inch  wide,  with  a  little  flat  rim  or 
collar  at  one  end  by  which  to  secure  it  after  the  wall  of  the 
hive  has  been  bored  to  receive  it.  The  pipe  is  made  long 
enough  to  project  J  inch  beyond  the  inner  wall  of  the  hive. 
When  not  open  for  syrup  to  be  poured  through,  I  keep  it 
clo:  ed  with  a  cork.  By  means  of  a  funnel  with  bent  pipe  I 
pour  into  each  hive  at  evening  its  allowance  of  syrup.  In 
one  or  two  hives  I  have  a  little  trough  beneath  the  pipe  on 
the  floor-board  about  g  inch  deep,  with  wooden  sides  and 
coarse  perforated  zinc  cover,  through  which  the  bees  can 
suck  the  syrup.  The  trough  can  hold  about  two  wineglass- 
fuls  of  syrup.  In  this  way  any  one  can  feed  twenty  or 
thirty  hives  in  a  few  minutes,  and  there  is  no  fear  of  dis- 
turbance of  quilt  or  roofs  and  covers  put  on  insecurely. 
Also  where  hives  are  exposed  to  wind,  and  have  to  be 
secured,  they  need  not  be  disturbed.  I  bore  the  hole  for 
the  pipe  at  the  centre  of  the  back  of  the  hive,  about  1  inch 
above  the  floor-board.  My  frames  are  at  right  angles  to 
the  door.  For  ladies  who  do  not  like  lifting  off  heavy  hive- 
roofs  this  plan  is  very  convenient. — F.  W.  C. 

Navan,  Ireland. — The  past  honey  season  has  been  a 
fairly  good  one  in  this  district.  I  commenced  the  season 
with  seventeen  stocks  of  bees,  thirteen  in  bar-frame  hives 
and  four  in  skeps.  I  obtained  about  600  sections  and 
nearly  200  lbs.  of  extracted  honey.  From  three  of  the 
straw  hives  I  got  very  little,  as  they  swarmed  and  took  to 
the  sections  badly.  The  other  gave  me  over  forty  sections. 
My  bar-frame  hives  seldom  swarm.  From  my  best  hive  I 
took  eighty-three  sections  and  16  lbs.  of  extracted  honey  ; 
another  gave  me  62  lbs.  of  extracted  and  twenty-one  sec- 
tions. I  intended  to  have  sent  some  honey  to  the  Irish 
Association's  Honey  Market,  but  getting  what  I  considered 
fair  offers,  I  sold  privately.  I  got  from  9s.  to  12s.  per 
dozen. — M.  D. 


All  queries  forwarded  will  be  attended  to,  and  those  only  of  -personal 
interest  will  be  answered  in  this  column. 

J.  Drinkall. — Why  Drones  do  not  store  Honey. — There  are 
physiological  reasons  why  drones  are  not  able  to  store 

honey.  The  tongue  is  much  shorter  than  that  of  the 
worker,  and  the  body  is  much  larger,  so  that  the  drone 
cannot  put  its  head  and  thorax  into  worker-cells.  The 
gland  structures  are  also  different,  and  those  producing 
the  ferments  necessary  to  convert  the  cane  sugar  of 
nectar  into  the  grape  sugar  of  honey  are  so  altered  and 
diminished  in  size  as  to  make  them  incapable  of  yielding 
this  secretion.  In  bees  there  are  four  systems  of  glands 
which  yield  secreting  fluids.  In  the  drone,  System  I.  is 
entirely  wanting,  but,  according  to  Schiemenz  ( Ueber  das 
herkommen  des  Futtersaftes  und  die  Speicheldrilsen  der 
Biene,  1883),  this  system  exists  in  the  worker  for  the  pur- 
pose of  supplying  a  secretion  for  brood-food,  and  also 
for  feeding  the  queen,  with  probably  additions  from  the 
other  glands.  System  II.  in  the  drone  is  different,  the 
secreting  cells  of  the  worker  being  replaced  by  fat-cells. 
In  System  III.  the  glands,  as  well  as  the  reservoirs 
attached  to  them,  are  much  smaller  in  the  drone  ;  there- 
fore secretion  could  not  be  produced  in  nearly  the  same 
quantities  as  in  those  of  the  worker.  If  these  three 
systems  are  brought  into  action  either  together  or 
separately  in  the  conversion  of  nectar  into  honey  it  is 
evident  that  drones  are  not  physiologically  adapted  for 
this  purpose. 

W.  M. — Size  of  Extractor. — You  have  now  evidently  found 
out  one  of  the  disadvantages  of  not  having  all  your 
frames  Standard  size.  The  Baynor  extractor  will  take 
your  largest  size  ;  the  cages  of  this  are  11J  inches. 

Beeswing. — Putting  Swarms  Together. — Throw  both  the 
swarms  on  to  a  board  in  front  of  the  hive  that  they  are 
to  occupy,  and  let  them  run  in.  Secure  the  least  valu- 
able of  the  two  queens  if  you  happen  to  see  her ;  do  this 
just  before  dusk.  Prop  up  the  front  of  the  hive  at  least 
an  inch  to  give  them  a  clear  passage.  You  can  sprinkle 
each  lot  with  syrup  scented  with  a  few  drops  of  essence 
of  peppermint  if  you  like,  but  there  is  no  absolute 

De  B. — Buttercups,  gorse,  and  broom  secrete  honey,  but 
not  to  a  great  extent ;  they  are,  however,  prolific  in  the 
production  of  pollen,  especially  gorse  and  broom.  The 
horse-chestnut  produces  both  honey  and  pollen,  the 
former  rather  copiously. 

F.  H.,  Kent. — Queen  -  excluding  Zinc  for  Dividers  between 
Sections. — There  seems  every  reason  to  suppose  that 
this,  or  zinc,  or  tin,  having  even  larger  holes,  would  be 
less  obstruction  to  the  work  of  the  bees  than  close  sheets 
of  wood  or  tin,  while  preventing  bulging  of  the  combs. 
Try  it  by  all  means. 

W.  T.  C. — No.  Glass  is  quite  unsuitable  for  putting  on 
the  top  of  frames  at  any  time.  You  can  exhibit  honey 
at  a  show  of  the  B.  B.  K.  A.  without  being  a  member. 

Honey-drop. — Stimulating. — It  is  best  to  commence  by  un- 
capping cells  around  the  brood-nest,  and  when  brood  is 
in  progress  give  thin  syrup.  Whether  your  stocks  have 
sufficient  stores  depends  upon  the  amount  contained  in 
the  ten  frames  upon  which  they  were  wintered.  If  well 
filled  there  should  be  plenty. 

K.  G. — We  hope  to  be  able  to  give  insertion  to  the  engrav- 
ings of  your  plan  of  reversing  frames  in  our  next  issue. 

J.  A.  B. — Poisonous  British  Honey. — We  have  had  no  ex- 
perience of  poisonous  honey,  and  are  doubtful  if  there 
is  any  dangerously  poisonous  nectar  secreted  in  this 

Hawes  Bee-keeper. — A  sample  of  your  honey  having  been 
submitted  for  analysis  to  Mr.  Hehner,  he  states  that  it  is 

Putting  Swarms  Together. — I  may  say  I  join  swarms 
in  the  usual  way.  If  they  come  off  on  the  same  day  they 
join  without  any  precautions.  If  some  time  has  elapsed 
I  smoke  well  the  hive  I  am  going  to  unite  to  and  throw 
the  other  swarm  on  to  board  in  front  of  hive,  and 
sprinkle  with  thin  syrup.  If  I  see  any  signs  of  fighting  I 
at  once  open  out  the  hive  and  mix  the  bees  with  the  last 
swarm,  sprinkling  all  with  syrup.  Young  bees  do  not  often 
require  you  to  use  scented  syrup.  The  mere  fact  of  opening 
out  the  hive  stops  the  fighting  to  a  great  extent  by  fright- 
ening the  bees. — Arthur  J.  H.  Wood. 

A  Rectification.— In  my  letter  to  the  British  Bee  Journal 



[February  17,  1887. 

of  January  20th,  I  said,  in  reference  to  a  2-lb.  section  sold 
by  Mr.  Blow  of  8i  x  4J  dimensions,  '  I  should  like  them 
better  if  they  were  2  inches  wide.'  I  find  they  are  2  inches 
and  the  mistake  arose  from  my  using  Tery  thin  tin  dividers 
with  them  and  wooden  dividers  with  the  1-lb.  sections 
running  parallel  with  them,  so  that  the  2-lb.  did  not  come 
nearly  so  far  to  the  end  of  the  crate  as  the  1-lb.  At  the 
same  time  I  ought  not  to  have  made  the  mistake,  as  it  is 
depreciating  what  I  look  upon  as  a  most  beautiful  section, 
as  in  my  opinion  it  is  very  necessary  to  keep  down  the 
height  of  sections  if  we  wish  them  finished  quickly  and 
well.  I  only  used  these  sections  on  three  hives  and  they 
were  well  finished  off  in  every  case. — Arthur  J.  H.  Wood, 

ighow  j?$_nnouncements. 

Giving  Name  and  Address  of  Secretary,  Date  and  Place  of 
Shoio,  Date  of  Closing  Entries.  Terms :  Three  Insertions 
and  under,  Two  Shillings  and  Sixpence ;  additional  inser- 
tions, Sixpence  each.  No  charge  made  to  those  Associations 
whose  Shoivs  are  announced  in  our  general  Advertising 

July  11-15. — Royal  Agricultural  Show  at  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne.     Entries  close  May  12.     J.  Huekle,  Kings  Langley. 

August  3-5. — Yorkshire  Agricultural  Society  at  York, 
Secretary,   H.  L.   Rickards,   Poole,  near  Leeds. 

^Business  directory. 


Abbott  Bkos.,  Southall,  London. 

Appleton,  H.  M.,  256a  Hotwell  Road,  Bristol. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Burtt,  E.  J.,  Stroud  Road,  Gloucester. 

Edey  &  Son,  St.  Neots. 

Hole,  J.  R.  W.,  Tarrington,  Ledbury. 

Hov.ard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Meadhah,  M.,  Huntington,  Hereford. 

Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  1-49  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothakd,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

The  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 

Wren  &  Son,  139  High  Street,  Lowestoft. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

British  Honey  Co. ,  Limited,  17  King  William  St. ,  Strand. 

Country  Honey  Subtly,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Benton,  F.,  Munich,  Germany. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Simmins,  S.,  Rottingdean,  near  Brighton. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Lyon,  F.,  94  Harleyford  Road,  London,  S.E. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Choice  Selected  Collection  of 


i)  30)  o 

SOUGHT   AFTER   BY  BEES.     Free  by  post,  2/6. 

SOLD    BY  (162) 

JOHN  SMITH,  The  Royal  Nursery,  Clewer,  Windsor,  Berks, 


I  WILL  send  to  any  address  2G  varieties  of  BEE- 
FLOWER  SEEDSJ  including  the  Noted  CHAPMAN 
HONEY  PLANT,  for  2s.  post  paid.  GARDEN  SEEDS — 
I  will  send  21  packets  of  Garden  Seeds  to  any  address  for 
2s.  6d.  post  paid.  BAR-FRAME  HIVES  with  Straw 
bodies,  the  hive  least  affected  by  heat  or  cold.  My  Hives 
and  Appliances  are  all  forwarded  carriage  paid,  and  re- 
turnable if  not  approved  on  arrival.  Please  send  your 
address  on  post-card,  and  I  will  send  Descriptive  and 
Priced  Catalogue  post  free.  Address  John  Mooee,  Seed 
Merchant,  Market  Place,  and  Prospect  Farm,  Warwick. 

i^ARLY  BEE  FLOWERS.  — Plant  now. — 
Li  Strong  Plants  of  ARABIS  and  LIMNANTHES,  1/9 
per  100,  free.  Address  S.  S.  Goldsmith,  Boxworth,  St. 
Ives,  Hunts. 

Patent  Bee  Feeder.— Removing  the  Flask. 

Or  for  giving  warm  syrup  in  cases  of  dysentery. 


.  Having  had  many  enquiries  from 
those  who  cannot  obtain  the  right 

Genuine  POETO  RICO,  on  rail  at 
,  lis.  56-lbs.,  5s.  9d.  28-lbs.    DUTCH 

kind,  we  now  offer 
Brighton,  21s.  perewt, 
CRUSHED,  best  for  Syrup,  22s.  M.  per  cwt.,  lis.  6rf.  56-lbs., 
6s.  28-lbs.  Quantities  of  not  less  than  2  cwt.  of  Dutch 
Crushed,  direct  from  London,  at  19s.  6d.  per  cwt.  ;  not  less 
than  10  cwt.  Porto  Bico,  at  18s.  For  Cash  only  with  Order. 
No  Samples  sent,  as  we  recommend  only  what  we  would 
use  ourselves.     Subject  to  fluctuations  in  Market. 

Address:  Simmins'  Factory,  Brighton.    (161) 

°  1  lb.  21-  or  1/10. 

Dealers  and  others  apply  for  List  (110  Illustrations), 
G.   STOTHARD,   WELWYN,   HERTS,   a  2324 

QCREAV  CAP  JARS.— Fifty  2-gross  Cases  of 
O  new  Straight  Shape  1-lb.  JARS  to  be  Sold  at  a  great 
reduction,  together  or  separately.  Address  Fredk.  Pear- 
son, Stockton  Heath,  Warrington. 

be  sold  cheap.  Apply  to  C.  Cust  3  Temple  Terrace, 
Dorchester.  A  2347 

Communications  to  the  Editor  to  be  addressed  '  Steangewats'  Printing  Office,  Tower  Street,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  w.c' 

[No.  2U.    Vol.  XV.] 

FEBRUARY  24,  1887. 

[Published  Weekly.] 

(Sfohorial,  Sottas,  #r. 


There  is  not  so  much  known  about  the  different  bees 
in  the  American  Continent  as  might  be  expected.  In 
these  days  when  there  is  a  great  tendency  to  obtain 
everything  new  and  novel,  and  when  there  is  such  a 
great  desire  to  introduce  new  races,  it  cannot  be  un- 
profitable to  glean  what  information  we  can  of  the 
numerous  varieties.  By  the  Mexican  bee  many  have 
thought  that  there  is  only  one  variety,  '  the  Stingless 
Bee;'  but  besides  this  we  are  assured  there  are  many 
other  kinds  domesticated  in  that  country.  We  doubt 
but  that  many  of  the  species  which  are  said  to  be 
without  stings  do  in  fact  possess  that  organ,  though 
often  a  feeble  one,  and  are  not  readily  provoked  to  use 
it.  Great  attention  is  paid  to  the  Mexican  bees  by  the 
natives,  not  so  much  on  account  of  their  honey,  although 
remarkably  rich  and  delicate,  as  for  the  sake  of  the  wax. 
In  Yucatan  there  are  colonies  of  them  domesticated 
consisting  of  five  or  six  hundred  hives. 

Hernandez  describes  several  kinds  of  the  insect  in 
Mexico, — one  resembling  the  European,  and  which  pro- 
duces a  honey  like  our  own.  It  is  domesticated  by  the 
Indians,  who  lodge  the  swarms,  he  says,  in  the  hollows 
of  trees.  A  second  species  is  noticed  by  the  same  author 
as  smaller  than  ours,  so  much  smaller  as  to  resemble 
'  winged  ants,'  and  as  without  stings.  They  build  their 
nests,  which  are  composed  of  several  layers,  in  the  rocks, 
and  also  suspend  them  on  trees.  Their  honey  is  dark- 
coloured  and  high-flavoured.  The  cells  are  of  smaller 
dimensions  than  those  of  the  domestic  bee;  and  it  is 
probable,  though  not  so  stated,  contain  only  brood ;  the 
honey  being  found  in  small  cups.  The  larvse,  it  appears, 
are  esteemed  a  delicacy,  for  the  historian  tells  us  that 
when  roasted  and  seasoned  with  salt  they  have  the  taste 
and  flavour  of  sweet  almonds.  This  species  collect  their 
honey  and  live  much  in  the  same  way  with  the  honey- 
bees of  Europe.  Other  small  stingless  bees  are  men- 
tioned, which  establish  themselves  underground  in  nests 
of  a  globular  shape,  but  of  very  coarse  workmanship ; 
their  honey,  too,  is  inferior,  and  is  never  used  but  in 
default  of  better.  In  domesticating  their  bees  the 
Mexicans  lodge  them  in  hives  formed  of  short  logs  of 
wood,  from  2  to  3  feet  long,  hollowed  out  about  5 
inches  in  diameter,  having  the  ends  filled  with  clay  and 
a  hole  for  entrance  bored  on  one  side,  about  half-way 
between  the  ends.  They  are  suspended  in  a  horizontal 
position  from  the  branches  of  trees. 

The  interior  of  a  hive  presents,  like  that  of  a  humble 
bee,  a  confused  and  irregular  appearance.  The  combs, 
which  have  but  one  series  of  cells,  are  placed,  some  in 

a  vertical  position  and  others  horizontal.  They  are 
grouped  together  in  an  oval  mass,  and  occupy  nearly 
half  of  the  internal  space,  while  the  other  half  is  stored 
with  the  honey  cups.  The  hone}',  as  has  been  stated,  is 
deposited  in  small  globular  bags,  hung  round  the  sides 
of  the  hives,  or  placed  at  the  bottom;  some  of  these 
receptacles  are  more  than  1A  inches  in  diameter  ;  and  in 
many  instances  are  so  connected  together  that,  as  in  the 
case  of  cells  of  common  honey-comb,  one  side  serves  for 
two  cups,  thus  combining  economy  and  strength.  And 
these  magazines  of  honey  being  altogether  apart  from 
the  brood  -  combs,  and  noways  connected  with  them, 
great  facility  is  afforded  in  depriving  the  bees  of  their 
stores.  The  honey  is  thin  in  consistency,  but  of  a  very 
agreeable  flavour,  and  gives  out  a  rich  aromatic  perfume. 
The  wax  is  coarse,  and  of  a  brownish  yellow ;  propolis 
does  not  appear  to  be  used.  The  Mexican  bee  is  smaller 
by  one-fifth  than  the  European.  Many  of  the  species 
to  which  has  been  given  the  denomination  of  Melipona 
or  Trigona  are  described  as  having  no  stings,  or  at  least 
so  feeble  a  weapon  as  to  produce  no  sensible  injury ;  and 
from  this  circumstance  they  are  known  in  the  Spanish 
colonies  by  the  name  of  Angelitos,  or  little  angels.  The 
population  of  a  hive  is  generally  under  a  thousand. 

A  glance  at  the  habits  of  some  of  the  many  varieties 
cannot  fail  to  be  of  great  interest,  although  the  intro- 
duction into  our  apiaries  of  the  so-called  '  stingless  bee ' 
might  be  the  reverse  of  an  improvement.  We  have 
noticed  that  the  honey  in  Mexico  obtained  from  these 
bees  was  thin  in  consistency,  and  this  in  a  country 
where  the  bee  flora  is  almost  perfect;  what  could  we 
expect  on  these  shores?  perhaps  the  honey  would  not 
keep  and  soon  turn  sour.  The  fact  of  the  Mexican  bee 
storing  its  honey  in  large  cells,  or  cups,  and  always  away 
from  the  brood;  what  a  revolution  in  apiculture  its 
introduction  would  cause ! 


This  improved  rack  was  shown  by  Messrs.  G.  Neigh- 
bour &  Sous  at  the  great  show  at  South  Kensington 
last  autumn,  where  it  was  awarded  a  silver  medal. 

The  illustration  shows  so  clearly  the  arrangement  that 
only  a  few  words  will  be  needed  in  explanation.  The 
outer  casing  of  the  rack  is  really  in  two  halves,  and 
each  can  be  used  separately  if  required.  It  will  be  seen 
that  the  rack  consists  of  a  tray  composed  of  a  frame 
with  two  bars  across  the  bottom  and  four  sides,  which 
are  half  the  height  of  the  sections.  The  frame  is  just 
half  a  bee-space  in  thickness,  so  that  to  have  the  full 
bee-space  an  additional  frame,  also  half  bee-space  thick, 
has  to  be  placed  between  the  tray  and  the  tops  of  the 
hive-frames  to  secure  the  requisite  bee-space.  Three 
rows  of.  seven  sections  are  put  in  this  tray,  and  they 
are  wedged  up  by  means  of  a  screw  working  against  a 
board  at  the  ends  of  them,     The  top  tray  is  the  exact 



[February  24,  1887. 

counterpart  of  the  lower  one,  and  slips  over  the  sections. 
These  two  form  an  outer  casing,  and  hy  screwing  up  the 
sections  the  whole  case  can  he  inverted,-  or  by  merely 

removing  the  upper  half  any  of  the   sections  can  he 
removed  separately. 

These  cases  are  used  in  pairs  for  storifying,  are  made 
with  either  wood  or  metal  cross  bars,  and  by  the  above 
arrangement  are  perfectly  interchangeable  and  invertible. 
Great  care  must  be  exercised  in  inverting  just  at  the 
right  time.  The  centre  sections  are  always  more  ad- 
vanced than  those  at  the  sides,  and  the  inversion  should 
only  take  place  when  the  outer  ones  are  in  a  sufficiently 
forward  state. 

IN  1885. 

In  reference  to  the  above  the  Registrar-General  states  : 
An  effort  was  made  to  ascertain  the  extent  to  which 
bee-keeping  is  followed  in  Ireland,  and  the  degree  of 
success  attained  in  this  special  branch  of  rural  economy. 
The  inquiry  related  to  the  season  of  1885.  As  this  was 
the  first  occasion  on  which  any  inquiry  in  relation  to  this 
subject  was  made,  it  can  be  readily  understood  that  the 
returns  were  in  many  instances  defective ;  and  that  there- 
fore the  results  obtained  do  not  set  forth  the  actual  fact 
with  that  accuracy  and  completeness  which  may  be  hoped 
for  in  future,  now  that  it  is  known  that  returns  regarding 
this  question  will  be  collected  each  year  with  the  agricul- 
tural statistics,  and  that  the  enumerators  have,  according 
to  instructions,,  pointed  out  to  all  those  bee-keepers  who 
had  not  hitherto  kept  any  records  on  the  subject,  the 
desirability  of  noting  the  particulars  as  to  which  inform- 
ation is  required.  From  the  tabulated  returns  it  will 
be  seen  that  there  were  21,327  swarms  at  work  in  Ireland 
during  the  season  of  1885,  of  which  6027  were  located 
in  the  province  of  Leinster ;  6554,  in  Munster ;  6440,  in 
Ulster ;  and  1406,  in  Connaught.  Of  the  21,327  swarms, 
6283  were  at  work  '  in  hives  having  moveable  frames,' 
and  16,044  'in  other  hives.'  The  quantity  of  honey 
produced,  according  to  the  returns,  was  302,297  lbs.  Of 
this  60,226  lbs.  were  produced  in  the  province  of  Leinster ; 
103,528  lbs.  in  Munster;  83,348  lbs.  in  Ulster;  and 
36,1951bs.  in  Connaught.  Of  the  302,207  lbs.,  105,4141bs. 
were  produced  '  in  hives  having  moveable  frames,'  and 
196,8831bs.'  in  other  hives.'  It  was  stated  that  187,481  lbs. 
was 'run  honey,'  and  114,816 lbs.  'section  honey.'  The 
average  number  of  pounds  of  honey  to  each  hive  having 
a  moveable  frame  was — For  the  whole  of  Ireland  20  lbs. ; 
in  Leinster,  10  lbs. ;  in  Minister,  20  lbs. ;  in  Ulster,  20  lbs. ; 
and  in  Connaught,  24  lbs.  The  average  number  of  pounds 
to  each  of  the  other  hives  was — For  Ireland,  12  lbs. ;  in 
Leinster,  11  lbs.;  in  Munster,  15 lbs.;  in  Ulster,  11  lbs. ; 
and  in  Connaught,  16  lbs.  The  average  quantity  produced 
in  all  hives  was:  In  the  whole  of  Ireland,  14  lbs. ;  in 
Leinster  it  was  13 lbs.;  in  Munster,  16 lbs. ;  in  Ulster, 
13  lbs. ;  and  in  Connaught,  10  lbs.  The  number  of  stocks 
brought  through  the  winter  of  1885-6  amounted  to 
16,362,  of  which  4403  were  in  hives  having  moveable 
frames,  and  10,860  in  other  hives.  According  to  the 
returns  collected  there  were  7165  lbs.  of  wax  manufac- 
tured in  1885,  of  which  1573  lbs.  were  from  hives  having 
moveabh-  frames,  and  5502  lbs.  from  other  hives. 


'  Mel  sapit  Omnia.' 

We  have  got  over  the  annual  meeting-  and  the  election 
of  the  Committee  of  the  B.  B.  K.  A.  Mr.  D.  Stewart's 
place  is  filled  by  the  Rev.  G.  V.  Oddie,  a  very  good  bee- 
keeper, but  a  gentleman  probably  not  known  by  a  dozen 
members  of  the  B.B.K.A.  outside  his  own  county.  This 
gives  Herts  four  seats  on  the  Committee  of  the  B.B.K.A., 
and  three  of  the  four  gentlemen  live  almost  within  sight 
of  one  another.  Very  handy  this  if  they  all  happen  to 
be  on  the  same  sub-committee. 

The  Rev.  G.  Raynor  carried  his  '  reform  hill,'  lowering 
the  qualification  from  11.  to  10s.,  although  some  of  us 
'Radicals'  wanted  'universal  suffrage  ;' but  if  defeated 
we  still  hope. 

I  was  struck  with  the  fact  that  each  of  the  candidates 
got  fewer  votes  this  year  than  formerly,  although  the 
'roll'  of  the  B.B.K.A.  is  larger  than  it  ever  was.  The 
reason,  I  learn,  is,  that  members  generally  used  greater 
discrimination  than  heretofore,  and  instead  of  giving  all 
their  votes,  only  voted  in  many  cases  for  those  they 
actually  knew.  This  is  a  healthy  sign.  Many  votes 
were  also  lost  through  the  members  failing  to  'brass- 
up'  in  time. 

The  meeting  was  not  only  a  very  full  one,  but  was 
marked  by  the  keen  interest  taken  by  all  present  in  the 
proceeding's.  While  this  is  so,  we  never  need  fear  as  to 
the  future  of  the  B.B.K.A.  I  was  sorry  Mr.  Cowan 
was  not  present,  but  he  is  very  hard  at  work  to  get  his 
work  well  in  hand  before  April,  when  he  hopes  to  see 
the  scenery  between  the  'Atlantic  and  the  Pacific' 
Imagine  him  toiling,  as  he  often  does,  for  the  good  of 
others,  from  6  a.m.  to  10.30  or  11  p.m.,  and  all  for  the 
love  of  it,  and  yet  we  sing,  '  Britons  never  shall  be 
slaves  ! '  It  reminds  me  of  an  old  girl  who  said, '  She 
not  only  liked  work,  but  she  actually  loved  it.' 

Our  President  was  as  gracious  as  she  always  is.  Her 
Ladyship  is  a  true  '  Queen  Bee '  in  her  benevolence  as 
well  as  her  devotion.  To  her  influence  with  H.R.H. 
we  mainly  owe  our  great  show  at  the  '  Colonial ; '  from 
her  purse  came  a  good  slice  of  the  prize  money ;  nay, 
more,  to  her  Ladyship  we  are  mainly  indebted  for  the 
privilege  of  getting  the  medals  cast  from  the  die  of  the 
Indian  and  Colonial  Exhibition  medals ;  and,  to  crown 
all,  when  there  was  no  wherewithal  to  pay  for  the 
medals,  from  our  President's  purse  at  once  the  money 
was  forthcoming. 

After  this,  some  of  the  exhibitors  who  had  almost 
despaired  of  ever  getting  their  medals  will  understand 
why  they  have  been  so  long  in  coming.  Doubtless  most 
or  all  will  get  them  by  the  time  this  sees  the  light ;  and, 
for  myself,  I  confess  when  I  do  get  mine  I  shall  value  it 
more  for  the  sake  of  the  Baroness  than  for  its  other 
associations.  While  jotting  about  medals,  may  I  say 
I  think  the  new  pattern  B.  B.K.  A.'s  medals  are  very 
pretty ;  the  device  of  the  '  queen-bee '  has  given  place 
to  a  view  of  a  modern  apiary.  Had  I  been  in  position 
to  have  given  a  suggestion  at  the  time  the  thing  was 
being  considered,  I  should  have  gone  in  for  a  bust  of 
her  ladyship  the  President.  What  do  the  readers  of 
the  B.  B.  J.  say  to  that  ? 

I  have  run  out  my  allotted  space  before  I  turn  to 
'  jot '  about  passing  matters.  May  I  tell '  F.  II.,  Kent,' 
if  he  uses  queen-excluder  zinc  for  dividers  he  will  not 
get  his  sections  finished  smooth,  but  they  will  be  un- 
dulated, like  the  waves  of  the  sea  on  a  small  scale. 
What  a  rebuke  from  the  bees  themselves  to  those  who 
advocate  narrow  sections  for  storing  as  being  more 
'  natural ! ' 

How  homely  friend  McKnight  makes  us  feel  one 
can  almost  see  him  sitting  by  his  '  ingleside '  over  yonder, 
burning  his  '  midnight  oil '  for  us.  The  two  '  Dumplings ' 
are  jovial  fellows.  Mr.  Grimshaw,  too,  I  imagine,  is  in 
the  height  of  his  element;  from  quoting  poetry  he  turns 
poet  (?)  himself.    Well,  I  hope  he  will  get  'plenty  of 

February  U,  1887.] 



work  to  do.  There  is  nothing  beats  good  'chatty* 
meetings  of  district  associations  and  lecturing  in  small 
villages  for  getting  new  members :  and  as  to  my  incog, 
he  must  be  joking,  as  I  thought  long  ago  he  had  seen 
through  it,  considering  at  Jermyn  Street  he  has  more 
than  once  been  within  nose -rubbing  distance  of  — 
Amateur  Expert. 


The  Annual  General  Meeting  of  the  above  Associ- 
ation was  held  on  Wednesday,  February  16th,  1887,  at 
3.30  p.m.,  at  the  offices  of  the  Royal  Society  for  the 
Prevention  of  Cruelty  to  Animals,  105  Jermyn  Street, 
St.  James's.  The  spacious  Board  Room  was  crowded  by 
an  audience  of  ladies  and  gentlemen,  amongst  whom 
were  the  Baroness  Burdett-Coutts  (President  of  the 
Association),  the  Hon.  and  Rev.  Henry  Bligh,  the  Rev. 
F.  T.  Scott,  the  Rev.  George  Raynor,  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Bartrum,  the  Rev.  F.  G.  Jenyns,  the  Rev.  J.  L.  Seager, 
the  Rev.  F.  S.  Sclater,  the  Rev.  W.  E.  Burkitt,  Mr. 
Hooker,  Captain  Bush,  Mr.  Zehetmayer,  Mr.  Otto 
Hehner,  Mr.  Sambels,  Mr.  Haviland,  Mr.  Blow,  Mr. 
Lyon,  Mr.  Baldwin,  Mr.  Meggy,  Mr.  Horton  Ellis,  Dr. 
"Walker,  Mr.  Eastty,  Mr.  Athawes,  Mr.  Henderson,  Mr. 
Bunbury,  Mr.  Neighbour,  Mr.  Graham,  and  Mr.  Willard. 

Owing  to  the  absence  of  the  President  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  proceedings,  her  Ladyship  having  a 
prior  engagement,  the  Hon.  and  Rev.  Henry  Bligh  took 
the  chair  temporarily. 

The  Secretary  read  the  minutes  of  the  last  Annual 
General  Meeting,  which  were  confirmed. 

Mr.  Horton  Ellis  moved  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the 
retiring  officers  and  committee  for  their  services  during 
the  past  year.  As  one  of  the  county  representatives,  he 
wished  to  say  that  bee-keepers  all  over  the  kingdom 
must  feel  indebted  to  those  gentlemen  whose  zeal  in 
their  duties  had  done  so  much  to  benefit  the  cause. 

The  Rev.  W.  E.  Burkitt  seconded  the  motion,  which 
was  carried  unanimously, 

At  this  juncture  the  Baroness  Burdett-Coutts  arrived, 
and  presided  till  the  conclusion  of  the  proceedings. 

Her  ladyship  moved  that  the  report  and  balance-sheet 
issued  for  the  year  1886  be  received  and  adopted,  with  a 
vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Kirchner,  the  auditor,  which  reso- 
lution was  passed  unanimously.  The  following  is  the 
report : — 

The  Committee  have  much  pleasure  in  presenting1  to  the  members 
their  report  for  the  year  1886.  In  no  previous  year  has  the  work  of 
the  Association  been  more  successful;  this  success  being  mainly  due 
to  the  support  and  patronage  which  has  been  given  to  the  Association 
by  their  Royal  Highnesses  the  Prince  and  Princess  of  Wales,  and 
other  members  of  the  Royal  Family,  and  to  the  loyal  and  pecuniary 
support  given  by  the  County  Affiliated  Branches. 

Considerable  progress  has  been  made  both  in  North  and  South 
Wales,  associations  having  been  formed  in  the  counties  of  Glamorgan, 
Cardigan,  and  Montgomery.  The  Committee  are  much  indebted  to 
Dr.  G-.  Walker  and  Mr.  W.  B.  Webster  for  their  lecturing  tours  in 
North  and  South  Wales. 

As  indicated  in  the  last  report,  the  Committee  have  taken  steps  to 
provide  a  work  on  bee-keeping  in  the  Welsh  language.  The  '  Skep  ' 
pamphlet  translated  into  Welsh  was  issued  early  in  the  year,  and 
efforts  are  now  being  made  (the  Committee  being  aided  by  some 
residents  in  Wales)  to  translate  and  circulate  '  Modem  Bee-Keeping ' 
in  Welsh  also. 

The  Royal  Agricultural  Show  of  1887  will  be  held  at  Neweastle-on- 
Tyne.  The  Committee  consider  this  an  opportune  time  for  the  Asso- 
ciation to  endeavour  to  advance  and  consolidate  their  work  in  the 
North  of  England.  With  this  view  they  have  resolved  to  arrange  for 
a  lecturing  or  expei-t's  tour  during  the  ensuing  spring  months. 

Considerable  assistance  is  also  needed  towards  the  development  of 
the  work  in  many  of  the  larger  counties,  such  as  Yorkshire,  and 
others.  The  funds  at  the  disposal  of  the  Committee  being  very 
limited,  they  are  reluctantly  compelled  to  withhold  assistance  in 
some  cases  where  it  is  urgently  needed.  It  is  therefore  hoped  that 
the  aims  and  objects  of  the  Association  will  be  made  more  widely 
known  by  the  members  and  others  interested  in  the  progress  of  our 
home  industries. 

During  the  past  year  the  work  of  the  Committee  has  been  more 
than  usually  arduous.  In  addition  to  the  ordinary  standing  sub- 
committees, it  was  found  necessary  to  appoint  other  special  sub- 
committees for  certain  particular  work. 

Seventeen  general  committee  meetings  have  been  held  during  the 
year,  in  addition  to  a  large  number  of  sub-committee  meetings. 

The  sixth  edition  of  (  Modern  Bee-Keeping,'  consisting  of  10,000 

copies,  has  been  issued  during  the  year.  A  special  sub-committeo 
was  appointed  for  the  revision  qf  the  work,  and  a  fair  proportion  of 
this  edition  has  already  been  disposed  of. 

Four  quarterly  meetings  have  been  held  during  the  year  for  the 
discussion  of  various  subjects  connected  with  bee-keeping.  As  inti- 
mated in  the  last  report,  the  usual  papers  have  been  dispensed  with 
at  these  meetings,  and  in  place  thereof  discissions  have  been  intro- 
duced upon  various  subjects.  Several  new  inventions  have  been  sub- 
mitted to  these  meetings  for  criticism. 

A  special  social  meeting  to  welcome  the  representatives  of  Canadian 
bee-keepers  attending  the  Indian  and  Colonial  Exhibition,  consisting 
of  Mr.  Pettit,  President  of  the  Ontario  Bee-Keepers*  Association, 
and  Messrs.  S.  Cornell,  D.  A.  Jones,  and  R.  McKnight,  was  held  at 
South  Kensington  on  October  6th.  Upwards  of  100  sat  down  to 
luncheon.  Dr.  May,  Educational  Commissioner  for  Ontario,  and 
Pasteur  Descoulayes,  Secretary  of  the  Soci<£te  Romande  d' Apiculture, 
were  also  present.  Subsequently  a  conference  was  held  in  the  Con- 
ference Room  attached  to  the  Indian  and  Colonial  Exhibition,  at 
which  nearly  250  members  and  friends  attended. 

Examinations  for  third-class  certificates  have  been  held  in  the 
counties  of  Buckinghamshire,  Glamorganshire,  Hampshire,  Hertford- 
shire, Lancashire,  Leicestershire,  Middlesex,  Somersetshire,  Stafford- 
shire, and  Wiltshire.  The  Committee  again  call  the  attention  of 
county  secretaries  to  the  absolute  necessity  of  making  the  arrange- 
ments for  these  examinations  strictly  in  accordance  with  the  rules 
laid  down.  On  one  or  two  occasions  during  the  past  year  the  exami- 
nations have  failed  entirely  through  the  insufficient  arrangements, 
much  needless  waste  of  time  aud  money  on  the  part  of  the  examiner 
and  the  candidate  being  caused  thereby. 

Three  candidates  have  taken  second-class  certificates  during  the 

The  Committee  are  much  indebted  to  the  following  gentlemen  for 
acting  as  examiners  or  judges  at  county  shows,  viz.,  Rev.  C.  G. 
Anderson,  Rev.  Dr.  Bartrum,  E.  H.  Bellairs,  W.  Broughton  Carr, 
R.  R.  Godfrey,  W.  N.  Griffin,  J.  M.  Hooker,  the  Rev.  F.  G.  Jenyns, 
the  Rev.  F.  S.  Sclater,  the  Rev.  J.  Lingen  Seager,  and  Dr.  G.  Walker. 

The  Committee  much  regret  that  they  have  not  been  able  to  pro- 
vide for  the  exhibition  of  the  historical  collection  of  appliances, 
ancient  and  modern,  presented  to  the  Association  by  Mr.  T.  W. 
Cowan  in  1885.  The  provision  of  a  permanent  museum  for  this  and 
other  objects  of  the  Association  only  awaits  the  necessary  funds. 

Three  exhibitions  have  been  held  during  the  year. 

1.  At  Liverpool,  in  connexion  with  the  show  of  the  Royal  Horti- 
cultural Society.  In  consequence  of  the  early  date  at  which  this 
show  was  held,  it  was  found  impracticable  to  arrange  for  a  thoroughly 
representative  display  of  honey,  &c.  The  department  allotted  to 
bees  and  bee-keeping  appliances,  although  small,  proved  one  of  the 
most  attractive  in  the  exhibition.  The  Committee  were  supported 
most  efficiently  by  the  executive  of  the  Lancashire  and  Cheshire 
Association,  10?.  being  contributed  by  this  affiliated  branch  towards 
the  expenses.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Bartrum,  Mr.  W.  Broughton  Carr,  and 
Dr.  Walker,  officiated  as  judges,  to  whom  thanks  are  due  for  their 
gratuitous  services. 

2.  At  Norwich,  in  connexion  with  the  Royal  Agricultural  Society's 
Annual  Exhibition.  This  exhibition  of  honey  and  appliances  was  by 
far  the  best  ever  held  in  connexion  with  the  Royal  Agricultural 
Society.  The  entries  were  large  and  the  exhibits  numerous,  and  of 
good  quality,  occupying  a  space  of  200  feet  in  length  by  20  feet  in 
width.  The  Bee  Department  was  honoured  by  a  special  visit  from 
their  Royal  Highnesses  the  Prince  and  Princess  of  Wales,  the 
Royal  Princesses,  the  Ladies-in-Waiting,  with  other  distinguished 
visitors  from  Sandringham.  The  Royal  party  made  a  thorough 
inspection  of  the  various  exhibits  throughout  the  department,  being 
conducted  by  the  Chairman,  Mr.  T.  W.  Cowan,  and  the  following 
members  of  the  Committee,  who  explained  the  uses  of  the  various 
exhibits,  viz. ,  the  Rev.  G.  Raynor,  the  Rev.  J.  Lingen  Seager,  the 
Rev.  F.  G.  Jenyns,  Captain  Bush,  R.N.,  Mr.  J.  M.  Hooker,  and  Mr. 
H.  Jonas. 

3.  At  South  Kensington,  the  Committee  were  enabled  to  arrange 
for  what  may  be  considered  the  grandest  and  most  effective  display 
of  honey  and  bee-keeping  appliances  that  has  ever  taken  place  in. 
this  country.  Such  an  exhibition  was  rendered  possible  by  the  kind 
permission  of  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales,  Executive  President  of  the 
Royal  Commission  of  the  Indian  and  Colonial  Exhibition,  and  by  the 
support  given  by  the  President  of  the  Association,  and  those  who  sub- 
scribed liberally  to  the  Donation  and  Guarantee  Funds. 

The  Committee  were  most  loyally  supported,  both  pecuniarily  and 
otherwise,  by  a  large  number  of  the  county  associations.  Reference 
to  the  balance-sheet  will  show  that  several  of  the  county  branches 
contributed  largely  to  the  fund  raised  for  carrying  out  the  exhibition, 
apart  from  the  ordinary  statement  of  income  and  expenditure.  A 
separate  balance-sheet  relating  to  this  show,  together  with  a  list  of 
contributors  to  the  donation  and  guarantee  funds,  is  published  at  the 
close  of  this  report. 

The  thanks  of  the  Association  are  due  to  Sir  Philip  Cunliffe  Owen, 
Secretary  to  the  Royal  Commission,  who  was  most  assiduous  in  his 
labours  to  promote  the  success  of  the  exhibition,  and  also  to  the 
President  and  Council  of  the  Royal  Horticultural  Society,  who  gave 
material  assistance.  Messrs.  T.  "W.  Cowan,  C.  E.  Fletcher,  R.  R. 
Godfrey,  and  W.  Martin,  also  merit  the  thanks  of  the  Association  for 
performing  the  most  difficult  task  of  judging  so  large  a  quantity  of 
exhibits.  The  Committee  have  much  pleasure  in  announcing  that 
His  Royal  Highness  the  President  of  the  Royal  Commission  has  been 
pleased  to  permit  the  exhibitors  at  this  exhibition  to  receive  medals 
struck  from  the  dies  as  used  by  the  Royal  Commission. 

The  Committee  feel  sure  that  this  act  on  the  part  of  His  Royal 
Highness,  and  the  munificence  of  the  generous  donor  who  provided 
for  the  cost  of  these  medals,  will  be  highly  appreciated,  both  by  the 
exhibitors  and  the  members  of  the  Association  generally. 

The  thanks  of  the  Association  are  due  to  Mr.  T.  W.  Cowan  and 
Rev.  F.  G.  Jenyns  for  donations  of  books  to  the  Library. 

The  Committee  consider  that  the  Association  has  march  reason  to 
congratulate  itself  on  the  work  of  the  past  year.  A  great  stimulus 
has  been  given  to  the  industry  of  bee-keeping  throughout  the  United 
Kingdom,  and  the  demand  for  honey  hag  considerably  increased, 


[February  24, 1887. 

Great  progress  has  been  made  by  Honey  Companies  and  other  agencies 
in  bringing-  the  valne  of  pure  British  honey  under  the  notice  of  the 
residents  of  London  and  other  large  tAvns. 

The  Finance  Committee  have  again  to  report  their  satisfaction  with 
the  manner  in  which  the  accounts  have  been  kept  by  Mr.  Huckle. 
The  receipts  and  expenditure  have  been  exceptionally  large  in  con- 
nexion with  the  several  exhibitions  held  during  the  year,  so  that  the 
work  devolving  on  the  Secretary  has  been  very  heavy.  The  assets  of 
the  Association  having  been  carefully  valued,  they  are  glad  to  report 
that  the  accounts  for  the  year  show  a  balance  on  the  right  side. 

The  Rev.  G.  Raynor  said  that  the  pleasing  duty  had 
fallen  to  his  lot  for  several  years  past  of  proposing  a  vote 
of  thanks  to  the  Council  of  the  Royal  Society  for  the 
Prevention  of  Cruelty  to  Animals  for  the  gratuitous  use 
of  their  Board  Room  for  committee  and  other  meetings, 
and  he  had  much  gratification  in  asking  the  meeting  to 
vote  a  similar  resolution  on  that  occasion.  He  need  not 
enlarge  on  the  benefit  derived  by  the  Association  from 
the  kindness  of  the  R.  S.  P.  C.  A.,  and  he  thought  the 
members  present  could  hardly  express  their  thanks  in 
sufficiently  warm  language.  From  his  own  personal 
knowledge  he  felt  sure  that  the  goodness  of  the  Royal 
Society  was  highly  appreciated,  because  they  of  the 
B.  B.  K.  A.  would  certainly  be  in  a  difficulty  if  deprived 
of  the  advantage  of  meeting  in  that  beautiful  room. 

The  Rev.  F.  T.  Scott  had  much  pleasure  in  seconding 
Mr.  Raynor's  proposition.  The  Society  conferred  an 
immense  advantage  on  the  B.  B.  K.  A.  by  placing  their 
Board  Room  at  its  disposal.  It  was  a  most  comfortable 
room,  and  well  suited  to  the  requirements  of  the  Associ- 
ation, which  was  thus  saved  considerable  expense.  Some 
charitable  institutions  proposed  to  commemorate  the 
Jubilee  year  by  providing  themselves  with  new  offices, 
but  he  did  not  think  the  Association  would  be  able  to 
do  that,  nor  was  there  any  necessity  while  they  had 
such  excellent  accommodation. 

The  resolution  was  carried  unanimously. 

The  President  returned  thanks  on  behalf  of  the  Royal 
Society  for  the  Prevention  of  Cruelty  to  Animals  in  her 
capacity  as  President  of  the  Ladies'  Committee  of  that 
body.  It  was  a  source  of  great  pleasure  to  the  Society 
to  know  that  their  Board  Room  was  occupied  from  time 
to  time  by  an  Association  whose  objects  tended  to  the 
furtherance  of  those  principles  in  which  the  Society  was 
deeply  interested. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Bartrum  moved  the  re-election  of  the 
President,  Vice-Presidents,  Treasurer,  Auditors,  Analyst, 
Librarian,  and  Secretary  for  the  year  1887.  He  con- 
sidered it  a  great  privilege  to  be  allowed  to  propose,  as 
he  had  done  in  previous  years,  the  re-election  of  the 
noble  lady  in  the  chair  that  day,  who  stood  at  the  head 
of  their  Association,  and  who  was,  in  fact,  their  queen- 
bee.  She  was  an  excellent  example  of  the  advantage  to 
the  community  at  large  of  ladies  taking  their  proper 
place  in  thesocial  scale.  It  was  a  great  gain  to  the  cause 
of  bee-keeping  that  their  Society  was  led  by  one  who 
showed  so  much  active  sympathy  with  the  work,  and 
who  was  always  ready  to  assist  with  her  counsel  and 
benevolence — indeed,  the  Association  could  scarcely  go  on 
were  it  not  for  the  valuable  aid  given  by  the  Baroness. 
The  Vice-Presidents  proposed  to  be  elected  were  the 
heads  of  the  various  County  Associations,  among  which 
were  the  Princess  Christian,  some  Pukes  and  Earls, 
and,  generally  speaking,  persons  occupying  leading  posi- 
tions in  society.  He  moved  that  Mr".  W.  O'B.  Glennie 
be  re-appointed  Treasurer.  That  gentleman  held  an 
official  position  in  the  Bank  of  England,  and  had  been  a 
staunch  friend  of  the  cause  and  a  member  of  the  Com- 
mittee many  years.  With  regard  to  Mr.  Otto  Hehner, 
Mr.  Henderson,  and  Mr.  Huckle,  they  were  well  known 
to  the  members  of  the  Association,  and  their  claims  on 
account  of  past  valuable  services  were  indisputable. 

The  Rev.  F.  G.  Jenyns  seconded  the  motion,  which 
was  carried  unanimously. 

The  President,  in  acknowledging  the  honour  conferred 
upon  her,  said  it  was  difficult  to  express  how  much  she 
appreciated  it.  Every  opportunity  that  sho  could  find 
to  promote  so  useful  and  important  an  industry  as  bee- 

keeping -would  be  utilised  for  that  purpose.  A .  great 
many  public  objects  which  had  arisen,  developed,  or  been 
created  during  the  reign  of  Her  Majesty  the  Queen, 
would  during  the  present  year,  no  doubt,  be  brought 
prominently  under  notice.  It  might  be  that  so  small  an 
industry  as  the  one  in  which  they  were  engaged  would 
not  obtain  a  very  large  share  of  public  attention  ;  but 
she  thought  that  if  statistics  were  published  of  the  agri- 
cultural and  food  developments  during  the  last  fifty 
years,  the  production  of  honey  could  not  be  left  out  of 
consideration,  and  their  Societ}'  must  take  credit  for 
having  popularised  an  industry  which  had  added  greatly 
to  the  welfare  and  amusement  of  all  classes.  She  was 
afraid  that  any  advice  of  hers  in  regard  to  management 
would  not  be  very  valuable,  but  they  would  remember 
that  the  bees  managed  their  own  affairs  extremely  well, 
and  in  that  respect  did  not  give  much  trouble  to  their 
queens.  (Laughter.)  It  was  a  great  pleasure  to  be  for 
another  year  associated  with  those  officers  of  the  Society 
who  had  always  co-operated  with  her  in  the  kindest  way 
when  she  required  any  information.     (Applause.) 

The  Secretary  read  the  results  of  the  election  of  Com- 
mittee for  the  year  1887,  the  following  members  being 
successful : — T.  W.  Cowan,  Hon.  and  Rev.  II.  Bligh, 
Revs.  G.  Raynor,  F.  S.  Sclater,  F.  T.  Scott,  J.  L.  Seager, 
E.  Bartrum,  F.  G.  Jenyns,  G.  V.  Oddie,  Captains  Bush, 
C.  D.  Campbell,  Messrs.  W.  H.  Dunman,  J.  M.  Hooker, 
H.  Jonas,  G.  Walker. 

Captain  Bush  moved  a  hearty  vote  of  thanks  to  the 
scrutineer  of  the  voting-papers  (Mr.  Dunstan),  for  the 
satisfactory  manner  in  which  he  had  performed  his 
troublesome  and  uninteresting  task. 

The  Rev.  F.  S.  Sclater  seconded  the  vote,  which  was 
unanimously  carried. 

The  Hon.  and  Rev.  Henry  Bligh  said  a  sad  task  had 
now  fallen  to  his  lot,  and  that  was  to  move  a  resolution 
with  respect  to  their  late  friend,  Mr.  Fox  Kenworthy, 
who  within  a  few  weeks  had  passed  away,  and  left 
vacant  an  onerous  post  in  the  bee  world.  Perhaps  there 
was  no  one  better  qualified  to  speak  of  that  gentleman, 
and  the  good  name  he  had  left  behind,  than  himself  (Mr. 
Bligh),  because  he  had  acted  with  their  lamented  friend 
as  co-secretary  of  the  Middlesex  Bee-keepers'  Association 
for  the  last  two  or  three  years.  He  (the  speaker)  never 
met  with  any  one  more  thoroughly  devoted  to  his  work, 
or  one  who  was  more  ready  to  give  his  time  and  labour, 
at  considerable  self-sacrifice,  to  their  cause.  At  the  time 
he  was  taken  from  them  his  good  work  was  beginning  to 
develope  itself  and  show  the  results  of  continuous  efforts. 
Mr.  Kenworthj-  was  known  to  them  not  only  as  Secretary 
of  the  Middlesex  Bee-keepers'  Association,  but  he  had 
also  acted  for  a  considerable  time  as  Secretary  of  the 
parent  body  at  a  time  of  great  difficulty.  The  resolution 
was : — 

'That  the  members  of  the  13.  B.  K.  A.,  assembled  at  the 
annual  general  meeting,  have  heard  with  the  deepest  regret 
of  the  early  death  of  Mr.  Fox  Kenworthy,  formerly  Honorary 
Secretary  of  the  Association,  and  wish  to  record  their  appre- 
ciation of  the  good  work  which,  under  difficult  circum- 
stances, he  then  did  for  it ;  and  also  wish  to  express  their 
deep  sympathy  with  Mrs.  Kenworthy  on  the  death  of  a  son 
who  was  highly  esteemed  and  respected  by  all.' 

Mr.  Hooker  seconded  the  motion,  and  said  he  heartily 
endorsed  Mr.  Bligh's  eulogy  of  the  late  gentleman,  whom 
he  knew  both  in  his  private  and  public  capacity. 

The  President  thought  there  was  no  need  to  go  through 
the  formality  of  putting  the  resolution  to  the  meeting, 
because  the  expression  of  regret  and  sympathy  contained 
therein  must  commend  it  to  every  one. 

The  Rev.  G.  Kaynor  moved : — 

'  (1)  That  in  Eule  4  the  words,  "  Subscribers  of  11.  per 
annum  and  life  members  alone  shall  be  eligible  for  election 
as  members  of  the  Committee,"  be  omitted,  and  in  lieu 
thereof  be  added  the  words,  "  Subscribers  of  10s.  per  annum, 
donors  of  prizes  of  11.  in  the  preceding  year,  and  life 
members  alone,  be  eligible  for  election  as  members  of  the 

February  24,  1887.] 



Committee."     (2)  That  in  Eule  5,  the  words  "  but  not "  be 
omitted,  and  in  lieu  thereof  be  added  the  words  "  and  also."  ' 

He  eDtered  into  a  retrospective  view  of  the  subject, 
and  recounted  the  proceedings  which  took  place  at  the 
previous  annual  general  meeting  in  reference  to  the 
motion  of  Mr.  Stewart,  which  was  lost  on  being  put  to 
the  vote.  He  opposed  Mr.  Stewart's  proposition  on  that 
occasion  because  it  was  introduced  at  the  fag  end  of  the 
meeting,  when  very  few  members  remained  to  discuss 
the  question.  There  was  now  a  good  opportunity  of 
considering  the  matter,  and  he  would  like  to  know  the 
sense  of  the  meeting  thereon.  Mr.  Cowan  was  fully  in 
accord  with  the  motion,  but  earnestly  hoped  the  qualifi- 
cation would  not  be  reduced  below  10s. 

The  Bev.  F.  G.  Jenyns  seconded  the  resolution. 

Captain  Bush  opposed  the  reduction  of  the  qualifi- 
cation. He  said  that  nearly  all  the  members  of  the 
Committee  lived  some  distance  in  the  country,  perhaps 
twenty  to  fifty  miles ;  and  surely,  if  they  could  afford 
to  pay  the  expense  of  travelling  to  and  from  London  to 
attend  meetings,  they  could  afford  to  pay  1/.  annually  to 
the  Association.  The  resolution  was  a  mistake,  because 
members  desirous  of  being  put  on  the  Committee  would 
he  willing  to  raise  their  subscriptions  to  the  required 
amount ;  and  if  they  could  not  do  so,  probably  they  were 
not  in  a  position  to  spare  the  requisite  time  to  attend 
meetings.  Besides,  the  Association  would  most  likely 
suffer  a  pecuniary  loss  if  the  resolution  were  carried,  and 
he  did  not  think  it  would  be  better  served. 

Mr.  J.  Eastty  supported  the  resolution,  saying  that 
there  were  bee-keepers  in  London  who  would  probably 
be  willing  to  serve  on  the  Committee,  but  who  could  not 
afford  to  pajr  1/.  annually.  Bees  were  successfully  kept 
in  South  Kensington,  and  he  himself  had  raised  18  lbs. 
of  honey  in  Bermondsey. 

Mr.  Bunhury  said  the  reasons  which  held  good  in 
reducing  the  qualification  to  10s.  were  equally  in  favour 
of  a  reduction  to  5a.,  and  he  moved  as  an  amendment 
that  a  5s.  annual  payment  entitle  the  subscriber  to  serve 
on  the  Committee. 

Mr.  Meggy  seconded  the  amendment,  and  said  that  he 
believed  the  success  of  the  Association  depended  on  the 
width  of  its  basis. 

Mr.  Sambels  spoke  in  favour  of  the  amendment,  and 
pointed  out  that,  under  the  present  rules  the  Committee, 
by  uniting  amongst,  themselves,  could  return  any  member 
they  chose,  owing  to  the  plurality  of  their  votes. 

Mr.  Baldwin  hoped  that  in  no  case  was  the  amount  of 
subscription  paid  to  the  Association  governed  b}r  a  desire 
for  plurality  of  votes. 

The  Rev.  F.  G.  Jenyns  explained  that  the  united 
strength  of  the  Committee's  polling  power  only  amounted 
to  sixty  votes. 

Mr.  Athawes  supported  the  amendment,  and  objected 
to  plurality  of  voting. 

The  Rev.  G.  Kaynor  disputed  the  cogency  of  Captain 
Bush's  arguments.  He  thought,  as  a  tentative  measure, 
10s.  was  low  enough,  because  every  person  who  had  the 
well-being  of  the  Association  at  heart  would  be  prepared 
to  pay  that  small  amount,  especially  as  it  constituted  the 
qualification  necessary  to  serve  on  the  Committee.  He 
was  of  opinion  that  it  would  be  better  to  pass  the  reso- 
lution, and  see  how  it  worked  for  a  year  or  two. 

Mr.  Horton  Ellis  having  seconded  the  amendment,  in 
the  place  of  Mr.  Meggy,  who  was  ruled  out  of  order,  it 
was  put  to  the  vote,  and  negatived  by  14  to  7.  The 
original  motion  was  then  carried  by  a  majority  of  10 ; 
15  for,  and  5  against. 

The  Hon.  and  Bev.  Henry  Bligh  moved: — 

'  That  in  Eule  8  the  words  "  from  the  unsuccessful 
Candidates,  according  to  the  priority  of  votes  obtained  at 
the  Election,"  be  omitted,  and  in  lieu  thereof  be  added  the 
words,  "  by  the  Acting  Committee.'" 

The  Rev.  F.  S.  Sclater  seconded  the  motion. 

The  Rev.  G.  Raynor  suggested  that  the  substituted 

words  should  be, '  from  those  members  who  are  eligiblo 
and  willing  to  serve.' 

A  long  discussion  enjaed  in  which  the  President,  Mr. 
Sambels,  Mr.  Lyon,  tire  Hon.  and  Rev.  Henry  Bligh, 
the  Rev.  J.  L.  Seager,  and  Mr.  Blow  took  part,  the 
mover  undertaking  to  withdraw  his  motion-  This  course 
being  objected  to,  a  division  was  taken,  when  a  majority 
of  12  were  in  favour  of  the  withdrawal — 1&  for,  and  0 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Bartrum  moved : 

'  That  the  following  words  be  added  to  Eule  8  :  "  Every 
member  willing  to  serve  on  the  Committee,  and  who  has 
not  served  during  the  previous  year,  must  be  nominated  by 
one  or  two  members  of  the  Association.  The  name  or 
names  of  the  person  or  persons  so  nominating,  together 
with  the  name  of  the  nominee,  shall  be  stated  on  the  voting 
paper.  Every  member  desirous  of  nominating  a  member 
of  the  Committee  shall  have  a  paper  sent  him  for  that 
purpose,  on  applying  to  the  Secretary  for  the  same,  the 
written  consent  of  the  nominee  to  be  forwarded  to  the  Sec- 
retary with  the  nomination  paper."  ' 
He  thought  the  present  system  of  electing  members  of 
the  Committee  was  unsatisfactory,  and  different  to  that 
carried  out  by  other  institutions.  In  the  case  of  the 
British  Dairy  Farmers'  Association,  with  which  he  was 
acquainted,  the  practice  he  had  endeavoured  to  embody 
in  the  resolution  was  in  force,  and  had  acted  very  well. 
It  seemed  to  him  that  old  and  tried  friends  of  the  cause 
like  Mr.  Cowan  and  Mr.  Raynor  ought  not  to  be  put  to 
the  trouble  every  year  of  finding  a  nominator.  Those 
who  had  done  good  work  in  the  past  should  be  freed 
from  such  obligation.  However,  that  was  a  question  for 
the  meeting  to  decide. 

Mr.  Baldwin  suggested  that  the  nomination  form  l:e 
bound  up  with  the  rules. 

Mr.  Sambels  seconded  the  resolution. 

Mr.  Haviland  thought  the  old  members  of  the  Com- 
mittee would  find  no  trouble  in  obtaining  nominations. 

Mr.  Athawes  moved  as  an  amendment  that  the  words 
'  who  has  not  served  during  the  previous  year '  and  '  one 
or,'  be  omitted. 

Mr.  Hooker  seconded,  and  Mr.  Blow  supported  the 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Bartrum  consented  to  the  omission  of  the 
words  '  one  or.' 

The  Rev.  G.  Raynor  and  the  Rev.  F.  G.  Jenyns  agreed 
with  Dr.  Bartrum  in  thinking  that  old  members  of  the 
Committee  ought  to  be  exempted  from  the  ride  compelling 
annual  nominations. 

The  amendment  having  been  put  to  the  meeting,  was 
carried  by  a  majority  of  3 — 14  in  favour  and  11  against. 
It  was  then  submitted  as  a  substantive  motion  in  the 
following  form,  and  carried  unanimously  : — 

'  That  the  following  words  be  added  to  Eule  8  :  "  Every 
member  willing  to  serve  on  the  Committee  must  be  nomi- 
nated by  two  members  of  the  Association.  The  names  of  the 
persons  so  nominating,  together  with  the  name  of  the 
nominee,  shall  be  stated  on  the  voting  paper.  Every  mem- 
ber desirous  of  nominating  a  member  of  the  Committee, 
shall  have  a  paper  sent  him  for  that  purpose,  on  applying 
to  the  Secretary  for  the  same,  the  written  consent  of  the 
nominee  to  be  forwarded  to  the  Secretary  with  the 
nomination  paper." ' 

The  Rev.  W.  E.  Burkitt  moved  :— 

'  That  in  framing  Schedules,  special  care  should  be  used 
to  make  all  Eules  definite,  and  that  they  should  be  strictly 
enforced  ;  also  that  it  should  be  the  duty  of  the  Committee 
to  make  sure  that  the  Judges  shall  make  themselves 
acquainted  with  the  Schedule  before  commencing  their 

Mr.  Walker  seconded  the  motion. 

The  Rev.  F.  T.  Scott  objected  to  that  part  of  the 
resolution  which  saddled  the  committee  with  the  duty 
of  making  sure  that  the  judges  studied  the  Schedule 
hefore  commencing  their  duties. 

The    Rev.   G.    Raynor    thought    that  meeting   was 



[February  24,  188?. 

scarcely  the  proper  tribunal  before  which  to  bring  any- 
improper  action  of  the  judges,  to  whom  a  certain  amount 
of  discretion  must  be  allowed.    l. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Bartrum  thought  the  motion  implied  a 
censure  on  those  gentlemen  who,  at  enormous  trouble 
and  personal  inconvenience,  had  undertaken  an  onerous 
task.  He  hopjd  Mr.  Burkitt  would  be  satisfied  with 
the  protest  he  had  made  without  pressing  the  motion 
to  a  division. 

The  Bev.  J.  L.  Seager  moved  : — 

'  That  the  Committee  be  requested  to  draw  up  a  form  of 
Rules  for  exhibition,  with  a  view  to  establishing  uniformity 
at  all  shows  throughout  the  Counties ;  a  recommendation 
being  added  that  the  shows  should  be  advertised  as  being 
held  under  the  B.B.K.A.  Eules.' 

He  thought,  possibly,  that  this  would  prove  generally 
acceptable,  as  well  as  meet  Mr.  Burkitt's  wishes. 

The  Rev.  F.  S.  Sclater  seconded,  and  Mr.  Sambels 
Supported  the  motion. 

The  Rev.  W.  E.  Burkitt  agreed  to  withdraw  his 
resolution,  and  support  Mr.  Seager's. 

After  a  few  words  from  the  President,  Mr.  Seager's 
motion  was  carried  unanimously. 

The  Hod.  and  Rev.  Henry  Bligh  moved  a  hearty  vote 
of  thanks  to  the  Baroness  Burdett  -  Coutts,  for  her 
kindness  in  being  present,  and  for  the  admirable  way  in 
which  she  had  presidei  1  over  the  meeting  that  day.  He 
also  wished  to  draw  their  attention  specially  to  the 
Baroness's  goodness  i  relation  to  the  medal.  It  had 
been  debated  by  the  Committee  what  form  the  medals 
commemorative  of  the  South  Kensington  Exhibition 
should  take,  and  ultimately  application  was  made  for 
leave  to  give  the  Colonial  Exhibition  Medal  to  all  those 
who  had  exhibited  at  the  Honey  Show.  Tins,  however, 
it  was  found  would  involve  a  very  large  cost — quite 
beyond  the  means  at  the  disposal  of  the  Committee.  At 
this  juncture  the  President  kindly  came  forward,  and 
generously  offered  to  defray  the  whole  expense.  He  was 
quite  sure  they  would  all  thoroughly  appreciate  such 
kindness,  and  tender  her  their  most  heartfelt  thanks. 

The  resolution  having  been  carried  by  acclamation, 
the  President  briefly  expressed  her  acknowledgments 
for  the  cordial  vote  of  thanks  passed  to  her.  It  had 
afforded  her  the  greatest  pleasure  to  assist  the  Committee 
in  regard  to  the  medals.  She  thought  the  proceedings 
at  the  South  Kensington  show  marked  a  distinct  step  in 
advance  of  the  former  position  of  the  B.B.K.A.  The 
holding  of  the  British  Honey  Exhibition  last  year  in  the 
Conservatory  at  Kensington  was  due  to  a  very  kindly 
act  on  the  part  of  the  Prince  of  Wales,  which  was  not 
accorded  to  any  other  industry.  She  knew  that  the 
show  was  admired  very  much,  and  she  thought  that  the 
Prince  had  given  a  substantial  proof  of  his  appreciation 
of  the  movement  by  permitting  the  die  which  was  used 
for  the  Colonial  Exhibition  to  be  placed  at  the  disposal 
of  the  Committee.  It  was  to  be  hoped  that  the  medals 
would  give  pleasure  to  all  the  fortunate  recipients  of 
them.  Since  they  last  met,  she  had  been  asked  to 
become  President  of  the  Middlesex  Bee-Keepers'  Asso- 
ciation, and  had  complied  with  such  request.  Her 
ladyship  concluded  by  expressing  the  pleasure  with 
which  she  found  herself  amongst  those  who  were 
devoted  to  the  interests  of  the  Association. 

Great  Tit  Killed  by  Bees. — The  great  tit  (Parus  major) 
ia  a  well-known  enemy  to  the  bee-keeper.  First  he  comes 
to  pick  up  the  dead  bees  thrown  out  during  the  winter,  and 
when  theBe  are  exhausted  he  pecks  at  the  mouths  of  the 
hives,  and  when  a  bee  comes  to  the  door  to  see  what  is  the 
matter  he  snaps  it,  and  flies  on  to  the  top  of  the  hive  or 
some  convenient  post,  perhaps,  and  there  dresses  his  prey 
preparatory  to  eating  it,  generally  commencing  by  biting  off 
the  tail  end  of  the  bee,  with  the  sting  attached  ;  this  he  never 
eats,  but  leaves  it  on  the  top  of  the  hive  or  post.  I  was  once 
very  much  annoyed  by  a  pair  of  these  tits  daily  molesting 
■  ■  hive,  and  not  only  killing  a  number  of  bees,  but  keeping 

them  in  constant  commotion  at  a  time  of  year  when  they 
should  have  been  at  rest ;  so  I  set  a  small  trap,  used  for 
catching  mice,  at  the  entrance  of  the  hive,  and  in  a  very 
short  time  I  saw  one  of  the  tits  fly  on  to  it  and  get  caught 
by  the  leg,  when  immediately  a  number  of  bees  rushed  out 
and  stung  him  round  the  beak  and  eyes,  and  in  exactly  four 
minutes  he  was  dead.  I  ought  to  say  that  I  should  have 
put  him  out  of  pain  at  once  only  the  bees  were  roused  by 
finding  they  had  got  their  enemy  in  their  power,  and  had  I 
interfered  to  do  so  I  should  have  got  well  stung,  so  I  ran  to 
the  bee-shed  for  my  veil,  but  when  I  returned  the  tit  was 
just  dying.  I  do  not  think  I  have  molested  one  of  these 
birds  since,  the  whole  family  are  so  useful  and  interesting  ; 
I  always  encourage  them  in  the  garden.  During  the  present 
hard  weather  the  great  tit  daily  pays  visits  to  the  bee-hives. 
F.  Botes  (Beverley). — Field. 


The  Editor  does  not  hold  himself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed 
by  his  correspondents.  No  attention  will  be  taken  of  anonymous  com- 
munications, and  correspondents  are  requested  to  write  on  one  side  oj 
the  paper  only,  and  give  their  real  names  and  addresses,  not  necessarily 
for  publication,  but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith.  Illustrations  should 
be  drawn  on  separate  pieces  of  paper. 

Communications  relating  to  the  literary  department,  reports  of 
Associations,  Shows,  Meetings,  Echoes,  Queries,  Boolis  for  Review, 
&c,  omsfc  be  addressed  only  to  'The  Editor  of  the  "British  Bee 
Journal,"  c)o  ITessrs.  Strangeways  and  Sons,  Tower  Street,  Upper 
St.  Martin's  Lane,  London,  W.C  All  business  communications  relating 
to  Advertisements,  &c,  must  be  addressed  to  Mr.  J.  Huckle,  King's 
Langley,  Herts  (see  2nd  page  of  Advertisements). 

%*  In  order  to  facilitate  reference,  Correspondents,  when  spealdng  of 
any  letter  or  query  previously  inserted,  will  oblige  by  mentioning  the 
number  of  the  letter,  as  well  as  the  page  on  which  it  appears. 


The  value  of  honey  imported  into  the  United  King- 
dom during  the  month  of  December,  1886,  amounted 
to  1639/. 

We  are  now  in  possession  of  the  full  returns  for  the 
past  year,  which  are  as  follows : — 

January   .  .          . .          .  .         .  .         . ,  424 

February .  .          .  .         . .         . .         . .  451 

March      2,722 

April        1,113 

May          1,541 

June         2,900 

July          . .         . .         . .          . .         . .  6,505 

August     .  .          . .         .  .         . .         . .  1,255 

September           2,812 

October 1,257 

November            .  .  2,527 

December            . .         .  .          . .         . .  1,639 

Total  for  the  year   .  .         .  .  £25,146 

Comparing  this  total  with  the  figures  for  which  we 
have  authentic  data,  we  find  that  the  total  imports  were 
as  follows : — 

1883  1884  1835  1836 

33,778/.         62,357/.  01,344/.  25,146/. 

It  should,  however,  be  remembered  that  the  figures 
for  1883-5  are  approximate  only,  the  order  from  the 
Board  of  Trade  to  tabulate  honey  only  dating  from 
January,  1886.  These  latter,  moreover,  do  not  include 
the  vast  quantity  of  honey  sent  through  Colonial  Govern- 
ments to  the  Indian  and  Colonial  Exhibition.  Honey 
will  be  included  for  the  first  time  in  the  Annual  Returns 
of  Imports  and  Exports  to  be  shortly  published ;  and 
although  we  may  expect  the  total  to  appear  insignificant 
beside  the  immense  sums  paid  annually  for  eggs,  butter, 
&c.  &c,  the  item  will  unquestionably  be  of  considerable 
interest  to  the  public  at  large,  besides  awakening  bee- 
keepers to  the  fact  that  we  are  still  unable  to  entirely 
supply  the  home  consumption.  As  some  time  may, 
however,  elapse  before  these  'Annual  Returns'  are 
officially  published,  it  has  seemed  to  mo  better  not  to 
await  them,  but  to  send  them  to  the  Bee  Journal  made 
up  as  in  former  years.— E.  H,  BijLLAins, .Feb,  18, 

February  24,  1887.] 




[330.]  This  hive  has  had  three  years  of  careful  consider- 
ation, and  was  in  the  first  instance  developed  because  I 
had  found  the  '  Standard'  frame  (14  inches  by  8i  inches) 
decidedly  inferior  to  larger  frames  I  had  formerly  used, 
either  for  the  production  of  honey,  or  bees  for  sale.  After 
various  experiences, a  frame  14  inches  by  14  inches  lias  been 
found  the  most  appropriate,  all  things  considered,  as  it 
enables  a  stock  to  build  up  more  rapidly  in  early  spring  and 
gives  greater  security  in  winter,  as  the  stores  are  arranged 
in  the  best  possible  position,  in  relation  to  the  cluster. 

As  a  single  frame,  the  present '  standard  '  is  too  small ; 
as  a  storifying  frame  it  is  too  large  ;  therefore  a  smaller 
extracting-  super  is  connected  with  the  large  hive,  and 
which  can  be  used  both  at  the  back  and  front  of  the 
14  inch-by-14  inch  frame,  as  well  as  on  top. 

The  frames  of  this  shallow  hive  (fig.  1)  are  12  in.  by 
6  in.  x  f ;  there  are  eight  of  them  spaced  rather  more  than 
the  1J  in.  from  centre  to  centre.  By  a  simple  metal  key 
running  throughout  the  length  of  the  hive,  the  frames 
are  all  held  securely  in  place,  as  the  said  key  passes 

Fig.  1. 

through  a  saw-cut  in  each  end  of  the  top  bars.  There  are 
plain  metal  ends  on  the  frames,  which  are  grooved  to  cor- 
respond with  saw  cuts,  so  that  the  key  is  entirely  hidden. 
The  key  is  entirely  hidden  from  the  action  of  the  bees,  and 
as  the  frames  hang  clear  of  each  other,  the  weather  has 
no  effect  upon  the  wood  as  with  close-end  frames,  or 
broad  shoulders  when  used  in  a  limited  space. 

A  novel  feature  in  connexion  with  the  shallow  chamber 
is  that  the  usual  bee-space  is  at  the  top  instead  of  at  the 
bottom,  as  of  old.  The  reasons  for  this  are  (1 ),  to  give 
greater  strength  in  the  margin  above  saw-cut  in  hive  side; 
(2),  to  receive  pliable  honey  board  (Fig.  2  or  3)  across  and 

Fig.  2. 

Fig.  3. 

close  on  the  frames  as  constantly  recommended  by  us  as 
the  only  means  of  totally  excluding  brace  combs.  Of 
course  this  implies  that  the  extracting  super  can  also  be 
used  independently  of  the  large  hive,  similar  to  the 
'  Stewarton,'  and  with  but  a  slight  alteration  in  the 
position  of  the  saw-cut,  Heddon's  half  bee-space  can  be 
provided  for  those  who  desire  to  try  inversion.  At  the 
same  time  the  hive,  as  presented,  can  be  used  either  way 
up,  though  I  do  not  claim  that  any  advantage  is  to  be 
gained  by  inverting  brood  combs  during  the  honey  season. 
"When  used  by  itself  the  small  hive  has  a  sunk  floor-board 
which  acts  as  a  permanent  feeder,  when  inverted. 

When  either  extracting  or  comb  supers  are  used  on  end 
against  the  large  frames  (Figs.  4  and  5)  the  f-in.  space  is 
placed  next  the  latter.  If  on  top,  the  same  can  also  be 
done,  though  my  own  practice  is  to  keep  such  the  right 

Fig.  4.  Fig.  5. 

way  up  with  the  bars  across  those  of  the  lower  frames, 
close  on  to  them ;  this  also  excludes  brace  combs  when 
working  for  extracted  honey,  and  when  one  has  ones 
tried  the  plan,  he  will  never  again  submit  to  a  clear  bee- 
space  immediately  above  the  brood  frames.  It  is  there 
alone  that  comb  attachments  are  liable  to  be  built,  but 
any  space  allowed  between  further  super  additions  are 
not  subject  to  this  annoyance.  In  following  out  this  plan 
of  working  for  the  past  six  years  I  have  not  had  a 
single  piece  of  comb  attached  to  our  sections,  as  often 
is  the  'case  on 
the  underside 
of  sections 
worked  with 
the  clear 
space  under. 

The  comb 
super  (Fig.  6) 
is  also  14  in. 
by  14  in.,  con- 
taining three  skeleton  folding  frames  (Fig.  7),  enabling 
each  set  of  seven  4j  in.  by  4|  in.  sections  to  be  inverted 
separately  at  will  when  full 
sheets  of  foundation  are  not 
used.  I,  however,  prefer 
to  fill  the  section  with 
foundation,  which  gives  a 
comb  more  perfect  than  a 
starter  only,  followed  by  in- 
version. The  sections  are 
securely  keyed  in  position 
that  the  crate  may  be  used 
Fig-  7.  on  end  with  the  large  frames 

and  also  to   aid   in   'throwing'   out  the  bees  without 

Fig.  8. 

handling  each  section  separately,  though  if  supers  be 
removed  during  the  middle  of  the  day  a  little  smoke 



[February  24,  1887. 

will    generally   clear    out    most    of  the  bees  then   at 

The  large  hive  is  (Figs.  8  and  9  A)  10  in.  by  19  in. 
outside,  and  is  arranged  to  take  either  the  17  in.  or 
15g  in.  top  bars  of  the  Standard  frame,  as  in  AB.  With- 
out any  alteration 
it  also  takes  our 
large  frames  (Fig. 
10),  which  have 
their  '  lugs '  placed 
down  the  side  on 
the  same  level  as 
those  of  a  standard 
frame  :  thus  they 
stand  51  in.  higher, 
but  to  economise 
heat  above  the  clus- 
ter and  also  to  en- 
sure that  the)'  hang 
'  true '  it  has  been 
necessary  to  make 
these  frames  close- 
ended  above  the 
level  of  the  side 
walls  upon  which 
they  rest.  The  hive 
is  double-walled,  and  packed  with  cork -dust  on  two 
sides.  For  my  own  use  I  retain  the  same  dimensions, 
but  at  the  front  (south)  wall  have  no  space  between  the 
double  lining  (Fig.  0  D) ;  and  as  the  hive  and  floor  are 
square  the  entrance  can  be  placed  in  any  position  in  re- 
lation to  the  frames.  This  floor  is  also  invertible  and  a 
permanent  feeder,  with  circular  flight  holes.  I  prefer 
this  to  any  other  arrangement  but  can  allow  the  sliding 
entrance  as  generally  used  if  desired. 

The  large  frames  (Fig.  10)  are  set  at  If  in.  from  centre 
to  centre  as  we  have  found  this  the  best  for  a  fixed 
distance  with  a  frame  of  this 
size,  because  in  winter  the 
cluster  can  be  compact  with- 
out spreading  the  combs,  and 
the  large  surface  of  comb  ad- 
mits of  sufficient  stores  being 
placed  within  easy  reach  of  the 
same;  in  summer  it  presents 
the  same  advantage  of  con- 
traction that  I  have  practised 
with  various  frames  for  the 
past  ten  years.  Hence  it  is  shown  that  few  manipula- 
tions are  necessary,  and,  when  handled,  one  frame  stands 
as  two  of  the  '  Standard  '  size. 

The  extracting  super,  with  its  frames  keyed  in  position, 
was  designed  in  the  first  instance  to  accommodate  a  new 
mode  of  extracting ;  the  fixed  combs,  also  enabling  those 
bees  to  be  '  thrown '  out  which  smoking  fails  to  drive 
down.  No  alteration  is  made  in  the  distance  from  centre 
to  centre  of  the  shallow  frames,  when  the  same  are  used 
on  a  separate  stand  as  a  brood-chamber  as  well,  as  this 
arrangement  permits  of  plenty  of  stores  for  winter,  and 
more  room  for  the  bees  to  cluster  between,  as  in  this  case 
the  bee-nest  is  spread  out  horizontally  instead  of  in  an 
upward  direction  as  in  the  deep  frame.  Thus,  to  suit 
their  own  particular  formation,  the  deep  and  shallow 
chambers  are  each  arranged  to  meet  all  necessary  con- 
ditions without  further  manipulations. 

"Where  the  large  frames  are  not  desired  the  outer  ease 
will  do  for  giving  protection  to  the  small  hive,  or  the  latter 
can  stand  all  the  year  round  without  other  protection. 

There  are  no  plinths  used  anywhere  about  the  hives, 
but  the  upper  edge  of  each  chamber  has  a  ^-inch  rabbet 
cut  out  all  round  the  outside,  thus  forming  a  gutter  to 
carry  off  any  moisture  and  making  it  impossible  for  the 
same  to  penetrate  into  the  hive. 

The  small  hive  has  no  dummies,  but  the  larger  one  has 
one  dry-sugar  feeding  dummy,  and  ono  plain  dummy 

Fig.  10. 

supplied  with  it ;  or  two  original  dry-feeding  dummies  if 
Standard  frames  only  are  wanted. 

All  parts  of  the  hives  are  tongued  and  grooved, 
so  as  to  come  correct  to  guage,  that  any  one  may 
buy  in  the  flat  and  put  them  together  at  home. 

I  have  been  fully 
aware  that  the 
greatest  obstacle  in 
the  way  of  intro- 
ducing another 
frame  would  have 
been  the  loss  of 
uniformity,  seeing 
that  the  '  Stan- 
dard' is  so  gener- 
ally used,  simply 
because  it  is  the 
'  Standard,'  and 
for  that  reason 
has  been  recom- 
mended by  many, 
myself  among  the 
number,  before  I 
was  really  aware 
that  I  was  using  it 
at  a  serious  loss.  I 
have  accordingly  ensured  that  the  present  hive  will,  with- 
out alteration,  take  in  the  same  body  (14A  in.  space)  my 
new  large  frame,  the  '  Standard  '  frame  with  either  17  in. 
or  15j  in.  top  bar,  the  crate  of  twenty-one  sections  as  one 
large  frame,  the  shallow  chamber  of  eight  frames  as  a 
combined  frame ;  and,  moreover,  that  the  large  frames 
may  be  used  in  any  existing  Standard  hive,  the  latter 
also  serving  as  a  cover  or  shelter  to  the  shallow  hive,  when 
used  independently.  Hence  the  hive  is  very  appro- 
priately called  the  '  Union,'  or  '  Universal.' — S.  Simmins. 


[831.]  I  have  received  (on  Saturday)  my  first  dis- 
couragement in  bee-keeping,  and  in  the  midst  of  my 
trouble  I  turn  to  you,  in  the  hope  that  I  may  receive 
some  small  crumb  of  comfort.  1  may  say  that  I  had 
anticipated  your  appeal  to  the  teachers  of  schools  to  take 
up  the  '  hobby,'  and  this  gave  me  the  more  satisfaction 
to  see  the  appeal.  I  had  always  a  burning  desire  to  be 
the  possessor  of  at  least  one  or  two  hives,  but  up  till  last 
back-end  I  was  in  the  dark  how   to  procure   a  hive. 

Accident,  however,  threw  an  opportunity  in  my  way ; 
a  friend,  who  had  just  made  a  good  start,  having  to 
dispose  of  his  stock  by  order  of  his  employer.  To  make 
a  long  story  short,  I  bought  a  swarm  which  had  come 
away  in  May,  and  which  my  friend  had  hived  in  a  box 
hive  (not  frame).  My  friend  is  one  of  the  old  school,  on 
the  verge  of  conversion,  but  a  most  enthusiastic  bee- 
keeper withal.  I  lend  him  my  Journals  each  week,  and 
they  do  a  great  amount  of  good,  as  there  are  a  few  of 
the  old  school  here.  Of  course  I  cannot  presume  to 
educate  them  yet.  To  contiuue  my  story : — The  hive  is 
a  box,  with  a  hole  in  the  crown  for  supering,  and  is 
enclosed  in  a  substantial  case,  which  I  have  packed  with 
chaff,  and  the  whole  has  been  kept  'dry  as  a  bone.' 
During  the  long  spell  of  snow  my  friend  paid  me  a  visit, 
with  the  sorrowful  news  that  a  neighbour  had  lost  his 
stock  (a  weak  one)  through  the  ravages  of  mice,  which 
had  '  cleared  the  shop '  of  every  bee.  He  thought  it 
advisable  to  have  a  peep  at  my  stock,  to  see  how  they 
appeared  to  be  stocked.  Of  course,  I  need  not  say  that 
he  could  not  see  much  by  talcing  off  the  bit  of  board 
which  covered  the  hole,  but  he  advised  me  to  give  them 
some  syrup ;  and  being  onty  too  thankful  for  advice,  I 
gave  about  a  pint,  when  I  saw  a  warning  against  feeding 
with  syrup  in  the  Journal,  and  I  at  once  discontinued. 
It  occurred  to  me  at  the  time  that  surely  a  swarm 
coming  so  early  as  May  ought  to  be  sufficiently  stored, 

February  24,  1887.] 



even  in  a  poor  honey  season,  when  thej'  had  been  allowed 
to  keep  all  their  takings.  I  hope  I  have  shown  wisdom 
in  deciding  to  let  them  alone  till  late  next  month,  i.e.,  if 
I  have  any  left.  As  you  now  know  the  particulars  with 
respect  to  the  constitution  of  my  apiary  (?),  I  will  now 
tell  my  tale  of  woe.  During  the  prevalence  of  the  late 
cold  and  boisterous  winds,  I  have  kept  the  sliding  doors 
closed  up  to  about  one  bee-space.  On  Saturday  last  we 
had  a  grand  spell  of  sunshine,  though  the  wind  was  very 
cold.  I  left  home  for  the  day,  leaving  things  as  usual, 
and  on  Sunday,  on  taking  a  walk  round  my  garden,  I 
was  staggered  to  see  about  a  score  dead  bees  lying  in 
front  of  the  hive.  But  oh,  worse  still.  I  opened  the 
doors,  and  to  my  great  horror  I  found  the  entrance 
crowded  with  dead  or  dying  pets.  The  thought  of  it 
makes  me  ill  when  I  recall  it.  I  should  think  there  were 
about  one  hundred  dead,  or  dying.  I  cleared  the  entrance, 
of  course,  but  I  shudder  to  think  of  what  may  be  the  state 
inside.  Can  you  account  for  it  ?  "What  am  I  to  do  ? 
I  look  about  for  some  to  advise  me,  but  alas !  I  will 
await  my  next  issue  of  the  Journal  with  impatience. 
Perhaps,  if  I  stop  here,  you  will  permit  me  to  write  to 
you  again.  I  wish  that  box-hive  far  enough.  Please 
give  me  a  good  dose  of  advice,  but  pray  don't  call  me 
knobstick,  and  tell  me  to  go  out  of  the  business. — 
Discoueaged,  Alderley,  Creioe. 

[The  syrup  you  gave  during  the  frost  would  not  have 
much  effect  upon  the  bees  until  warmer  weather  came. 
'  The  grand  spell  of  sunshine'  aroused  the  semi-dormant 
bees,  and,  partaking  freely  of  the  syrup,  excitement 
followed,  when,  rushing  to  the  narrow  entrance,  a  block 
took  place,  and  many  were  suffocated.  Your  discovery 
of  the  state  of  things  on  the  following  day  was  fortunate, 
and,  in  all  probability,  saved  the  colony.  Raise  the  hive 
from  the  floor-board  about  an  inch,  by  gently  inserting 
wedges  on  four  sides,  when  you  can  clear  out  the  dead 
bees  and  refuse  by  inserting  a  piece  of  stout  wire,  with 
hook  at  end.  If  you  find  piles  of  dead  on  the  board, 
turn  up  the  hive  and  ascertain  whether  the  whole  have 
perished.  If  you  find  few  dead—  say  a  hundred  or  two — 
clear  them  out,  lower  the  hive  gently  to  the  board,  keep 
the  entrance  at  full  summer  width,  not  less  than  six 
inches,  and  give  a  cake  of  warm  candy  at  the  feed-hole. 
We  do  not  think,  however,  that  you  will  find  the  bees 
short  of  food,  but  you  ought  to  be  able  to  discover  this 
by  lifting  the  hive,  and  if  you  turn  it  up  j'ou  may  as- 
certain, to  a  certainty ,their  state. — Ed.] 


[832.]  Being  a  novice  at  bee-keeping,  I  should  like  to 
be  allowed  to  give  you  my  experience  during  the  last 
two  years,  so  that  I  may  have  the  assistance  of  your 
valuable  paper  ere  another  season  comes  upon  us. 

I  must  begin  by  stating  that  I  live  in  a  neighbourhood 
not  particularly  well  suited  to  bees,  being  near  the  sea, 
where  high  winds  are  prevalent,  and  the  fields  around 
chiefly  occupied  by  broccoli  and  potatoes.  "Within  a 
a  distance,  however,  of  from  two  or  three  miles  there  is 
a  large  quantity  of  both  heather  and  gorse.  Two  years 
ago  I  commenced  bee-keeping  with  three  stocks,  and  did 
remarkably  well,  taking  no  less  than  70  lbs.  of  honey 
from  one  hive  and  forty-eight  sections  from  another. 
This  determined  me  to  increase  my  stocks,  which  I  did 
in  the  autumn  by  means  of  driven  bees.  I  opened  the 
season  last  year  with  twelve  stocks,  expecting,  before  the 
summer  ended,  to  take  a  large  amount  of  surplus  honey. 
Alas !  I  was  doomed  to  disappointment.  Up  to  the 
third  week  in  June  the  bees  did  wonders.  My  hives 
were  literally  crammed  with  bees,  all  my  hives  were 
either  doubled  or  had  two  tiers  of  sections.  One  hive  I 
doubled  and  in  addition  added  three  crates  of  21-lb. 
sections,  and  the  whole  were  taken  possession  of  by  the 
bees.  All  seemed  to  be  going  on  swimmingly  until  the 
end  of  June,  when  the  honey  flow  almost  ceased  for  the 

season.  I  took  a  little  honey  from  a  few  of  the  hives, 
but  in  August,  when  I  came  to  examine  the  brood-nests, 
I  found  they  were  all  empty,  and  the  greater  number  of 
the  sections  were  unfinished.  I  had  to  give  each  hive  in 
the  autumn  16  lbs.  of  syrup,  and  I  found  by  October 
that  hives  which  had  contained  enough  bees  to  cover 
twenty  frames  only  contained  sufficient  to  cover  six  or 
seven."  I  successfully  introduced,  late  in  the  season,  a 
Carniolan  and  a  Ligurian  queen,  by  following  Mr, 
Simmins'  directions. 

My  stocks  are  at  present  all  alive  though  not  strong, 
covering  about  four  frames  on  an  average.  I  may  say 
that  I  used  no  excluder  zinc,  so  that  the  queens  (all 
young  ones)  were  able  to  roam  about  at  leisure.  I  shall 
be  very  glad  if  any  of  your  correspondents  can  tell  me 
wherein  I  erred,  and  how  I  should  act  for  the  future. 

My  own  idea  is  that  the  queens  raised  too  large  a 
number  of  bees,  and  that  towards  the  end  of  the  season, 
the  honey  harvest  failing,  this  large  number  of  bees 
exhausted  the  gathered  stores,  and  then  numbers  of  them 
perished  prematurely,  from  having  to  range  long  distances 
in  search  of  the  sweets  of  life.  Had  I  used  excluder 
zinc,  and  confined  the  queen  to  so  many  frames,  say  ten 
or  twelve,  I  believe  the  results  would  have  been  more 
satisfactory.  I  shall  be  grateful  for  any  help  your  kind 
readers  may  be  able  to  give  me. — Rjquieeb. 

[There  does  not  seem  to  have  been  any  honey  in  your 
district  after  June,  consequently  when  the  flow  ceased 
breeding  also  ceased,  and  we  think  you  erred  in  not  at 
this  time  removing  your  sections.  If  your  colonies  did 
not  develope  to  their  full  strength  before  the  honey  flow 
commenced  they  could  not  store  any,  but  in  your  case 
there  does  not  seem  to  have  been  much  honey  to  store 
when  they  had  become  strong.  East  season  was  a  bad 
one  in  most  districts,  and  the  one  before  an  exceptionally 
good  one.  As  brood-rearing  with  you  ceased  so  soon  it 
is  not  surprising  that  your  colonies  dwindled  down  by 
October.  Breeding  should  have  been  encouraged  by 
stimulative  feeding,  so  as  to  have  had  a  large  number  of 
bees  to  commence  the  winter  with.  The  old  bees  died 
off  naturally,  and,  unless  breeding  had  been  kept  up, 
restricting  the  queen  to  a  certain  number  of  frames 
would  not  have  assisted  you. — Ed.] 

[833.]  We  are  very,  very  sorry  to  inform  you  that  the 
queen  of  our  hive  has  been  missing  for  a  very  long  time, 
and  we  cannot  tell  what  has  become  of  her  majesty. 
We  are  rather  afraid  that  she  has  perished  with  her  hive, 
for  she  had  nothing  but  drones  there.  Could  her  parents 
tell  us  what  we  are  to  do,  and  where  we  might  get 
another  queen  ?  Or,  if  the  parents  have  another  young 
princess  to  spare,  we  would  gladly  accept  her  as  our 
queen,  providing  she  will  stay  at  home  and  attend  to 
the  duties  of  the  hive.  We  do  not  mind  what  breed,  or 
what  colour,  or  what  country,  she  may  come  from,  pro- 
vided she  does  not  lay  too  many  drones'  eggs.  Tell  her 
there  is  plenty  of  good  honey  in  Sussex,  and  plenty  of 
good  working  bees,  but  no  store-room.  We  will  start 
the  new  hive  with  worker-comb  foundation. — A  Foeest 
Bee,  Sussex.        - 


[834.]  I  am  rather  inclined  to  think  that  the  Cumber- 
land Bee-keepers'  Association  is  in  a  somewhat  similar 
position  to  that  of  the  Yorkshire.  Why  such  slow  pro- 
gress has  been  made  I  am  unable  to  say,  unless  it  is  that 
those  who  should  have  been  the  principal  workers  are 
satisfied  with  the  little  knowledge  they  have  got,  and  do 
not  care  to  let  it  be  known  amongst  their  more  unfortu- 
nate neighbours.  I  wish  to  ask  the  chief  actors,  or 
rather  those  who  should  have  taken  the  more  active  part, 
why  they  did  not  continue  and  keep  it  on  the  move 
when  there  was  every  prospect  of  the  Association  doing 



[February  24,  1887 

so  well.  At  the  commencement — that  is,  in  1883 — 
some  of  those  who  took  an  interest  in  it  did  exert  them- 
selves a  little  in  getting  the  Association  into  a  workahle 
form,  and  the  number  of  members  in  a  very  short  time 
was  upwards  of  seventy.  After  the  autumn  of  1884 
nothing  more  was  done,  or  very  little.  Since  then  all 
has  been  darkness,  and  whether  the  Association  is  really 
dead  or  alive  I  know  not ;  but  there  need  be  no  wonder 
about  it  getting  into  such  a  low  state  when  we 
have  not  a  doctor  in  the  county  who  is  willing  to  come 
forward  and  give  his  advice,  and  try  to  stop  the  course 
of  the  disease.  I  have  never  once  heard  of  a  resi- 
dent bee-keeper  in  Cumberland  giving  a  lecture  on  bee- 
keeping, except  a  cottage  bee-keeper  at  Keswick ;  and  I 
believe  this  is  the  only  place  where  the  annual  meetings 
have  been  kept  up.  It  appears  that  we  have  not  got 
the  right  sort  of  workers  in  Cumberland  who  are  willing 
to  give  a  helping  hand  now  that  it  is  so  much  needed. 
We  have  in  this  county  a  very  large  number  of  bee- 
keepers, and  most  of  these  keep  their  bees  on  the  old 
barbarous  system.  I  think  by  this  time,  if  those  con- 
nected with  the  Association  had  acted  up  to  the  spirit 
in  which  it  was  formed,  some  scores  of  those  might  have 
been  induced  to  keep  their  bees  on  the  humane  prin- 
ciple. We  have  had  neither  lectures  nor  shows,  except 
one  tour  through  the  neighbourhood  by  Mr.  White  and 
another  by  Mr.  Sissons.  After  these  gentlemen  had 
livened  things  up  a  little  I  looked  for  some  of  our  own 
members  to  follow  their  example.  I  see  in  the  list  of 
members  the  names  of  either  seven  or  eight  clergymen. 
Surely  one  might  think  that  out  of  this  number  some  of 
those  reverend  gentlemen  would  have  taken  a  little 
more  interest  in  it,  and  not  allowed  it  to  be  neglected  as 
it  has  been.  We  want  a  Kaynor  or  a  Bligh  amongst  us. 
If  this  had  been  the  case  Cumberland  would  have  been 
in  a  more  flourishing  state  than  it  is  at  the  present  time. 
I  hope  that  another  attempt  will  shortly  be  made  to 
revive  the  Association,  and  not  let  it  be  said  that  a 
cottage  bee-keeper  is  the  only  one  that  is  anxious  for  the 
future  prosperity  of  the  Cumberland  Bee-keepers'  Asso- 
ciation.— Worker  Bee. 

gleplus  t0  $mxm. 

*.*  In  their  answers,  Correspondents  are  respectfully  requested  to 
mention  in  each  instance  the  number  and  the  title  of  the  query  ashed. 

[818.]— In  reply  to  '  E.  E.  Lloyd,'  I  have  had  some  ex- 
perience in  varnishes,  and  I  do  not  think  there  is  any 
varnish  or  polish  made  (we  must  remember  they  are  only 
gums  in  solution)  that  will  withstand  the  salts  or  chemicals 
held  in  solution  in  water.  To  prove  my  assertion,  let  any 
one  try  the  effect  of  a  good  strong  solution  of  soda  in  water 
on  any  varnish  or  polish,  be  it  on  wood  or  your  hands,  and 
they  will  soon  see  how  rapidly  the  gums  are  decomposed ; 
but  they  must  not  neutralise  the  soda  by  the  addition  of 
Boap.  I  should  recommend  him  to  treat  his  vessel  as  I  am 
doing  Clark's  patent  feeder.  I  make  them  hot,  and  pour 
Borne  melted  beeswax  in.  It  will  not  break  off,  and  is  just 
the  thing. — W.  T.  Green. 

[82G.]  Crates  of  Thirty-five  Sections.  (West  Somer- 
set.)— Nothing  is  gained  by  having  so  many  sections  in  one 
rack ;  the  weight  of  rack  is  increased,  this  being  a  great 
consideration.  A  portion  of  the  rack  would  have  to  be 
enclosed  underneath,  as  it  would  more  than  cover  the  right 
number  of  frames  for  a  brood-nest,  hence  there  would  be  a 
great  loss  of  heat.  Work  your  bees  on  the  storifying 
principle,  not  laterally,  you  will  not  be  then  far  wrong. — 
W.  B.  Webster. 

[827.]  Moveable  Frame-Hive.  (Douglas.)— To  Major 
Munn  is  ascribed  the  making  of  the  first  moveable  frame- 
hive,  this  being  considered  a  failure,  the  date  being  1841. 
Ten  years  after,  Langstroth  so  improved  on  it  as  to  make 
it  practicable. — W.  B.  Webster. 

[827.]  The  Frame-Hive. — The  moveable  comb  frame 
hive  was  introduced  and  improved  upon  by  Mr.  Langstroth 
about  1852.— J.  D.  McNally. 

[827.]  Inventor  of  Moveable  Frame  Hive.  (Douglas.) — 
Huber  is  credited  as  being  inventor  of  moveable  frame  (top 
bar) ;  but  Langstroth  improved  it  by  adding  the  end  rails 
and  bottom  bar ;  although  it  appears  to  have  been  in  use 
as  early  as  1675-6  by  Geo.  Wealer,  as  one  author  says, 
and  probably  even  then  an  old  invention.  —  Edward 

[828.]  Glass  Hive. — About  the  first  mention  we  have  of 
glass  hives  were  those  used  by  Mr.  Maraldi  about  the  year 
1777  for  the  purpose  of  watching  how  bees  paired.  Many 
conjectures  regarding  the  pairing  of  bees  have  been  pub- 
lished ;  one  of  the  most  ingenious  appears  to  have  been 
suggested  by  Aristotle,  and  revived  by  Maraldi,  the  cele- 
brated inventor  of  glass  hives. — John  D.  McNally. 

[828.]  Glass  Hive.  (Douglas.) — Such  a  thing  I  have 
never  heard  of ;  if  you  mean  an  observatory  hive,  that  is,  a 
hive  having  glass  inserted  in  portions  of  it  for  the  purposes 
of  observation,  the  first  record  that  I  can  find  is  Huber. — 
W.  B.  Webster. 

[829.]  Poisonous  Honey.  (Douglas.) — According  to  my 
experiences,  poisonous  honey  produced  in  England  is  a 
myth  ;  I  never  trouble  my  head  about  such  a  thing  when 
eating  any  description  of  English  honey.  Your  second 
query  has  puzzled  the  greatest  scientists,  and  cannot  be 
satisfactorily  answered.  How  is  it  that  the  goat,  for 
instance,  will  eat  leaves  and  thrive  on  them,  whereas  a 
horse,  doing  the  same,  would  be  killed?  To  bring  it 
nearer  to  the  subject,  How  is  it  that  a  very  few  people  cannot 
eat  honey,  as  it  produces  nausea  ?  It  doesn't  with  me. — 
W.  B.  Webster. 


Queries  and  Answers  are  inserted  free  of  charge  to  Correspondents 
When  more  than  one  query  is  sent,  each  should  be  on  a  separate  piece 
oj  paper. 

Our  readers  will  greatly  oblige  us  by  answering,  as  far  as  their  know- 
ledge and  observations  permit,  the  Correspondents  who  seek  assistance. 
Answers  should  always  bear  the  number  and  title  placed  against  the 
query  replied  to.  Any  queries  unanswered  in  this  way  will  be  answered 
by  the  Editor  and  others. 

[835.]  Artificial  Swarming.— Who  is  reputed  to  be  the 
first  that  practised  artificial  swarming  ? — Edward  Clowes. 

[836.]  Quieting  Bees. — "Who  was  the  first  that  found  out 
a  method  of  quieting  bees  through  the  influence  of  smoke  ? 
— Edward  Clowes. 


All  queries  forwarded  will  be  attended  to,  and  those  only  of  personal 
interest  will  be  answered  in  this  column. 

Letters  or  queries  ashing  for  addresses  of  manufacturers  or  correspon- 
dents, or  where  appliances  can  be  purchased,  or  replies  giving  such 
information,  can  only  be  inserted  as  advertisements.  The  space 
devoted  to  letters,  queries,  and  replies,  is  meant  for  the  general  good  of 
bee-heepers,  and  not  for  advertisements.  We  wish  our  Correspondents 
to  bear  in  mind  that,  as  it  is  necessary  for  its  to  go  to  press  in  advance 
of  the  date  of  issue,  queries  cannot  always  be  replied  to  in  the  issue 
immediately  following  the  receipt  of  their  communication. 

E.  Shotter. — Fowls. — Fowls  rerely  attack  bees.  Ours 
have  the  range  of  the  apiary,  and  we  have  never  seen 
them  attack  the  bees.  The  most  they  do  is  to  pick  up 
an  occasional  drone  when  it  comes  across  their  path. 

Cottager. — Extracting. — It  is  better  not  to  extract  from 
combs  of  the  year,  at  least  before  the  autumn,  by  which 
time  they  have  generally  become  tough  enough  for 
extracting.  The  American  flat-bottomed  wired  founda- 
tion is  the  best  for  the  purpose.  If  this  is  used  there 
will  be  no  danger  of  breakage  towards  autumn,  with 
ordinary  care.  We  never  use  excluder  zinc.  If  brood  is 
deposited  in  the  upper  storeys  it  is  easy  to  remove  it  to 
the  brood-nest  below,  and  to  remove  the  outer  combs  of 
honey  from  the  lower  to  the  upper  chambers.  Excluder 
zinc  disheartens  the  bees,  and  hinders  free  and  hearty 
work.  At  least  this  is  our  experience,  but  it  has  its 
advocates,  which  are  more  numerous  in  America  than  in 
England.  Wiring  the  frames,  with  a  view  to  extracting, 
is  better  even  than  wired  foundation.  If  your  colonies 
are  strong,  when  the  honey  season  arrives,  you  may 
safely  insert  two  or  three  frames  of  foundation,  in  each 
of  your  colonies,  close  to  the  brood-nest,  and  remove  the 
frames  displaced  by  these— provided  they  are  free  from 

February  24,  1887.] 



brood — to  the  upper  chambers.  These  frames  of  foun- 
dation will  be  utilised  for  brood,  since  queens  prefer, 
above  all  things,  to  deposit  eggs  in  newly-built  worker 

A.  W. — 1.  The  sugar  forwarded  is  not  suitable  for  dry 
sugar  feeding ;  Porto  Rico  is  the  best.  2.  Enamel  cloth, 
like  sample,  will  answer  your  purpose.  3.  For  syrup- 
making,  Sir.  Simmius  uses  Dutch  crushed  sugar,  which, 
we  note,  he  recommends  in  his  advertisement  to  his 
customers;  it  answers  its  purpose  well,  but  we  prefer 
Duncan's  Pearl  or  crystallized  sugar. 

Ignoramus. — 1.  Age  of  Queens. — The  first  swarm,  which 
you  had  in  June,  1885,  would  have  a  queen  of  1884. 
When  that  stock,  No.  1,  swarmed  in  June,  1S86,  the 
queen  went  with  the  swarm,  No.  2  ;  the  second  swarm 
had  a  young  queen,  No.  3  ;  thus  No.  1  and  No.  3  have 
each  a  queen  one  year  old,  and  No.  2  a  queen  three 
years  old  (unless  she  had  been  superseded  by  the  bees, 
which  is  sometimes  the  case).  2.  American  Bee-keepers' 
Magazine  may  be  procured  from  Mr.  Huckle,  King's 
Langley,  or  from  Messrs.  Aspinwall  &  Treadwell, 
Barrington-on-Hudson,  New  York.  3.  Symington's  Pea 
Flour. — Yes,  that  will  do  very  well  for  artificial  pollen. 
4.  Measurements  of  Hive. — The  only  measurements 
which  need  be  kept  to  are  the  width  from  side  to  side, 
144;  in.,  and  the  depth  from  the  edge  of  sides  on 
which  the  frames  rest  to  the  floor-board,  which  must  be 
8A  in.  The  length  of  the  hive  is  a  matter  of  detail,  and 
regulated  according  to  the  number  of  frames  you  intend 
to  use.  20  in.  for  a  single  hive  is  a  very  convenient 
length.  Refer  to  pp.  60  and  69,  Yol.  XIV.  5.  Queen- 
wasps. — It  is  early  to  see  these  upon  the  wing.  Carrying 
pollen  would  show  that  the  stock  carrying  it  in  has  com- 
menced brood-raising. 

J.  C.  I. — 1.  Inverting  Sections. — The  object  in  inverting 
sections  is  not  so  much  getting  them  filled  quickly  as 
having  them  fixed  to  the  bottom  securely.  Turning 
them  on  one  side  would  only  accomplish  this  in  a  partial 
degree.  Before  trying  either  plan  read  '  Amateur  Ex- 
pert's '  note  in  a  recent  issue.  The  advantage  of  re- 
versing is  very  doubtful.  2.  Wire-cloth  Mesh. — Wire- 
cloth  of  ^-inch  mesh  is  used  by  a  few  bee-keepers  in 
America,  and  the  inventor  claims  great  results  through 
the  bees  being  able  to  form  a  solid  cluster.  This,  how- 
ever, like  many  other  new  ideas,  requires  proving  before 
it  can  be  recommended. 

J.  B.  S. — Bee  Space  between  Bottom  Bar  and  Floor-board. — 
Let  there  be  y^ths  of  an  inch  only  between  the  bottom  bar 
of  your  frames  and  the  floor-board  of  your  hive,  whether 
you  use  metal  ends  or  not.  This  reply  meets  both  your 

East  Lothian. — Transferring.— We  suggest  that  you  should 
stimulate  the  bees  in  the  skeps,  and  get  swarms  from 
them  as  early  as  possible,  and  transfer  twenty-one  days 
after  swarming.  For  method  of  transferring  consult 
Modern  Bee-keeping  or  Cowan's  Beekeepers'  Guide. 

A.  F. — Summer  Shade  for  Hives. — If  the  hives  are  single- 
walled  it  is  very  necessary  that  they  be  shaded  in  some 
way  or  other  during  the  hot  summer  weather,  otherwise 
the  bees  are  likely  to  swarm.  If  the  temperature  rises 
rapidly  above  95°  swarming  is  induced,  and  this  may  be 
brought  about  if  the  hive  is  fully  exposed  to  the  sun, 
and  its  rays  strike  directly  the  thin  walls  of  the  hive. 
If  the  bees  are  not  ready  to  swarm  they  spend  a  great 
deal  of  their  time  outside  when  they  ought  to  be  working 
inside.  Double  walls  are  a  protection.  We  do  not  think 
you  have  quite  understood  the  outer  cases  alluded  to. 
The  hive  we  use  is  not  double-walled,  but  by  means  of 
the  outer  eases  we  make  it  so.  The  hive  itself,  which 
has  no  top  or  bottom,  stands  on  the  floor-board,  and  the 
outer  cases  surround  it.  In  winter  the  space  between 
the  hive  and  outer  casing  is  filled  witli  chaff,  which  is 
removed  in  the  summer,  and  allows  a  free  circulation 
of  air  between  the  two,  especially  if  the  latter  be  wedged 
up  to  allow  the  air  to  enter  at  the  bottom.  The  outer 
cases  are  made  of  four  boards  nine  inches  deep,  and  are 
exactly  like  the  hive,  or  like  a  box  without  top  or  bottom. 
They  are  made  of  half-inch  stuff,  and  have  a  plinth 
round  the  lower  edge,  so  that  when  one  is  put  on  the 
top  of  the  other  they  are  kept  in  position.  One  can  be 
placed  above  the  other  to  any  height,  and  the  loose  roof 

is  then  placed  above  them,  just  as  is  shown  in  the  illusd 
tration  on  p.  12,  which  also  shows  the  four  hives  plaoe  s 
one  above  the  other  surrounded  by  the  four  outer  case, 
and  covered  by  the  sloping  roof.  With 
such  hives  there  are  too  many  bees  to 
allow  any  snails  to  congregate  ;  but  bees 
do  use  the  space  between,  more  espe- 
cially at  night,  when  they  do  not  find 
room  inside  the  hive.  In  very  hot  wea- 
ther we  put  the  outer  cases  one  on  the 
top  of  the  other  in  such  a  way  that  there 
is  an  outlet  for  the  air  between  each.  The  sketch  we  give 
will  illustrate  our  meaning.  The  shaded  part  represents 
the  hive,  and  the  outer  lines  the  casings,  as  seen  when 
looking  down  upon  them  from  the  top. 

Trade  Catalogues. — We  have  received  Trade  Catalogues 
from  Messrs.  G.  Stothard,  Welwyn,  Herts  ;  T.  B.  Blow, 
Welwyn  ;  E.  C.  Walton,  Muskham ;  Simmins,  Brighton. 

.©how  ^Announcements. 

July  11-15. — Royal  Agricultural  Show  at  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne.    Entries  close  May  12.     J.  Huckle,  Kings  Langley. 

August  3-5. — Yorkshire  Agricultural  Society  at  York, 
Secretary,   H.  L.   Rickards,   Poole,  near  Leeds. 

business  ^Directory. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Appleton,  H.  M.,  256a  Hotwell  Road,  Bristol. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Burtt,  E.  J.,  Stroud  Road,  Gloucester. 

Edet  &  Son,  St.  Neots. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Hutchings,  A.  F.,  St.  Mary  Cray,  Kent. 

Meadham,  M,  Huntington,  Hereford. 

Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

The  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 

Wren  &  Son,  139  High  Street,  Lowestoft. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

British  Honey  Co.,  Limited,  17  King  William  St.,  Strand. 

Country  Honey  Supply,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Benton,  F.,  Munich,  Germany. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Simmins,  S.,  Rottingdean,  near  Brighton. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Lyon,  F.,  94  Harleyford  Road,  London,  S.E. 

Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J. ,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Howard,  J.  H,,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holborn. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 


[Feb.  24,  1887. 



Entirely  supersedes  the  Smoker,  both  in  Simplicity  and 
Effectiveness.  No  '  going  out.'  No  tainting  or  soiling  of 
combs.  Always  ready  for  use  without  any  preparation. 
Can  be  carried  in  the  pocket. 

With  Bellows,  4s.  6d. ;  postage,  4W. 

Without  Bellows,  3s. ;  postage,  3d. 

Can  be  adjusted  to  any  ordinary  smoker  bellows. 

6  oz.  Bottles  of  Agent— carbolic  acid,  oil  of  tar,  and  water, 

properly  mixed — 6d.  each. 


With  this  appliance,  frames  can  be  removed  from  hive, 
replaced  and  examined  on  both  sides  without  inverting,  with 
one  hand,  leaving  the  other  free  for  manipulating,  at  the 
same  time  preventing  soiling  the  hands  with  propolis. 

W.    B.  WEBSTER, 



1st  Prize  Silver  Medal,  Royal  Counties'  Agricultural  Show. 

Highest  Award,  Colonial  and  Indian  Exhibition,  London. 
2nd  Prize  Bronze  Medal,  Colonial  and  Indian  Exhibition, 
2nd  Prize  Altrincham,  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  B.  K.  A.   ' 

LYON'S  Patent  METAL  EM 

The  only  perfect  pattern.  The  metal  being  flush  with 
the  inside  of  the  Hive  side,  CANNOT  BE  FIXED  TO  IT 
BY  PROPOLIS.     All  the  so-called  Improvements  CAN. 

The  Special  Alloy  used  allows  them  to  be  LIGHT  YET 
STRONG.     One  gross  weighs  5£  lbs. 

Price  for  1887  5/Q  per  gross. 


Prize  Medal,  1879,  for  the  best  Bee  Dress,  The  only 
Medal  ever  awarded  to  a  Veil,  2/2  each,  post  free.  Every 
genuine  Veil  bears  the  Registered  Trade  Mark. 


The  ONLY  CURE  for  Stings,  1/8  per  botlle,  post  free. 


Guaranteed,  with  Directions,  1/2  per  bottle,  post  free. 


1  oz.  bottle,  post  free,  1/8. 

HIVE  MAKERS  supplied  with  SPRINGS,  GLASSES  for 

Sections,  PHENOL,   METHYL   SALICYLATE,  in   bulk, 

&c,  &c,  at  lowest  prices. 

F.  LYON,  94  Harleyford  Rcl.,  London,  S^E. 

M?Q>       DEALERS. 

SEND  to  A.  P.  Hutchtngs  for  quotations  of 
SECTIONS  of  the  finest  manufacture  and  quality,  300,000 
will  shortly  be  on  hand.  Special  terms  for  all  Orders 
before  March  25.  Don't  fail  to  get  my  prices  before  you 
Order  elsewhere  !  Address,  West  Kent  Steam  Power  Hive 
Works,  St.  Mary  Cray,  Kent. 



Choice  Selected  Collection  of 

if  $&ewBsts 

SOUGHT  AFTER   BY  BEES.     Free  by  post,  2/6. 

SOLD    BY  (102) 

JOHN  SMITH,  The  Royal  Nursery,  Clewer,  Windsor,  Berks. 


I  WILL  send  to  any  address  26  varieties  of  BEE- 
ELOWER  SEEDS,  including  the  Noted  CHAPMAN 
HONEY  PLANT,  for  2s.  post  paid.  GARDEN  SEEDS.— 
I  will  send  21  packets  of  Garden  Seeds  to  any  address  for 
2s.  Sd.  post  paid.  BAR-FRAME  HIVES  with  Straw 
bodies,  the  hive  least  affected  by  heat  or  cold.  My  Hives 
and  Appliances  are  all  forwarded  carriage  paid,  and  re- 
turnable if  not  approved  on  arrival.  Please  send  your 
address  on  post-card,  and  I  will  send  Descriptive  and 
Priced  Catalogue  post  free.  Address  John  Moore,  Seed 
Merchant,  Market  Place,  and  Prospect  Farm,  Warwick. 

iTiARLY  BEE  FLOWERS.  — Plant  now.  — 
[i  Strong  Plants  of  ARABIS  and  L1MNANTHES,  1/9 
per  100,  free.  Address  S.  S.  Goldsmith,  Boxworth,  St. 
Ives,  Hunts. 

Sectional  view  of  New  Patent  Bee  Feeder. 

Simple,  Safe,  Clean ! 

Unrivalled  for  Summer 
Feeding.  No  excitement. 
No  robbing. 

Note  bottom  of 
feeding  flask  brought 
within  reach  of  Bees, 
also  how  quarter  inch 

No  waste  of  syrup. 

An  Improved  Slide  for  1SS7. 
Stocks  may  now  be  fed  in 
the  coldest  weather,  with- 
out fear  of  chill. 

cavity  crossing  the 
combs  gives  safe 
and  easy  access  to 
all  the  cluster. 

No  metallic  surface. 

See  Advt.  next  week.  Price  Is.  Gd.  each,  complete. 

Send  P.0.0.  to  Patentee,  J.  P.  HOPKINS,  Milverton,  Somerset. 


.  Having    had   many   enquiries   from 

those  who  cannot  obtain  the  right 

kind,  wc  now  offer  Genuine  PORTO  RICO,  on  rail  at 
Brighton,  21s.  per  cwt.,  lis.  56-lbs.,  5s.  9d.  28-lbs.  DUTCH 
CRUSHED,  best  for  Syrup,  22s.  6d.  per  cwt.,  lis.  dd.  56-lbs., 
6s.  28-lbs.  Quantities  of  not  less  than  2  cwt.  of  Dutch 
Crushed,  direct  from  London,  at  19s.  6rf.  per  cwt.  ;  not  less 
than  10  cwt.  Porto  Rico,  at  18s.  For  Cash  only  with  Order. 
No  Samples  sent,  as  we  recommend  only  what  we  would 
use  ourselves.     Subject  to  fluctuations  in  Market. 

Address:  Simmins'  Factory,  Brighton.    (161 

QKEPS,    FOUNDATION",    &c. 

*"»  1  lb.  2/-  or  1/10. 

Dealers  and  others  apply  for  List  (110  Illustrations), 
G.   STOTHARD,   WELWYN,   HERTS,  a  2321 

O  CREW  CAP  JARS.—  Fifty  2-gross  Cases  of 
O  new  Straight  Shape  1-lb.  JARS  to  be  Sold  at  a  great 
reduction,  together  or  separately.  Address  Feedk.  Pear- 
son, Stockton  Heath,  Warrington. 

bo  sold  cheap.  Apply  to  C.  Cust,  3  Temple  Terrace, 
Dorchester.  a  2347 

Communications  to  the  Editor  to  be  addressed  '  Stbangbways'  Printing  Office,  Tower  Street,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  w.c.' 

[No.  245.    Vol.  XV.] 

MARCH  3.  1887. 

[Published  Weekly.] 

$bHoriaI,  Ifalias,  #c 


Having  been  enabled  in  our  last  issue,  through 
the  kindness  of  E.  H.  Bellairs,  Esq.,  Hon.  Sec.  of 
the  Hants  and  Isle  of  Wight  Bee-keepers'  Associa- 
tion, to  give  the  returns  of  the  value  of  honey 
imported  into  the  United  Kingdom  during  the 
past  year,  and  as  we  are  now,  by  the  official  pub- 
lication of  the  'Annual  Statement  of  the  Trade  of  the 
United  Kingdom  with  Foreign  Countries  for  1885,' 
in  possession  of  the  amount  and  value  of  the  im- 
ports of  wax  for  that  year,  we  are  in  a  position  to 
compare  these  data  with  those  of  the  respective 
preceding  years. 

The  subjoined  tabular  statement  specifies  the 
foreign  countries  and  the  British  possessions  from 
which  wax  is  exported,  with  the  amount  and  value 
of  the  same  : — 

evets.  £ 

Germany        10,749  29,054 

France            1,244  6,088 

Portugal         965  5,523 

Italy 666  3,978 

Morocco         964  5,287 

China 778  2,354 

Japan 6,115  12,883 

United  States  of  America    ...  2,911  17,639 

Chile 499  3,461 

Brazil 5,605  17,886 

Other  Foreign  Countries      ...  1,432  4,126 

Total  from  Foreign  Countries 

West  African  Settlements  ... 
British  Possessions  in  South 


British  East  Indies   ... 
Hong  Kong   ... 
Australasia    ... 

British  West  Indies 

Other  British  Possessions    ... 

Total  from  British  Possessions 

Total       ...  38,925     149,253 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  above  that  the  mean 
value  of  wax  per  cwt.  is  31.  16s.  &d.;  in  the  previous 
year  it  was  3/.  14s.  10c?.  There  has  been  a  con- 
siderable increase  in  the  amount  received  from  the 
British  possessions  over  the  previous  years.     Wax 

is  of  various  kinds — vegetable,  mineral,  and  insect 
— and  from  the  preceding  statement  of  the  value, 
we  are  able  to  deduce  the  nature,  of  the  wax 
imported.  That  from  Japan  is  2/.  2s.  1<7.  per  cwt.; 
from  Germany,  21.  14s.;  from  China,  3/.  0s.  9d. ; 
wdiile  that  from  Italy  fetched  51.  19s.  5cl;  from 
the  United  States,  67.  Is.  -2d.;  and  that  from 
the  British  possessions  averaged  5/.  17s.  3rf.  We 
note  that  Holland,  which  figured  as  a  contributor 
in  the  previous  year,  is  absent  from  the  list  this 
year ;  while  China  and  South  Africa,  which  were 
absent  the  previous  year,  appear  this  year  as  large 

The  following  statement  gives  the  value  and 
amount  of  the  wax  exported  from  the  United 
Kingdom  to  the  respective  countries  : — 

cwts.  £ 

1,342  4,825 

3,561         13,827 



















Russia  ... 



Other  Foreign  Countries 
British  Possessions 







10,328        36,706 
Comparing  the  quantities  of  wax  imported  during 
the  two  preceding  years,  the  results  are, — 
1883.  1884.  1885. 

28,192  cwt.  28,258  cwt,  38,925  cwt. 

The  value  of  the  above  for  the  same  years  is, — 

97,142?.  105,8131.  149,253/. 

While  the  amount  of  the  wax  exported  for  the  same 
years  is, — 

12,504  cwt.  10,378  cwt,  10,328  cwt. 

And  the  value  thereof, — 

41,339/.  36,437/.  36,706/. 

From  a  comparison  of  the  above  we  see  that 
there  was  a  considerable  increase  in  the  import  of 
wax  during  the  year  1885  over  that  in  1884,  while 
that  re-exported  during  the  same  years  has  almost 
remained  stationary.  It  is  evident  that  if  it  would 
pay  bee-keepers  to  direct  their  attention  to  the 
production  of  wax  together  with  that  of  honey, — 
and  we  see  that  many  practical  bee-keepers  are  so 
doing, — there  would  be  a  market  for  it  in  this 
country.  The  amount  of  wax  used  in  the  produc- 
tion of  comb-foundation  by  manufacturers  alone 
is  very  large,  and  an  attempt  should  be  made 
by  bee-keepers  to  raise  a  larger  quantity  in  pro- 
portion to  its  requirements.  The  British  Honey 
Company  have  done  much  in  increasing  the  pro- 



[March  3,  1887. 

duction  of  honey :  could  they  not  also  find  it  to 
their  interest  to  stimulate  the  expansion  of  that 
of  wax? 

In  our  last  number  Mr.  Bellairs  gave  us,  so  far 

as  ho  was  able,  the  value  of  the  imports  of  honey 

for  last  year  and  that  of  the  three  preceding  years. 

The  values  for  1S84,  1885,  and  1886  are,— 

1884.  1885.  1886. 

62,357/.  61,344/.  25,146/. 

Those  of  1884  and  1885  are  approximate  only, 
and  those  of  1886  do  not  include  the  honey  sent 
through  Colonial  Governments  to  the  Indian  and 
Colonial  Exhibition. 

For  some  years  past  we  have  been  indebted  to 
S.  Seldon,  Esq.,  of  the  Statistical  Office,  Customs, 
and  to  Mr.  Bellairs,  for  the  information  that  has 
appeared  so  regularly  in  our  pages  of  the  value 
of  the  monthly  imports  of  honey  into  the  United 
Kingdom ;  and  we  are  sure  that  bee-keepers  are 
fully  sensible  of  their  indebtedness  to  those 
gentlemen  for  the  trouble  they  have  so  kindly 
taken.  From  January,  1886,  the  imports  and 
exports  of  honey  will  be  found  in  the  'Annual 
Statement  of  Trade  with  Foreign  Countries.'  As, 
however,  this  Statement  does  not  usually  appear 
before  the  month  of  September,  we  are  pleased  to 
be  assured  by  Mr.  Bellairs  that  he  will  continue 
his  good  offices  by  forwarding  month  by  month  the 
accounts  as  he  has  done  in  previous  years. 


Weather. — During  the  last  fortnight  the  weather 
has  continued  cold,  cheerless,  and  changeable,  and  our 
bees  have  been  entirely  confined  to  their  hives,  with  the 
exception  of  one  fine  day  which  enabled  them  to  fly 
freely  and  to  display  their  numbers.  'All  things  come 
to  those  who  wait,'  and  'Post  nubila  Phccbus'  is  a  true 
proverb  in  more  senses  than  one.  Soon,  therefore,  shall 
we  realise  that— 

.  .  .  '  Day  by  day 
New  pollen  on  the  lily  petal  grows, 
And  still  more  labyrinthine  buds  the  rose.' 

Country  Life.— After  our  experience  of  the  dense 
London  fog  up  to  noon  on  the  17th  nit.,  the  day  after 
our  annual  meeting,  when  gas  and  electric  lights  failed 
to  dispel  the  gloom,  and,  unable  to  decipher  the  figures 
on  the  dial-plates,  we  were  compelled  to  resort  to  the 
nearest  policeman  to  learn  the  time,  we  congratulated 
ourselves  in  the  words  of  our  favourite  poet, — 

'  0  fortunatos  nimium,  sua  si  bona  norint, 
Agricolas !' 

And  choked  almost  to  suffocation,  pitying  the  gasping 
Londoners  while  contrasting  their  state  of  existence 
with  that  of  our  own  happy  country  fraternity,  we 
exclaimed  in  fullness  of  heart, — 

'  We  possess  the  flowers  and  trees, 

Modern  hives  and  golden  bees ; 

Fruit  and  nectar,  both  divine, 

We  shall  reap  at  harvest  time.' 

And,  finding  on  reaching  our  quiet  country  home,  with 
its  hive-scattered  lawns  and  shrubberies,  that  the  day 
had  been  one  of  brilliant  sunshine,  we  were  more  than 
ever  impressed  with  the  truth  of  the  old  saying,  '  God 
made  the  country,  man  made  the  town.' 

Enamel  cloth  and  Hive-covering. — Although  we 
have  repeatedly  explained  the  way  in  which  we  use  the 
enamc  1  cloth  as  a  coveringfor  hives,  weare  constantly  asked 
for  information  thereon.    Indeed  the  reiteration  we  are 

compelled  to  use  in  this,  our  department — reiteration  of 
methods  of  management,  facts,  advice,  So.,  &c,  many  of 
which  have  been  ever  present  to  our  minds  for  well-nigh 
half  acentury, and  haverepeatedlyappeared  in  the  columns 
of  our  Journal,  is  one  of  our  most  irksome  tasks ;  and  yet, 
with  the  knowledge  that  all  this  repetition  is  absolutely 
necessary,  we  must  not  shirk  a  duty  so  obvious,  asking 
only  that  our  readers  will  exercise  a  little  patience  and 
forbearance  towards  our  wanderings  into  '  devious  paths 
and  pastures  new.'  The  enamel  cloth  we  always  use  is 
American,  and  we  place  the  enamelled  or  glazed  side 
downwards  upon  the  frames.  These  American  cloths 
are  sold  by  most  English  dealers  in  two  sizes  to  suit 
small  and  large  hives,  and  are  neatly  bound  on  two  sides 
with  strips  of  tin.  In  making  winter  preparations  wa 
place  several  thicknesses  of  felt,  carpet,  chaff-cushions, 
or  both,  upon  the  enamel  cloth,  and  over  all  a  weighted 
crown-board.  These  prevent  all  escape  of  heat,  and  we 
have  wintered  upwards  of  fifty  colonies  during  the 
recent  severe  winter,  and  brought  them  safely  through — 
thus  far — without  a  single  loss.  The  interiors  of  the 
hives  are  perfectly  dry,  combs  and  all,  and  the  bees  in 
perfect  health,  without  a  symptom  of  dysentery.  Our 
apiary  occupies  a  bleak  position,  some  of  the  hives 
facing  east  and  south-east,  and  the  entrances  have  been 
kept  at  summer  width,  the  narrowest  being  six  inches, 
and  others  the  wdiole  width  of  the  hive,  while  severe 
frost  and  snow,  with  easterly  winds,  have  prevailed  for 
many  weeks. 

Spring  Examination  op  Colonies. — Most  apiarists 
recommend  a  thorough  examination  of  all  colonies  at 
spring.  Columella  advised  that  the  hives  should  be 
opened  at  spring,  and  all  filth  which  had  accumulated 
during  the  winter  should  be  removed ;  and  most  modern 
bee-keepers  follow  his  advice.  Spring  is  rather  a  loose 
term,  and  allows  a  wide  margin  as  to  the  precise  time  of 
this  general  examination.  Our  own  idea  is  that  the 
middle  or  end  of  the  present  month  is  soon  enough,  and 
that  it  should  be  performed  in  fine  weather  only.  The 
colonies  should  be  disturbed  as  little  as  possible  during 
the  examination,  and  to  this  end  we  prefer  the  use  of 
diluted  carbolic  acid  in  preference  to  smoke.  (See  Modern 
Bee-keeping,  p.  29.)  An  old  calico  or  woollen  quilt  steeped 
in  the  solution,  and  laid  over  the  frames  of  the  hive  will 
effectually  quiet  the  bees,  when  operations  may  be  com- 
menced. A  spare  hive  and  floor-board,  perfectly  dry 
and  clean,  should  be  placed  on  the  stand  of  the  hive 
under  examination,  the  latter  having  been  removed  a 
couple  of  feet  to  one  side.  Leave  the  brood-nest  until 
last,  removing  the  surrounding  frames  on  both  sides  one 
by  one  to  the  new  hive.  When  the  next  is  reached,  if 
breeding  is  in  progress,  we  prefer  to  transfer  the  four  or 
five  frames  which  compose  it  without  separating  them, 
which  may  easily  be  done  by  placing  two  short  laths  or 
thick  pieces  of  wire  under  both  ends  of  the  frames  and 
removing  them  altogether.  It  is  not  at  all  necessary  to 
'  interview '  the  queen  if  you  are  convinced  she  is  there 
and  performing  her  duties.  The  outside  frames  having 
been  replaced  in  their  former  position,  division-boards 
may  be  applied  as  required,  sealed  honey  supplied  if 
needed,  and  the  quilts  returned.  The  signs  of  breeding 
will  be  occasional  dead  larva?  on  the  floor-board,  eggs  or 
brood  in  the  comb,  vigour  and  dash  of  the  bees  carrying 
in  pollen,  &c.  The  emptied  hive,  when  scraped,  disin- 
fected, and  dried,  will  be  ready  for  the  next  operation. 
These  manipulations  must  be  performed  quietly  but 
quickly,  giving  no  chance  of  robbing,  to  prevent  which 
all  frames  not  under  inspection  should  be  covered  with 
the  carbolised  cloth.  With  a  little  practice  it  is  surprising 
how  quickly  these  examinations  may  be  accomplished. 
When  the  enamel  sheet  is  used  there  is  great  advantage 
in  its  lightness,  flexibility,  and  in  the  non-adherence  to 
it  of  propolis.  It  may  be  stripped  off  the  frames  quickly, 
and  a  slight  spraying  of  weak  carbolic  solution  will  at 
once  keep  the  bees  in  check,  when  it  should  be  allowed 

March  3,  1*87.] 



to  fall  back  into  its  place,  and  each  frame  may  be  un- 
covered separately  as  required.  The  condition  of  the 
colony  as  regards  population,  stores,  brood,  &c,  should 
ba  noted  either  on  tahlets  attached  to  the  hives  or  in  a 
book  kept  for  the  purpose,  together  with  the  date  of 

Artificial  Pollen,  &c. — On  every  bright  day  bees 
will  now  be  very  busy  on  the  crocus  and  other  spring 
blooms,  on  which  the  scattering  of  pea  or  other  meal  will 
greatly  assist  them.  A  supply  of  water  must  not  be 
neglected.  Also  on  bright  days  remove  hive-roofs,  or 
covers,  turning  them  up  to  the  sun,  but  do  not  forget 
when  night  comes  to  replace  them.  Dislodge  spiders, 
their  eggs,  larvae  of  moths,  &c. 

Coming  Campaign. — These  matters  completed,  a 
beginning  will  have  been  made  for  the  approaching 
campaign,  and  bee-keepers  and  bees  will  have  been 
aroused  to  make  further  preparation  for  reaping  a  future 

Stimulating.  —  By  'stimulation'  is  usually  under- 
stood a  supply  of  food  given  in  driblets,  generally  at 
spring  time.  The  system  has  its  advocates  and  oppo- 
nents. The  former  argue  that  the  bees  and  queen 
perceiving  that  food  is  coming  in  are  incited  thereby  to 
earlier  preparation  for  brood-rearing  than  would  other- 
wise have  taken  place.  The  latter,  granting  this,  are  of 
opinion  that  the  bees,  stimulated  to  early  brood-rearing, 
are  induced  to  leave  the  hive  in  search  of  pollen,  water, 
or  food  at  unseasonable  times  and  during  the  prevalence 
of  cold  spring  winds,  and  so  perish  in  numbers,  being 
chilled  and  unable  to  reach  their  hives,  hence  follows 
spring  dwindling  with  its  attendant  evils,  until  finally 
the  colony  is  often  lost.  In  our  opinion  spring  dwindling 
arises  chiefly  from  another  cause,  viz.,  dysentery  or 
diarrhoea.  The  intestines  having  become  diseased  by 
improper  food,  and  too  low  a  temperature,  the  vitality 
of  the  colony  is  reduced,  and  that  to  so  great  an  extent 
that  its  members  perish  while  in  search  of  food  and  in 
the  performance  of  their  heavy  spring  labours.  Once 
entered  upon  the  downward  road  the  final  catastrophe 
soon  follows,  the  brood-nest  becoming  circumscribed,  no 
matter  how  prolific  the  queen  may  be,  it  gradually  be- 
comes less  and  less  ;  eggs  laid  are  neglected  or  devoured 
owing  to  the  paucity  of  nurse-bees  to  incubate  them, 
and  the  end  comes  through  robbery,  desertion,  or  death. 
We  have  never  found  judicious  feeding  of  fairly  populous 
colonies  at  spring  injurious,  but  care  must  be  taken  to 
feed  so  sparingly  that  the  brood-nest  shall  not  become  a 
repository  for  food  instead  of  brood.  Many  colonies 
have  at  spring  more  honey  than  their  wants  demand. 
In  such  casus  we  prefer  the  repeated  uncapping  of  a  few 
cells  near  the  brood-nest  to  give  syrup,  the  stimulating 
effect  being  quite  as  great,  and,  as  the  brood  is  extended, 
the  outer  clogged  honey-combs  may  be  extracted  and 
returned  to  the  hive.  This  plan  is  productive  of  more 
extensive  and  more  certain  stimulation  of  brood-rearing 
than  any  other  with  which  we  are  acquainted. 

Food  Recipe. — The  following  recipe  is  recommended 
by  Mr.  Heddon  : — 

'Into  a  boiling-pan  put  three  pounds  of  water,  heating  it 
until  it  boils,  and  with  a  wooden  spoon  stir  the  water  as 
you  sift  into  it  ten  pounds  of  granulated  sugar.  When  it  is 
all  dissolved,  and  the  syiup  is  boiling,  pour  in  one  half  tea- 
eupful  of  water  in  which  has  previously  been  dissolved  a 
level  teaspoonful  of  tartaric  acid.  Stir  it  a  moment  longer, 
and  then  remove  it  from  the  fire.  Give  the  syrup  warm 
(not  hot).'  J     L 

For  spring  use  from  four  to  six  pounds  (say  pints)  of 
water  may  be  used.  Duncan's  Pearl  sugar  we  think  the 
best  of  any  we  have  used.  For  stimulating,  a  bottle- 
feeder  is  best,  and  from  two  to  six  holes  may  be 
used,  according  to  the  size  and  needs  of  the  colony. 
The  food  should  be  given  warm  at  night  to  prevent 
robbing ;  and  as  a  further  precaution  the  entrance  must 
be  contracted. 

Committee  Criticised.  —Since  the  work  of  the 
acting  Committee  of  the  B.B.K.A.  is  often  freely  can- 
vassed and  criticised, — not  always  in  the  most  flattering 
manner, — the  unbiassed  opinion  of  an  outside  friend,  who 
writes  to  us  as  follows,  may  fairly  be  given  : — 

'  It  strikes  me  that  Captain  Bush's  view  of  reducing  the 
qualifying  subscription  for  membership  on  the  Committee 
is  the  correct  one.  I  cannot  understand  how  a  man  can  be 
expected  to  attend  from  twelve  to  eighteen  meetings  in  the 
year,  to  travel,  say,  from  fifty  to  a  hundred  miles  (the  double 
journey),  and,  in  not  a  few  cases,  be  obliged  to  undergo  the 
expense  of  passing  a  night  at  a  London  hotel, — from 
inabilitity  to  reach  his  home,  —  and  yet  be  unable  to 
subscribe  his  pound  to  the  funds  of  the  Association  1  I  do 
not  wonder  that  you  find  a  difficulty  in  inducing  qualified 
men  to  give  their  time  and  money — no  doubt,  often  at 
great  inconvenience  to  themselves — at  such  a  rate,  in  order 
to  advance  bee-keeping  chiefly  amongst  cottagers,  however 
favourite  the  pursuit  may  be.  To  me  it  speaks  volumes  for 
the  patriotic  spirit  of  our  leading  bee-keepers,  that  on  such 
terms  you  are  able  to  procure  an  acting  Committee  at  all.' 

To  our  friend  we  replied  that — '  The.  case  being  thus, 
all  the  more  reason  why  members  of  Committee  should 
be  relieved  from  an  annual  subscription  of  one  pound ;  in 
fact,  that  the  argument  cut  both  ways.'  We  do  not 
anticipate,  indeed,  a  revolution,  from  the  reduction  of 
the  franchise,  and  believe  that  even  universal  suffrage 
will  not  destroy  the  edifice  built  upon  a  foundation  so 


'  Mel  sapit  Omnia.1 

Glorious  weather  for  bees  and  bee-keepers!  My 
queens  are  all  breeding  except  one — that  Holy  Land — 
and  all  hives  have  plenty  of  stores  and  bees.  But  stores 
will  decrease  fast  now,  with  bees  active  and  queens 
breeding,  let  us  remember.  '  Expert-in-Chief '  Baldwin 
predicts  a  good  year,  as  bees  have  wintered  well,  if — - 
that  if  is  the  rub — their  owners  will  only  give  them 
proper  care  during  the  spring.  Tell  us, '  A.  E.,'  what  is 
proper  care  ?  Meddle  as  little  as  possible,  meddle  as 
much  as  necessary,  but  always  see  to  it,  above  all  things, 
that  they  never  for  one  hour  are  short  of  food  right  up 
to  the  time  of  the  clover  glut. 

I  hope  the  delusion  of  ever  getting  bees  to  store  much 
from  fruit-blossoms  in  England  is  about  exploded  by 
this  time.  An  enthusiastic  contributor  to  our  Journal 
talked  last  year  of  getting  one  ton  from  this  source  alone, 
but  I  never  heard  that  he  succeeded.  I  shall  be  pleased 
to  hear  that  his  hopes  were  realised,  as  I  could  but 
admire  his  courage  when  he  put  the  '  hope '  in  print, 
and  must  confess  his  courage  alone  merited  success. 

If  you  wish  to  live  a  life  of  peace  now-a-days  you 
must  praise  everything,  and  if  you  depart  from  that 
path  the  'fortune  of  war'  is  your  portion.  Well,  come 
war  or  come  peace,  I  confess  I  deem  it  necessary  to  put 
in  a  word  of  caution  to  those  who  are  young  or  un- 
successful at  bee-keeping.  As  bad  workmen  complain 
of  their  tools,  so  unsuccessful  bee-keepers  hope  to  get  on 
better  if  they  get  expensive  and  elaborate  appliances  and 
hives.  And  if  they  are  readers  of  the  B.  B.  J.  they  will 
find  plenty  to  allure  them  into  investing  their  money. 
Hive  construction,  like  most  things,  has  its  cycles.  We 
are  emerging  from  the  simple  on  to  the  elaborate ;  the 
last  cycle  of  the  elaborate  reached  its  zenith  about  the 
year  1882,  when  we  had  hives  with  brass  runners  to 
support  the  frames,  so  that  you  might  summer  on  the 
'cool'  system,  and  winter  on  the  'hot.'  Hives  with 
'  peep-holes '  and  glass  shutters,  trap-doors,  knobs,  and 
buttons  and  hooks  ad  lib.,  sections  '  in  front  of  them,' 
sections  '  in  rear  of  them,'  sections  '  each  side  of  them,' 
and  crates  of  sections  on  the  top.  Added  to  this  there 
was  excluder-zinc  here,  there,  and  everywhere;  and 
cushions  enough  almost  to  pad  an  ordinary  armchair. 
They  were  things  'fearfully  and  wonderfully  made,' 



[March  3,  1887. 

and  the  price  of  twenty  such  hives  would  build  a 

But  all  this  has  given  way  in  great  part  for  a  neat, 
simple  class  of  hive,  fitted  with  ten  or  eleven  '  Standard' 
frames  and  good  porches  and  roofs,  and  most  of  us  have 
found  that  by  good  management  with  such  hives  we  can 
more  than  double  the  record  in  bad  seasons  that  we  used 
to  get  when  we  used  '  fads '  and  lots  of  manipulation, 
even  if  seasons  were  better.  And  now  we  are  coolly 
asked  to  go  back  to  this  kind  of  thing  again.  The  old 
birds  won't  be  caught  with  chaff,  so  I  don't  attempt  to 
advise  them,  but  to  the  younger  I  say,  '  Save  your 
money,'  at  least  all  of  it  except  threepence ;  and  with 
that  go  and  purchase  Mr.  Cowan's  new  '  Guide-book 
Pamphlet'  on  Doubling  and  Storifying.  I  had  hoped 
some  one  would  have  said  a  good  word  for  it  in  the 
Journal  long  ere  this. 

Mr.  Pettit,  the  President  of  the  Ontario  Bee-keepers' 
Association,  has  gone  home  from  London  to  Canada  a 
convert  to  its  teachings,  and  in  his  Presidential  address 
at  Toronto  the  other  day  almost  went  so  far  as  to  beg  of 
the  Canadians  to  adopt  it.  Mr.  Cowan  has  set  himself 
the  task  of  showing  how  '  honey  can  be  produced  profit- 
ably in  this  country  at  the  present  low  price  with  very 
little  trouble,  and  with  very  much  less  apparatus  than  is 
usually  employed  by  bee-keepers;'  and  in  my  judgment 
he  has  succeeded  admirably,  and  if  you  are  bewildered 
by  the  allurements  that  are  being  spread  around  at  the 
present  time,  there  can  be  no  better  advice  than  is  given 
in  these  sixteen  pages  of  this  pamphlet,  for  remember, 
'It  is  the  expensive  appliances,  frequently  more  for 
show  than  use,  which  run  away  with  all  the  profit,  and 
leave  the  bee-keeper  at  the  end  of  the  year  with  a 

Some  are  complaining  that  our  '  Standard '  frame  is 
too  shallow.  The  Americans  and  Canadians  have  used 
a  deeper  frame  for  years,  and  their  newest '  craze '  is  the 
shallow  '  Heddon,'  but  our '  Standard '  is  a  happy  medium 
between  the  two  extremes. 

I  wish  I  lived  in  Sussex,  for  having  conquered  my 
small  world,  I  thought  of  sitting  down  to  weep  for 
other  (bee)  worlds  to  conquer ;  but  however  much  I 
sympathise  with  '  A  Forest  Bee,'  Sussex  is  too  far  away 
to  get  any  help  from — Amateur  Expert. 



The  Annual  Meeting  of  the  above  Association  was 
held  at  the  Bear's  Paw  Restaurant,  Liverpool,  on 
Tuesday,  the  8th  of  February,  C.  P.  Titherley,  Esq.  in 
the  chair.  Present:  Rev.  J.  F.  Buckler,  Colonel  Heme, 
Messrs.  W.  B.  Carr,  W.  Lyon,  W.Liddell,W.  Caldwell, 
G.  Roberts,  W.  L.  Maclure,  and  F.  II.  Carr. 

The  accounts  of  the  Association  were  presented  to  the 
meeting,  and  after  the  minute  of  the  Committee  with 
reference  to  the  donation  of  10/.  to  the  B.  B.  K.  A.  for 
the  Royal  Horticultural  Show  held  at  Liverpool  had  been 
read,  they  were  passed  unanimously. 

The  report  of  the  Committee  for  188G  was  read  by  the 
Rev.  J.  F.  Buckler,  and  passed  unanimously. 

The  report  states  that  the  Committee  have  much 
satisfaction  in  noting  the  success  which  has  attended  the 
Association's  work  during  1886,  which  has  been 
chiefly  in  connection  with  shows,  viz. : — June  29th 
to  July  5th,  Royal  Horticultural  at  Liverpool,  in  con- 
nexion with  the  British  B.  K.  A.  July  24th,  Iluyton 
and  Winston  Cottagers'  Horticultural  Society.  July 
30th  to  August  5th,  South  Kensington  Honey  Show. 
August  2nd,  Frodsham.  August  5th,  Barrow,  Chester. 
August  25th,  Handbridge,  Chester.  August  26th,  Lan- 
caster. September  9th  to  11th,  Manchester  and  Liverpool 
Agricultural  Society's  Show,  held  at  Chester.     As  no 

charge  for  admission  could  be  made  to  the  bee  tents  at  the 
Liverpool  Show,  there  was  an  outlay  of  over  10/.,  which 
was  to  some  extent  covered  by  special  donations.  The 
exhibit  sent  to  South  Kensington  will  long  be  remem- 
bered by  those  who  saw  it,  as  far  ahead  of  anj-  other 
sent  to  the  county  competition,  which  was  the  first  held 
by  the  British  Bee-keepers'  Association.  The  expenses 
connected  with  this  exhibit  were  heavy,  but  having 
taken  the  first  prize,  and  many  members  giving  special 
donations  to  the  cost,  and  as  those  who  took  charge  of  it 
worked  gratuitously,  the  nett  cost  is  a  small  charge  on 
the  year's  accounts.  Of  the  283  members  referred  to  in 
the  Report  for  1885,  105  have  resigned  ;  60  have  joined, 
leaving  238  members'  names  on  the  books,  including  41 
in  the  artizan  and  cottager  list.  The  disposing  of 
members'  honey  is  a  question  which  has  had  attention, 
and  a  good  quantity  has  been  sold  at  remunerative 
prices ;  and  it  is  hoped  the  committee  for  188"  will 
be  able  to  arrange  the  sale  of  even  a  larger  quantity. 
The  committee  think  it  well  to  put  on  record  that  the 
first  conversazione  held  by  members  of  the  Association 
took  place  in  December,  1880,  and  though  the  number 
present  (about  60)  was  not  as  large  as  might  have  been 
expected  from  the  long  list  of  members,  still,  as  a 
successful  commencement  has  been  made,  they  hope 
meetings  of  a  similar  kind  will  often  be  held  in  the 
future  by  the  L.  and  C.  B.  K.  A.,  as  such  meetings 
bring  the  members  and  their  friends  together. 
Through  the  kindness  of  examiners  from  the  British 
Bee-keepers'  Association,  candidates  had  a  chance  of 
getting  third-class  certificates  at  the  time  of  the  Royal 
Horticultural  Show  held  at  Liverpool,  and  once  since ; 
but  of  the  ten  candidates  who  came  for  examination, 
only  three  obtained  certificates.  It  is  a  great  satis- 
faction to  your  committee  that  this  year's  work  has  been 
done  in  good  harmony  with  the  British  Bee-keepers' 

Some  alterations  of  rules  were  proposed  by  Mr. 

The  Patrons,  President,  and  Vice-presidents  were 
unanimously  re-elected.  Eev.  J.  F.  Buckler,  Col.  Heme, 
Messrs.  W.  B.  Carr,  J.  M.  Gibbs,  Win.  Lees  M'Clure, 
Geo.  Roberts,  Wm,  Roberts,  H.  II.  Williams,  G.  G. 
Parker,  and  §George  Aitken,  were  appointed  the  Com- 
mittee for  1887.  Wm.  Lees  M'Clure  was  appointed 
Honorary  Secretary,  and  Mr.  W.  Tyrer,  Treasurer. 
Mr.  Wm.  Lees  M'Clure  was  appointed  to  attend  the 
quarterly  conferences  in  London;  Mr.  F.  H.  Carr, 
expert;  Mr.  J.  A.  Bally,  auditor  of  the  Association,  and 
Mr.  Gibbs  was  re-appointed  Librarian.  A  vote  of 
thanks  was  given  to  all  the  officers  of  the  Association. 

After  the  Annual  Meeting  a  committee-meeting  was 
held,  when  it  was  proposed  and  carried  unanimously,  that 
the  Committee  meetings  be  held  on  the  fourth  Monday 
of  each  month,  except  when  that  day  falls  on  or  after 
the  25th  of  the  month,  and  in  that  event  the  com- 
mittee are  to  meet  on  the  third  Monday  of  the  month. 


The  aunual  meeting  in  connexion  with  this  Associa- 
tion was  held  on  February  19,  1687,  at  the  Guildhall, 
Worcester.  The  Rev.  E.  W.  Isaac  presided  in  the 
absence  of  the  Mayor  (Alderman  Holland),  and  among 
those  also  present  were  the  Revs.  R.  T.  W.  Brayne  and 
W.  M.  Kingsmill,  Mrs.  Swinden,  Messrs.  II.  Goldingham, 
J.  A.  Watson,  T.  Cook,  C.  II.  Haynes,  J.  Powell, 
G.  II.  Latty,  E.  A.  Dimmock,  A.  Thorpe,  A.  E.  Bryan, 
J.  W.  W.  Boughton,  II.  W.  Carey,  J.  Neal,  A.  II. 
Martin  (Hon.  Sec),  E.  Davenport  (Expert  to  the  Asso- 
ciation), &c. 

The  aunual  report  stated  that  the  work  done  during 
the  past  year  had  been  curtailed  owing  to  the  apathy 
of  the  members  themselves  by  the  non-payment  of  sub- 

March  3,  1887.] 



scriptiona,  and  by  a  want  of  interest  shown  in  the 
promotion  of  the  objects  which  the  Association  had  in 
view.  The  number  of  members  at  the  close  of  the  year 
was  186.  The  total  income  had  amounted  to  55/.  2s.  &d., 
and  there  was  a  balance  of  8/.  6s.  4d.  in  the  hands  of  the 
treasurer,  as  compared  with  an  adverse  balance  of 
3/.  5s.  6d.  at  the  beginning;  of  the  year.  Early  in  April 
Mr.  C.  Brown  resigned  the  appointment  of  expert  to  the 
Association.  Mr.  Davenport,  of  Stourport,  who  had  held 
the  office  of  expert  to  the  Hants  and  Isle  of  Wight  Bee- 
keepers' Association,  and  had  a  first-class  expert  certi- 
ficate from  the  B.  B.  K.  A.,  was  elected  to  the  vacant 
post,  and  made  a  tour  among  the  members.  Owing  to  a 
want  of  funds,  the  committee  were  reluctantly  compelled 
to  abandon  the  holding  of  an  annual  show  of  bees,  hives, 
honey,  and  apiarian  appliances,  and  they  wished  to 
impress  upon  members  that  if  one  was  to  be  held  in  the 
coming  year  a  special  subscription  must  be  raised  to 
defray  the  expenses  of  the  same.  The  committee  had 
determined  to  circulate  the  Bee  Journal  every  fortnight 
among  the  members  during  the  ensuing  year.  The  com- 
mittee regretted  the  removal  from  the  county  of  Mrs. 
Piers  F.  Legh,  who  had  given  the  Association  most 
valuable  help  ever  since  it  was  started.  In  conclusion 
the  committee  expressed  the  hope  that  members  would 
take  more  interest  in  the  Association,  and  bear  in  mind 
that  one  of  the  main  advantages  to  be  gained  from 
membership  was  that  the  members  would  probably  learn 
something  about  bee-keeping  themselves  and  might  help 
to  instruct  others  who  know  little  or  nothing  about  it. 

On  the  motion  of  Mr.  Latty,  seconded  by  Mr.  Cook, 
the  report  was  adopted. 

Mr.  Davenport  (expert)  said  he  commenced  his  tour 
of  inspection  among  members  towards  the  end  of  April, 
but  owing  to  serious  domestic  affliction,  his  visits  were 
considerably  interfered  with.  In  many  instauces  he 
found  very  good  results,  which  showed  that  in  spite  of 
indifference  amongst  some  of  the  members  the  work  of 
the  Association  had  not  been  in  vain.  As  to  the  future 
of  the  Association,  it  would  require  the  united  efforts  of 
members  if  its  prosperity  were  to  be  increased.  Among 
certain  things  which  he  regarded  as  important,  he  sug- 
gested the  division  of  the  county  into  districts,  with  a 
secretary  and  adviser  in  each  district.  As  to  the  bee 
tent,  he  thought  the  time  was  past  when  they  could 
expect  to  make  it  a  source  of  large  profit  at  the  various 
horticultural  shows,  and  he  suggested  its  being  thrown 
open  free  of  charge,  and  hoped  tbat  contributions  would 
be  voluntaril}'  tendered.  He  thought  that  driving  from 
the  old  skep  should  be  abandoned  to  a  certain  extent, 
and  more  attention  given  on  these  occasions  to  bar- 
framed  hives. 

Mr.  A.  H.  Martin  said  they  were  obliged  to  Mr. 
Davenport  for  his  report,  and  he  hoped  that  the  work  of 
the  bee  tent  would  be  extended.  With  regard  to 
throwing  it  open,  he  should  like  to  see  it  sent  to  every 
village  green  in  the  county  and  demonstrations  given  to 
the  villagers  in  the  summer  evenings.  He  much  regretted 
that,  owing  to  want  of  funds,  their  operations  had  been 
somewhat  curtailed,  but  he  trusted  that  the  coming 
season  would  bring  increased  prosperity  to  the  Asso- 

Mi-.  Goldingham  said  that  the  Association  was  to  a 
great  extent  a  trading  Association,  and  lie  considered 
the  suggestion  of  throwing  the  bee  tent  open  at  horti- 
cultural shows  a  very  good  one. 

Earl  Beauchanip  was  re-elected  President  of  the  Asso- 
ciation, and  the' following  were  elected  Vice-Presidents  :— 
The  Bishop  of  Worcester,  Lady  Hindlip,  Lady  Georgina 
Vernon,  Lord  Edward  S.  Churchill,  Sir  Richard  Temple, 
Bart.,  M.P.,  Sir  E.  A.  H.  Lechmere,  Bart.,  M.P., 
Mr.  John  Corbett,  M.P.,  the  Hon.  G.  H.  Allsopp,  MP., 
and  the  Mayor  of  Worcester.  Mr.  T.  J.  Slatter  was 
re-elected  Honorary  Treasurer,  and  Mr.  A.  H.  Martin 
Honorary  Secretary.     Mr.  A.  H.  Martin  and  Mr.  C.  H. 

Haynes  were  appointed  as  representatives  of  the  Asso- 
ciation at  the  Conferences  of  the  British  Bee-keepers' 

The  annual  ballot  for  hives  resulted  in  Mrs.  Huddle- 
ston,  of  Dunley,  Stourport,  and  Michael  Portinan,  of 
Astwood  Bank,  being  the  winners. 

The  Chairman  said  a  most  pleasing  duty  remained  for 
him  to  propose  a  vote  of  thanks  to  their  Hon.  Secretary 
for  the  attention  he  had  bestowed  on  the  work  of  the 
Association,  and  they  were  all  greatly  indebted  to  him 
for  all  he  had  done.  This  was  seconded  by  Mr.  Golding- 

Mr.  Martin,  in  returning  thanks,  said  he  was  one  of 
those  who  believed  that,  although  much  had  been  ac- 
complished in  the  past,  there  was  a  great  future  before 
the  bee-keepers  of  this  country.  The  great  apiarian 
exhibition  held  last  July,  and  the  exhibition  of  the 
Ontario  bee-keepers  later  in  the  year,  at  the  Colonial 
Exhibition,  should  stimulate  them  to  continue  their 
exertions  in  the  objects  which  the  County  Associations 
were  endeavouring  to  promote.  In  conclusion,  he  pro- 
posed a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Chairman  for  presiding  at 
the  meeting,  and  said  that  the  committee  must  shortly 
meet  to  consider  the  suggestions  that  had  been  proposed 
for   the   working    of    the    Association   in  the    coming 


The  Annual  meeting  of  this  Association  was  held  on 
Thursday,  February  10th,  the  Baroness  Burdett-Coutts 
in  the  chair.  Present :  Dr.  Rayner,  Major  Fair,  Messrs. 
W.  H.  Kennell,  W.  M.  Graham,  J.  Peers,  T.  Leadbitter, 
G.  Henderson,  0.  Lambert,  R.  Rose,  S.  J.  Gunn,  G. 
Moyes,  and  the  hon.  sec.  the  Hon.  and  Rev.  H.  Bligh. 
The  following  resolution  was  carried  unanimously : — 
'  The  members  of  the  Middlesex  Bee-keepers'  Associa- 
tion desire  to  express  the  deep-felt  sorrow  and  sincere 
regret  with  which  they  have  heard  of  the  sad  news  of 
the  sudden  and  early  death  of  their  late  secretary, 
Mr.  Fox  Kenworthy.  They  feel  that  the  well-known 
excellence  of  his  character,  the  deep  interest  which  he 
took  in  the  affairs  of  the  Association,  and  his  unwearied 
labours  for  it,  will  make  his  loss  more  keenly  felt  by 
them.  They  would  give  expression  to  their  sense  of 
gratitude  which  they  owe  to  him  for  the  present  state 
of  efficiency  to  which,  mainly  by  his  labour,  the  Associa- 
tion has  been  raised.  They  beg  leave  to  offer  to  Mrs. 
Kenworthy  and  her  family  their  sincere  condolence, 
and  to  assure  her  of  the  very  great  respect  and  esteem 
in  which  the  memory  of  her  son  is  held  by  them.' 

The  Baroness  Burdett-Coutts  was  elected  President 
for  the  ensuing  year ;  Vice-presidents,  Lord  George 
Hamilton,  the  Right.  Hon.  S.  H.  Walpole,  Sir  J. 
Lubbock,  the  Hon.  and  Rev.  H.  Bligh,  Mr.  Nelson,  and 
Mr.  Lafone ;  treasurer,  Mr.  Rose ;  hon.  sec,  the  Hon. 
and  Rev.  H.  Bligh  ;  provincial  secretaries,  Major  Fair, 
and  Messrs.  Graham  and  Harris ;  committee,  Messrs. 
Jones,  Henderson,  Zehetmayr,  Mason,  and  Lambert; 
auditor,  Mr.  W.  G.  Jefferys ;  expert,  Mr.  Fewtrell. 

Mr.  Bligh  presented  the  statement  of  accounts  for  the 
South  Kensington  show,  and  announced  that  the  Baroness 
Burdett-Coutts  had  kindly  cleared  the  deficiency 
amounting  to  12/.  or  IS/.  A  vote  of  thanks  to  the 
Baroness  Burdett-Coutts  for  her  liberality  and  kindness 
in  presiding  was  carried  unanimously. 

The  following  is  an  abstract  of  the  report: — Increase 
in  the  number  of  members,  a  growing  interest  in  bee- 
keeping, and  a  marked  improvement  in  the  method  and 
practice  of  the  bee-keepers  of  the  county,  are  among  the 
satisfactory  results  which  the  committee  are  enabled  to 
record  in  this  their  fourth  annual  report.  The  early 
months  of  the  year  were  made  use  of  for  a  series  of 
lectures  on  bee-keeping,  most  of  them  delivered  by  the 
Rev.  W.  E.  Burkitt,  Rector  of  Buttermere,  Wilts,  and 



[March  3, 1881 

Secretary  of  the  Wilts  Couuty  Association,  given  at 
Ealing-,  "Hampton  Hill,  Brentford,  Pinner,  Sudbury, 
Staines,  Uxbridge,  and  Twickenham.  As  soon  as  the 
bees  had  got  into  regular  working  order,  the  usual 
spring  tour  was  made  by  Mr.  Fewtrell,  B.B.K.A.,  first- 
class  expert,  over  the  larger  portion  of  the  county ; 
whilst  Mr.  Baldwin,  Expert-in-Chief  of  the  B.B.K.A., 
broke  up  some  new  ground  in  the  north-east  corner  of 
the  county.  In  the  general  working  of  the  Association 
the  district  system  has  been  further  developed,  and  the 
committee  gladly  record  that  three  new  districts  are  now 
efficiently  worked,  where  a  year  ago  little  or  nothing 
was  being  done.  The  number  of  members  added  during 
the  year'  to  the  roll  of  the  Association  is  perhaps  the 
best  proof  of  the  advance  which  it  has  made.  At  the 
beginning  of  the  year  1886,  there  were  139  members; 
there  are  200  names  upon  the  books  now,  or  a  net  gain 
of  01.  In  the  great  exhibition  of  Honey  and  Bee- 
keeping appliances  at  the  Indian  and  Colonial  Exhibi- 
tion at  South  Kensington  in  the  competition  between 
the  counties  of  England,  our  Association  competed,  and 
staged,  as  a  single  exhibit,  6  cwt.  of  honey  (232  lbs. 
sections  and  440  lbs.  extracted),  out  of  0  cwt.  contributed 
by  24  members  for  the  purpose.  Our  exhibit  did  not 
take  a  prize;  but,  at  the  same  time,  was  universally 
acknowledged  to  have  been  one  of  the  most  striking- 
features  of  the  show.  Ten,  at  least,  of  the  exhibitors 
will  receive  the  large  bronze  medal  given  by  the  Exe- 
cutive of  the  Colonial  Exhibition,  and  the  rest  will 
receive  a  certificate  of  merit.  In  the  spring,  the  com- 
mittee secured  at  second-hand,  and  at  a  very  moderate 
outlay,  a  good  manipulating  tent,  which,  for  all  practical 
purposes,  was  equal  to  new.  This  was  brought  into 
requisition  at  several  flower  shows.  With  a  view-  to  the 
increase  in  the  number  of  members,  and  also  to  secure 
the  early  payment  of  subscriptions,  the  committee  have 
determined  to  return  to  all  whose  subscriptions  are  paid  by 
the  31st  of  January  ten  per  cent  in  the  shape  of  prizes 
to  be  drawn  for  at  the  annual  meeting. 

During  the  progress  of  the  meeting  the  drawing  for 
prizes  took  place.  Ninety-seven  members  had  qualified 
themselves  to  take  part  in  the  drawing,  and  the 
following  nineteen  won  prizes: — M.  de  Paula,  hive; 
Miss  Morgan,  Bingham  smoker ;  Miss  lleyn,  Benthall 
crate  ;  Mr.  A.  Mitchell,  Benthall  crate  ;  Mr.  F.  Hughes, 
Benthall  crate;  Mr.  Harveyson,  Abbott  cage;  Mr.  C.  J. 
Athey,  Abbott  cage ;  Miss  George,  Bingham  knife ; 
Mr.  Campbell,  Abbott  feeder;  Miss  C.  Hale,  Raynor 
feeder;  Mr.  H.  Jonas,  section  crate;  Mr.  A.  Stent, 
feeder;  Mr.  D.  II.  Dun-ant,  feeder;  Mr.  W.  Hinde, 
BiD"-ham  knife;  Mr.  W.  Willan,  atomizer;  Baroness 
Burdett-C'outts,  smoker;  Mr.  B.  Johnson,  wire  veil; 
Mr.  Wall,  veil ;  Mr.  Bligh,  100  sections. 


The. Berks  Bee-keepers'  Association  opened  the  cam- 
paign of  1887  by  a  social  meeting  at  the  Assembly 
Rooms,  Friar  Street,  Reading,  on  Thursday  last, 
February  24.  A  committee  meeting  was  held  previous 
to  the  social  to  elect  a  hon.  secretary  in  place  of  Mr.  J. 
Bowley,  who  has  removed  from  the  county,  and  we  were 
pleased  that  the  Rev.  Roland  Erring-ton,  Rector  of 
Clewer,  has  kindly  undertaken  the  duties  of  hon.  secretary 
with  Mr.  A.  D.  Woodley,  26  Donnington  Road, 
Reading,  as  assistant  secretary.  That  being  the  only  item 
on  the  agenda  paper  a  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  tu 
Mr.  Enington  for  consenting  to  take  the  office,  the 
meeting  adjourned  sine  die. 

The  social  meeting  opened  at  eight  o'clock,  and  the 
spacious  room  was  soon  a  busy  scene  inspecting  the  many 
interesting  articli  s  kindly  brought  by  friends.  Mr. 
Blow,  of  Welwyn,  brought  his  new  hive,  recently  limned 
in  British  Bee  Journal,  also  one  of  his  Carniolan  hives  with 
painted  front,  said  painting  representing  the  Old  Testa- 

ment story  of  the  two  she-bears  tearing  the  children  who 
cried  to  the  Prophet, '  Go  up,  thou  bald-head; '  also  several 
physiological  subjects  illustrating  the  honey-bee.  Mr. 
Webster,  Wokingham,  exhibited  his  '  Jones-IIeddon ' 
hive,  fumigators,  foundation,  and  frame-lifters,  &c.  Mr. 
A.  D.  Woodley,  Reading,  a  new  reversible  crate,  new 
cheap  hive  similar  to  the  Sandringham  hive,  also  a  Com- 
bination hive,  and  miscellaneous  articles  and  literature 
connected  with  the  craft.  Messrs.  Abbott,  Southall,  sent 
a  collection  of  small  articles ;  a  friend  with  a  microscope 
and  microscopic  slides  came  in  for  a  fair  share  of  atten- 
tion. There  was  the  hearty  grip  of  the  hand  by  brother 
bee-keepers  whom  we  had  not  met  for  a  season,  short 
lectures  by  bee-keepers  of  known  ability,  viz.,  Messrs. 
Blow,  Webster,  and  A.  D.  Woodley,  each  illustrated  by 
the  magic  lantern  with  photographic  slides  taken  from 
the  object  depicted ;  selections  of  music  in  the  intervals 
between  the  lectures  by  Mrs.  Frank  Oooksey,  who  kindly 
and  ably  presided  at  the  pianoforte  ;  comestibles,  nearly 
all  containing  honey  in  some  shape  or  form ;  and  though 
we  did  not  go  the  length  of  sweetening  our  tea  and  coffee 
with  honey,  we  certainly  enjoyed  the  delicious  honey 
ices  Mrs.  Curry  regaled  us  with.  Miss  Darvill,  of 
Reading,  had  a  fine  display  of  sweets  and  sweetmeats, 
many  of  them  containing  honey.  Mr.  Blow's  hive  was 
considered  a  great  advance  on  the  Jones-Heddon  for  our 
climate  and  style  of  wintering,  though  the  general 
opinion  of  the  meeting,  as  far  as  I  could  gather  by 
remarks  passed  by  practical  bee-keepers,  was  decidedly 
in  favour  of  the  English  Combination  Hive,  which  has 
been  proved  to  be  adapted  to  the  requirements  of  the 
bees,  as  also  of  bee-masters  for  every  style  of  supering 
either  for  extracted  or  comb  honey,  and  the  consensus  of 
opinion  on  the '  Jones-Heddon'  hive  was  to  go  slowly  with 
it.  Altogether  a  very  pleasant  and  profitable  evening 
was  spent,  and  great  credit  is  due  to  Mrs.  Curry  for  the 
admirable  way  in  which  she  superintended  the  affair 
from  the  beginning. — Your  Correspondent. 


The  Editor  does  not  hold  himself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed 
by  his  correspondents.  No  attention  will  bo  talccn  of  anonymous  com- 
munications, and  correspondents  are  requested  io  write  on  one  side  oj 
the  paper  only,  anil  give  their  real  names  and  addresses,  not  necessarily 
for  publication,  but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith.  Illustrations  should 
be  drawn  on  separate  pieces  of  paper. 

Communications  relating  to  the  literary  department,  reports  o) 
Associations,  Shows,  Meetings,  Echoes,  Queries,  Books  for  Review, 
&c,  must  be  addressed  only  to  'Tlic  Editor  of  the  "  British  Bee 
Journal,"  cjo  Messrs.  Strangeways  and  Sons,  Tower  Street,  Upper 
St.  Martin' s  Lane,  London,  W.C  All  business  communications  relating 
to  Advertisements,  &c.t  must  be  addressed  to  Mr.  J.  Huckle,  King's 
Langlcy,  Herts  (sec  2nd  page  of  Advertisements). 

***  In  order  to  facilitate  reference,  Correspondents,  when  speaking  oj 
any  letter  or  query  previously  inserted,  will  oblige  by  mentioning  the 
number  of  the  letter,  as  well  as  the  page  on  which  it  aptpcars. 


The  value  of  honey  imported  into  the  United  Kingdom 
during  the  month  of  January  1837  amounted  to  736/. 
[From  a  return  furnished  by  the  Statistic  Department, 
ELM.  Customs,  to  E.  H.  Bellairs,  Wingfield  House,  near 


[837.]  Mr.  Simmins,  in  his  description  of  his  very  ingeni- 
ously contrived 'Universal  Hive,'  sa3's:  'This  hive  has  had 
three  years  of  careful  consideration,  because  I  had  found 
the  standard  frame  (14  by  8£  inches)  decidedly  inferior 
to  larger  frames  I  had  formerly  used.  After  various 
experiences,  a  frame  14  by  14  has  been  found  the  most 
appropriate,  all  thiugs  considered,  as  it  enables  a  stock  to 
build  up  more  rapidly  in  early  spring  and  gives  greater 
security  in  winter,  as  the  stores  are  arranged  in  the  best 
possible  position  in  relation  to  the  cluster.'  Mr.  Situmius 

March  3,  1887.] 



says,  'As  a  single  frame  the  present  standard  is  too 
small ;  as  a  storifying  frame  it  is  too  large.' 

Mr.  Cowan  does  not  consider  the  standard  frame  too 
large  for  storifying,  for,  in  his  useful  little  pamphlet, 
Doubling  and  Storifying,  he  illustrates  three  or  four  hives 
high  having  standard  frames,  and  tells  us  how  large 
quantities  of  extracted  honey  can  be  obtained  by  stori- 
fying with  these  hives. 

Mr.  Broughton  Can-  advocates  the  use  of  the  Carr- 
Stewarton-sfze  hive  somewhat  modified,  having  a  frame 
14  by  Hi,  three  inches  less  in  depth  than  the  standard. 
It  is  illustrated,  and  his  management  is  fully  described  in 
the  Bee-keeper's  Record  of  January  last.  Mr.  Broughton 
Carr  is  an  old  and  advanced  bee-keeper,  and  we  have 
recently  had  an  opportunity  of  witnessing  the  success  of 
his  system  of  management  in  the  beautiful  honey  he 
exhibited  in  the  county  competition  at  South  Kensington, 
and  also  of  seeing  the' small  frames  of  combs  from  which 
the  honey  had  been  extracted. 

Dr.  Tinker,  an  advanced  American  bee-keeper,  has 
given  up  the  '  Gallup  frame,'  which  is  11|  by  11J,  and 
has  adopted  a  shallower  and  longer  frame,  9£  deep_  by 
14f  wide.  He  says:— 'I  had  abandoned  side  storing, 
and  with  that  the  "  Gallup  frame,"  as  it  did  not  present 
enough  surplus  room  on  the  top  of  ten  frames  to  corre- 
spond with  the  large  amount  of  brood-comb  below.  The 
other  objection  was  in  the  distance  that  the  frame  had  to 
be  lifted  to  get  it  out  of  the  hive.  The  greater  facility 
in  lifting  out  a  shallow  frame  will  not  be  fully  realised 
bv  any  one  till  thev  try  one  by  the  side  of  a  deep  frame.' 
If  this  is  felt  in  a  difference  of  depth  of  9£  and  Ill- 
inches,  how  much  more  will  it  in  the  case  of  the 
standard  8-\,  and  Mr.  Simmins'  frame,  14  inches ! 

The  reasons  above  given  by  Mr.  Simmins  for  the 
necessity  of  changing  from  the  standard  to  a  much  larger 
frame  do  not  appear  to  me  to  be  sufficiently  conclusive  to 
render  such  a  change  desirable.  I  have  never  had  any 
difficulty  in  wintering  stocks  and  building  them  up  in 
spring,  if  they  have  not  been  robbed  too  much  and  have 
had  ample  natural  stores  to  carry  them  through,  and 
have  not  been  disturbed  during  the  winter.  These  stores 
would  be  in  the  '  best  possible  position,'  the  upper  part 
of  the  comb  in  the  standard  frame  as  in  the  larger 
14  by  14  frame;  and  if  the  hive  has  been  properly  pre- 
pared, and  contracted  in  the  autumn,  so  that  the  bees 
have  only  just  as  many  frames  of  comb  as  they  can 
cover,  with  winter  passages  cut  through  them,  a  good 
queen  and  a  dry  hive,  there  should  be  no  difficulty.  The 
'  rapidly '  building  up — in  both  cases,  I  presume— is  done 
by  judicious  stimulative  feeding  and  spreading  the  brood 
from  time  to  time,  as  the  bees  hatch  out  to  cover  the 
combs  and  become  crowded.  If  this  system  is  correct  I 
fail  to  see  the  advantage  the  larger  frame  has  over  the 

A  hive  containing  ten  standard  frames,  taking  outside 
measurement  of  the  two  breeding  surfaces  of  each  frame, 
equals  2380  superficial  inches ;  whereas  a  hive  of  six 
frames  14  by  14  equals  2352  inches,  only  28  inches  of 
surface  less  than  the  ten  standard  frames.  Those  who 
work  for  comb  honey  frequently  reduce  the  breeding- 
space  to  nine  and  even  eiglit  standard  frames.  Taking 
the  superficial  area  of  the  top  of  frames  on  which  to 
place  supers,  we  have  in  the  case  of  the  ten  standard 
frames  217  inches,  which  would  take  the  ordinary  crate 
of  twenty-one  sections.  In  the  case  of  the  six  large 
frames  of  Mr.  Simmins,  only  fourteen  sections  could  be 
placed  without  projecting  beyond  the  area  of  these 
frames.  I  am  aware  that  Mr.  Simmins  has  had  great 
experience  with  bees,  although  I  do  not  recollect  seeing 
his  name  as  a  large  exhibitor  of  hone)'  at  any  of  our 
principal  exhibitions.  Perhaps  he  can  tell  your  readers 
the  amount  of  honey  ho  has  taken  from  hives  having 
14  by  14  frames,  and  the  number  used  in  each  storey. 
The  standard  frame  is  now  almost  universally  used  in 
England;  and,  depend  upon  it,  if  the  seasons  are  pro- 

pitious, the  management  judicious,  and  the  b>es  arenot 
over-manipulated,  as  much  honey  will  be  obtained  in  a 
well-constructed  hive  with  standard  frames  as  in  any 
other  yet  invented.  I  have  been  induced  to  make  these 
few  remarks  knowing  that  there  are  a  few — and  I  be- 
lieve only  a  few— who  would  like  another  size  frame 
adopted.— Johx  M.  Hooker. 


[838.]  The  very  important  question  as  to  the  superiority, 
or  otherwise,  of  foreign  bees  and  their  suitability  to  our 
climate,  is  one  that  can  only  be  decided,  I  think,  by  ex- 
perience ;  and  that  not  of  one  or  two  bee-keepers  merely, 
but  of  many  in  different  parts  of  the  country.  Will  you, 
therefore,  grant  me  a  little  space  in  which  to  relate  my 
own  experience,  premising  that  though  I  am  not  a  bee- 
keeper on  a  large  scale— my  stock  rarely  exceeding  thirty 
hives  at  one  time— yet  I  have  for  many  years  given  very 
careful,  attention  to  the  subject,  and  know  as  much  about 
it,  perhaps,  as  most  people  ? 

My  first  Ligurian  queen  was  purchased  several  years 
ago  of  Messrs.  Edey,  of  St.  Neots,  and  she  was  certainly 
all  I  expected  her  to  be — gentle,  handsome,  and  ex- 
tremely prolific ;  and  her  progeny  for  several  generations 
have  retained  their  good  qualities,  and  though,  of  course, 
crossed  with  the  common  black  bee,  were  never  especially 
fierce  or  unmanageable.  I  have  some  of  this  strain  now, 
as  good  bees  as  one  need  have,  but  on  the  whole  I  have 
not  found  them  better  honey-gatherers  than  the  native 
blacks,  as  they  waste  their  energies  in  working  and 
breeding  at  unprofitable  times. 

I  afterwards  bought  two  queens,  so-called  Ligurians, 
of  one  of  the  most  noted  dealers — I  won't  now  mention 
names — very  handsome  bees — one  especially  was  of  a 
lovely  gold  colour.  But  neither  was  so  prolific  as  a 
common  native  queen.  The  progeny  proved  idle  and 
fierce,  and  the  next  generation  so  bad  every  way,  and 
especially  so  savage,  that  I  was  most  thankful  to  root 
them  all  out  and  re-queen  with  anything  I  could  get. 

Last  year'  I  resolved  to  try  Carniolans,  having  heard 
so  much  of  their  gentleness.  So  I  applied  early  in  the 
year  to  what  I  thought  was  the  best  source  of  supply 
for  a  queen  of  undoubted  purity  and  good  quality,  and 
one  was  sent  me  in  due  course.  Imagine  my  disappoint- 
ment at  finding  her  bees  about  as  difficult  to  handle  as 
Cyprians!  And  I  Lave  since  heard  from  the  importer 
that  it  is  very  possible  she  is  merely  a  hybrid.  This  is 
very  satisfactory  as  an  explanation,  but  it  nai-dly  consoles 
one  for  the  loss  of  a  season  and  the  full  price  of  a  best 

I  may  add  that  my  so-called  Carniolan  is  extremely 
prolific,  and  so  also  are  two  queens  that  I  reared  from 
her  last  autumn,  all  three  have  wintered  well.  All 
this  goes  to  show  that  one  may  possibly  get  a  good 
foreign  bee.  But  in  the  present  uncertainty  as  to 
quality,  it  is  safer  to  stick  to  those  of  one's  own 
rearing,  as  showing  the  difference  between  the  two 

I  may  say  that,  at  the  present  time — end  of  February 
— in  my  own  apiary  all  the  bees  of  foreign  extraction 
have  brood  in  all  stages,  hut  the  black  stocks  have  not 
yet  commenced  to  breed  so  far  as  1  can  tell.  This  is 
a  cold  situation  on  the  Derbyshire  hills.  —  Geoege 

[839.]  On  p.  60o  of  last  volume  of  B.B.J,  appears  a 
letter  from  Mr.  C.  N.  Abbott,  in  which  he  says:  'A 
young  friend  lately  arrived  at  Ontario ;  in  his  first  letter 
to  me,  after  having  settled  down,  Nov.  20th,  188(5,  writes 
"  A  few  days  past  I  was  at  a  show  at  Caledonia,  but 
did  not  see  any  bees  and  hives  (frame-hives)  such  as 
you  have  at  Southall.     The  hive3  were  very  funny- 



[March  3,  1887. 

looking  objects,  something'  like  those  of  twenty  years 
ago.''  These  are  but  a  few  words,  but  to  my  mind 
they  let  in  a  deal  of  light  on  a  big  subject,  as  they  show 
that  the  principles  sought  to  be  thrust  upon  English 
bee-keepers  by  our  late  Canadian  visitors  are  not  general 
in  their  own  home  counties,  or  surely  at  a  large  show 
there  would  have  been  a  sufficient  display  of  frame-hives, 
amongst  the  many,  to  have  rendered  the  presence  of 
ancient  hives  alone  less  remarkable,  particularly  to  a 
young  man  who  is  not,  and  never  has  been,  a  bee- 

Now  I  am  not  going  to  dispute  the  statement  that 
there  were  funny-looking  hives  without  frames  at  the 
show  referred  to — it  is  just  possible  that  such  was  the 
case.  We  have  in  Ontario,  as  well  as  you  have  in 
England,  eccentric  people  that  do  funny  things,  but  the 
fact  remains  undisturbed  that  moveable  frame-hives  are 
not  only  generally,  but  universally,  used  by  professional 

That  last- quoted  remark,  'particularly  to  a  young- 
man  who  has  not,  and  never  has  been,  a  bee-keeper, 
are  but  a  few  words,  but  to  my  mind  they  let  in  a 
deal  of  light.'  It  occurs  to  me  that  in  all  probability 
the  young  friend  was  looking  at  butter-firkins,  washing- 
machines,  or  some  other  wooden  ware.  Such  mistakes 
often  occur.  If  Caledonia  had  a  large  show  it  was  only 
so  comparatively,  for  it  is  but  a  small  place  indeed. 

I  guess  the  most  of  us  will  agree  that  Mr.  Abbott 
is  about  right  about  the  stinging  qualities  of  Cyprian 
bees ;  but  is  it  not  more  than  a  year  or  two  ago  since 
they  were  brought  to  England  and  Canada  ? 

I  feel  quite  sure  that  we  all  owe  a  vote  of  thanks  to 
Mr.  Abbott  for  the  opportune  warning  he  has  given 
about  the  so-called  Chapman  honey-plant.  The  Com- 
mittee appointed  by  the  North  American  Bee-keepers' 
Association  to  report  upon  said  plant  ascribe  to  it  all 
the  characteristics  of  a  much-to-be-dreaded  noxious 
weed.  They  report  that  it  is  perennial,  seeds  itself,  is 
a  strong  growing  plant,  will  root  out  all  other  vege- 
tation, and,  I  learn  from  another  source,  that  stocks  will 
not  eat  it.  Now  I  submit  that  any  plant  answering  to 
the  above  description  must  necessarily  be  a  noxious 
weed,  and  yet  the  said  Committee  think  there  is  no 
danger.  What  more  could  be  said  of  sour-dock,  ox-eye 
daisy,  ragweed,  pigeon-weed,  Canada  thistle,  and  many 
more  troublesome  weeds  ?  I  sincerely  hope  that  those 
who  contemplate  buying  or  selling  and  scattering  noxious 
weeds  will  think  fairly  before  acting.  Surely  the  farmer 
has  enough  to  contend  with  alreadjr,  and  we  bee-keepers 
should  think  a  second  time,  and  honestly  too,  before 
adding  anything  more  to  his  already  too  heavy  burden. 
— S.  T.  Pettit,  Belmont,  Ontario,  Canada,  January  25. 

P.S. — I  have  just  returned  from  a  visiting  trip  through 
Kent,  Essex,  and  Lambton,  and  find  that  those  who 
winter  out-doors  begin  to  complain  of  too  steady  cold 
weather.  We  have  just  had  a  big  thaw,  but  the  weather 
was  unsuitable  for  the  bees  to  get  a  good  flight.  Most 
of  us  begin  to  think  that  in-door  wintering  is  the  only 
safe  way  here. — S.  T.  P. 


(Continued  from  page  7.) 
Mb.  A.  I.  Root's  Establishment. 

[840.]  In  my  last  I  promised  to  give  an  account  of  my 
visit  to  Mr.  Root  at  Medina,  feeling  sure  that  an  account 
of  the  largest  bee-keepers'  supply  iu  the  world  could  not 
be  without  interest  to  your  readers. 

Although  I  reached  Medina  some  time  after  working 
hours  I  found  Mr.  Root  still  busy  in  the  office.  The 
motto  of  the  establishment  is  evidently  'By  industry 
shall  ye  thrive,'  for  there  was  no  encouragement  either 
by  example  or  precept  for  idlers.  A  ready  welcome 
was  accorded  me,  and   the   next  few  days  were  most 

enjoyably  spent  in  exploring  the  different  departments 
and  discussing  the  merits  of  the  various  processes.  The 
little  picture  is  a  fair  one  of  the  factory  as  it  was  a  few 
years  ago,  but  it  is  now  about  double  as  large,  and  the 
substantial  way  in  which  it  is  built  plainly  shows  the 
owner's  confidence  in  the  future  of  bee-keeping.     The 


first  object  of  interest  was  a  new  engine  of  ninety  horse- 
power and  most  improved  construction,  which  had  just 
displaced  a  smaller  one  and  which  was  separated  by  a 
stout  fire-proof  wall  from  the  wood-working  department- 

In  this  shop  were  machines  for  making  nearly  every 
wooden  article  that  a  bee-keeper  could  require.  Two 
planers,  half-a-dozen  machines  for  different  parts  of 
section-making,  a  borer,  and  jnany  saw-benches  of  dif- 
ferent patterns  were  to  be  found  amongst  the  number, 
and  others  were  being  fitted  up,  this  shop  being  all  new 
and  not  yet  in  full  swing. 

A  capital  feature  in  this  department  was  a  system  of 
big  tin  tubes  which,  being  connected  at  one  end  with 
the  furnace,  and  at  the  extremities  with  each  machine, 
and  being  also  in  connexion  with  a  centrifugal  fan, 
carried  away  all  sawdust  and  chips  and  put  them  right 
into  the  fire.  Besides  saving  sweeping  and  stoking,  the 
purity  of  the  air,  which  this  ensured,  added  greatly  to 
the  comfort  of  the  workmen.  Above  this  department 
were  the  paint  and  tin  shops  where  there  was  every 
facility  for  turning  out  extractors,  smokers,  &c.  In  the 
base  of  the  older  building  I  found  the  engineers'  shop, 
where  skilled  hands  were  fitting  up  saw-spindles,  founda- 
tion-mills, &0. 

The  arrangements  for  cutting  the  rolls  of  the  latter 
were  most  ingenious,  but  too  complicated  for  description. 
There  were  also  a  machine  for  perforating  zinc  and  one 
for  grinding  plane  irons,  the  advantages  of  doing  all 
possible  work  at  home  being  fully  recognised.  This 
idea  was  so  thoroughly  carried  out,  that  not  only  was  all 
the  printing  and  bookbinding  done  on  the  premises,  but 
there  was  even  a  machine  for  making  envelopes.  I  will 
not  tire  you  with  details  of  my  visits  to  the  packing, 
printing,  book-keeping,  or  similar  departments,  but  after 
having  refreshed  at  the  '  lunch-room,'  will  pass  on  to  the 
'  counter-store.'  This  is  a  feature  which  is  greatly  ap- 
preciated by  bee-keepers  living  at  a  distance  from  towns, 
as  the  stock  consists  of  hundreds  of  articles  of  domestic 
use,  which  such  customers  find  it  very  convenient  to 
order  with  their  bee-goods,  as  the  prices  of  all  things  are 
moderate,  and  their  utility  can  be  relied  on.  Of  course 
one  of  the  first  pleasures  of  the  visit  was  an  introduction 
to  Mr.  Root's  son,  Ernest,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for 
most  of  my  information.  The  bees  were  naturally  in 
winter  quarters,  so  I  could  not  see  much  of  them.  In 
the  foundation-room  there  was  also  not  much  to  be  seen 
as  most  folks  like  their  comb  freshly  made.  Mr.  Root's 
ideas  on  bee-keeping  are  so  ably  and  frequently  given  in 
his  Gleaninys  and  in  his  A  B  C  of  Bee-culture,  that  any 
remarks  on  them  would  be  tedious;  but  I  would  strongly 
advise  all  bee-keepers  who  have  not  seen  the  latter  book 
to  order  it  at  once  of  their  supply  dealer  as  it  is  full  of 
interesting  matter  of  all  sorts. — J.  A.  Abbott,  Southall, 
February  1887. 

March  3,  1887.] 




[841.]  Will  you  allow  me  a  small  space  in  your  Journal 
to  say  what  hives  I  use  and  how  I  use  them  ?  Some 
seem  to  want  some  information  on  the  plan.  But,  first, 
let  me  say  to  W.  Soar  that  his  cap  won  t  fit,  so  lie  must 
please  wear  it  himself  or  try  it  on  some  one  else.  I  am 
not  a  hive-manufacturer,  or  have  I  any  connexions  with 
any,  although  I  make  my  own  hives  and  appliances,  and 
look  after  my  200  stocks  myself,  so  that  W.  S.  need 
not  be  afraid  of  my  grinding'  my  axe  at  his  expense, 
or  at  any  cottager's ;  and  had  I  seen  Blow's  British 
Heddon  hive  I  should  have  given  the  same  advice  for 
cottagers  to  use  it  as  I  did  the  Jones  Heddon.  I  have 
not  seen  what  the  thickness  is  to  be  of  the  imported 
hive.  Has  anybody  told  W.  S.  that  it  is  to  be  the 
same  as  the  one  exhibited  ?  I  quite  agree  that  it  wants 
an  outer  case, — that  I  always  use ;  so  I  believe  you  do, 
Mr.  Editor,  and  I  think  there's  no  hive  to  equal  it.  And 
now  to  my  mode  of  working.  In  18S5  I  made  up  my 
mind  to  invert  some  hives,  and  the  first  were  four  straw 
skeps;  that  was  an  easy  matter,  as  I  had  some  straw  skeps 
with  cheese-boxes  over  them.  This  was  done  for  the  con- 
venience of  supering  and  feeding,  as  I  had  a  hole  in  the 
top  of  the  hive  and  the  bottom  of  the  cheese-box.  Now, 
any  cottager  can  manage  this  job,  and  the  time  to  turn 
them  is  when  the  bees  are  ready  to  swarm  and  the  flow 
of  honey  coming  in.  I  use  them  in  an  outer  case,  and  all 
is  kept  snug-  out  of  wind  and  rain.  As  I  could  not  see 
what  was  going  on  in  straw  skeps,  I  thought  I  would  try 
some  bar-frame  hives  for  that  purpose.  I  made  a  few  ten- 
bar  hives,  rabbeting  the  sides  double  the  proper  depth,  so 
that  the  tops  of  the  bars  were  free  from  the  floor-board 
when  upside  down.  The  frames  had  a  bit  of  wood  nailed 
to  each  corner,  so  they  could  be  all  wedged  up  tight  to- 
gether ;  these  were  inverted  in  outer  cases.  I  examined 
the  combs  for  brood  and  eggs  before  inverting,  and  four 
days  after  found  eggs  hatched  out  and  brood  going  on 
all  right.  I  have  sent  one  of  nry  frames  to  you.  W. 
Soar  might  call  on  you  and  see  it.  —  Devonshire 


[842.]  '  Devonshire  Dumpling'  appears  unable  to  see 
with  his  own  ej'es,  as  I  have  never  said, '  I  am  making  a 
hive  like  the  Jones-Heddon.'  One  may  well  express 
astonishment  at  '  D.D.'s '  advice  repeated  to  cottagers,  to 
try  the  invertible  hives.  To  such  bee-keepers  I  see  no 
single  point  that  can  be  recommended.  Why,  even  its 
inventor  has  sent  out  a  disclaimer  of  its  supposed  advan- 
tages (see  814),  heralded  into  the  world  with  a  great 
flourish  two  seasons  back  ;  and  thus  it  appears  it  is  being 
rapidly  modified  out  of  existence  in  the  land  of  its  birth. 
No,  '  D.  D.',  my  definition  of  a  suitable  hive  for  cottage 
bee-keepers  would  be  very  far  removed  from  such  an 
expensive,  purely  experimental,  and  confessedly  untried 
system  —  as  far  as  this  country  is  concerned  —  as  the 
invertible  plan. 

There  are  others  asking  for  particulars  of  '  D.  D.'s' 
experience  in  inverting ;  and  to  say  that  the  facts  given 
bearing  on  this  question  are  meagre  is  putting  it  too 
favourably — it  amounts  to  nil.  But  instead,  like  a 
drowning  man  catching-  at  a  straw,  'D.  D.'  wants  to 
know  if  '  I  have  had  experience.'  The  question  is  quite 
unnecessary,  as  I  started  the  discussion  with  an  implied 
admission  of  having  no  experience,  and  I  venture  to  say 
that  not  one  bee-keeper  in  a  hundred  knows  anything- 
about  the  matter  from  experience. 

_  Where  do  we  get  our  facts  from  ?  Why,  Mr.  Heddon 
himself  has  been  honest  enough  to  admit  (and  all  will 
respect  him  the  more)  that,  with  one  exception,  the 
conclusions  he  arrived  at  in  188-3  are  erroneous,  and  this 
exception  of  inverting  once  only  (brood-combs  alone)  to 
secure  the  complete  filling  of  the  frames  is  more  than 

likely  to  be  accomplished  without  the  necessity  of  in- 
verting at  all. — James  Lee,  Feb.  19. 

[843.]    A  few  weeks  ago  I  gave  you  a  somewhat  prosy 
statement  of  my  views  on  a  new  compound,  calculated  to 

1  Our  dear  little  friends,  with  the  nimble  tails,' 

and  I  should  not  have  troubled  the  fraternity  further  on 
the  subject,  had  I  not  then  stated  that  I  was  in  treaty 
with  a  manufacturing  chemist  for  its  production,  and 
that  I  would  continue  my  experiments  of  last  year 
(stopped,  of  course,  by  winter),  as  to  its  efficacy,  at  the 
same  time  promising-  to  report  results. 

I  have  now  the  highest  pleasure  in  informing  you  that, 
after  a  slow  and  tedious  process,  success  has  been  reached 
to  a  degree  far  beyond  even  my  hope.  I  have,  however, 
had  to  modify  and  alter  my  formula  considerably,  in  order 
to  make  the  apifuge  a  complete  success.  On  Saturday 
last,  I  manipulated,  two  hives,  at  70°  in  the  sun,  and 
noticed  this  peculiarity  about  the  bees  on  the  approach 
of  my  hands: — They  seemed  charmed,  and  subsided 
amongst  the  frames,  as  boiling  water  subsides  on  the 
introduction  of  a  spoon.  A  twelve-year  old  youth  moved 
his  fingers  in  the  porch,  to  force  the  bees  to  crawl  in  and 
out  through  them  during  a  vigorous  cleansing  flight ; 
there  was  not  a  soupcon  of  a  sting.  I  may  say  that 
another  substance  recommended  for  the  same  purpose  as 
mine  is  so  difficult  to  obtain  in  a  pure  state,  and  there- 
fore of  a  sufficient  strength  to  be  useful,  that  I  concen- 
trated my  attention  on  the  production  of  a  compound  of 
such  an  exact  undiluted  strength  that  it  can  be  taken 
into,  and  used  in  the  apiary,  with  as  much,  and  more 
confidence,  than  the  best  gloves.  I  needn't  say  that  it  is 
the  exact  dose  in  medicine  which  is  beneficial.  So  with 
the  apifuge.  As  I  could  not  distribute  it  adequately,  I 
have  placed  the  sole  agency  in  the  hands  of  Abbott  Bros., 
Southall. — R.  A.  H.  Grimshaw,  Cray  Hill,  Horsforth, 
near  Leeds. 

[844.]  I  am  surprised  that  no  one  has  protested 
against  the  use  of  apif — oh  !  I  forgot,  I  must  not  use  th;  t 
awful  word  ;  Mr.  Abbott  says  it  is  '  Copyright '  and  Mr . 
Grimshaw  tells  me  it  is  '  Registered,'  so  there  is  no  know- 
ing what  pains  and  penalties  are  involved  in  the  use  of 
it — say  '  anti-sting.'  There  is  nothing-  which  so  im- 
presses the  spectators  at  a  show  as  the  unconcern  with 
which  the  manipulators  and  the  judges  and  others  within 
the  vail  stand  surrounded  by  bees  and  without  getting 
stung.  A  common  remark  is  that  they  must  use  some- 
thing repugnant  to  bees.  Hitherto  this  insinuation  could 
be  repelled,  and  the  reply  truly  made  that  nothing-  was 
required  but  coolness  and  care.  Alas !  in  future,  when 
the  subtle  and  peculiar  odour  of  methyl  salicylate  per- 
vades the  tent,  the  soft  impeachment  can  no  longer  be 
denied,  and  the  charm  attending  the  cool,  careful  mani- 
pulation of  an  expert  will  be  gone.  I  well  remember 
my  first  visit  to  Mr.  Abbott  in  his  little  garden  at  Han- 
well,  where  I,  a  perfect  novice,  stood  quite  unprotected 
while  he  opened  hive  after  hive,  lifted  out  frames,  and, 
to  my  great  delight,  allowed  me  to  do  the  same.  There 
is  nothing  which  tends  to  promote  neat  and  careful  hand- 
ling of  bees  so  much  as  the  absence  of  protection  and  the 
full  knowledge  that  carelessness  and  jarring  will  at  once 
bring  their  punishment,  and  on  the  contrary,  the  use  of 
anything  which  gives  the  operator  a  feeling  that  how- 
ever careless  he  may  be  he  cannot  suffer  for  it,  can  only 
lead  to  a  slovenly,  slap-dash  method.  If  the  use  of  sub- 
stances to  prevent  stings  should  come  into  general  use 
the  effect  upon  the  rising  generation  of  bee-keepers  can 
but  be  to  render  them  very  unworthy  successors  of  the 
present  skilful  manipulators. — E.  Lyon. 



[March  3,  1887. 


All  queries  forwarded  will  ho  attended  to,  and  those  onty  of  personal 
interest  will  be  answered  in  this  column. 

Letters  or  queries  asliingfor  addresses  of  manufacturers  or  corrcspon- 
dents,  or  where  appliances  can  be  purchased,  or  replies  giving  such 
information,  can  only  be  inserted  as  advertisements.  The  space 
devoted  to  lettors,  queries,  and  replies,  is  meant  for  the  general  good  of 
bcc-hccpers,  and  not  for  advertisements.  We  wish  our  Correspondents 
to  bear  in  mind  that,  as  it  is  necessary  for  us  to  go  to  press  in  advance 
of  the  date  of  issue,  queries  cannot  always  be  replied  to  in  the  issue 
immediately  following  the  receipt  of  their  communication. 

Fab  North. — 1.  Enamel  cloth. — Glazed  side  next  the  bees. 
2.  Uncapping. — Uncap  a  few  cells  of  honey,  occasionally, 
above  the  cluster  of  bees,  or  near  to  it.  This  may  be 
done  without  removing  the  frames  by  using  a  little  smoke 
or  carbolic  acid  solution.  If  the  outer  combs  contain 
granulated  honey  it  is  best  to  remove  them,  and  to  feed 
en  syrup,  otherwise  let  them  remain.  Uncapping,  as 
advised  above,  is  sufficiently  stimulating  without  giving 

Eectok. — 1.  Late  Autumn  Plants. — Batches  of  bee-flowers, 
such  as  borage,  mignonette,  phacelia,  the  sunflower 
tribes,  and  others,  may  be  sown  late  in  the  season  to 
produce  autumnal  blooms,  but  no  appreciable  amount  of 
honey  is  ever  obtained  from  garden  plants,  except  in 
market-gardening  and  flower  -  seed  -  growing  districts. 
Second  crops  of  red  clover  and  crops  of  buckwheat  are 
amongst  the  best  for  yielding  honey  towards  autumn. 
Candytuft,  stocks,  and  sweet  peas,  sown  late,  will  also 
yield  autumn  bloom.  2.  Feeding  with  Salicylic  Acid. — 
Salicylic  acid,  when  mixed  with  dry  sugar,  would  not  be 
taken  by  the  bees.  The  only  plan  of  administering  it 
effectually  is  either  in  syrup  or  by  fumigation. 

T.  Nixon. — 1.  Tar  for  Hires. — Six  pints  of  gas-tar,  one  pint 
Stockholm-tar,  and  one  pint  of  spirit  of  turpentine,  form 
a  good  varnish  for  outdoor  work.  The  tar  should  be 
heated  and  well  mixed,  and  the  turpentine  added  when 
cooling.  A  good  recipe  also  is  the  following ; — One 
gallon  of  gas-tar,  one  ounce  of  nitric  acid,  half  pint  of 
spirit  of  turpentine.  The  acid  to  be  mixed  in  gradually. 
This  composition,  which  dries  quickly  and  sets  very  hard, 
should  be  well  brushed  on,  after  the  manner  of  paint, 
and  not  too  thickly,  and  it  will  not  melt  or  become  sticky 
with  the  summer  heat.  2.  Placing  a  small  above  a 
larger  Hive. — By  the  plan  you  propose  you  would  find 
great  difficulty  in  removing  the  upper  hive  when  filled, 
since  brace  combs  would  be  built  between  the  two  hives. 
A  much  better  plan  is  to.  put  the  large  hive  below  the 
small  one — covering  up  with  strips  of  carpet  and  boards 
any  paits  which  project  beyond  the  upper  and  smaller 
hive — and  to  allow  the  bees  to  work  down  into  it.  Fill 
the  frames  of  the  lower  hive  with  foundation,  which  will 
greatly  expedite  matters.  No  board  is  required  between 
the  two  hives. 

H.  W.  D. — 1.  Ilembers  of  County  Associations. — Members 
of  County  Associations  are  entitled  and  invited  to  attend 
the  quarterly  and  annual  meetings  of  the  B.  B.  K.  A.,  but 
have  not  the  right  of  voting  ;  neither  have  their  elected 
representatives  this  right.  A  subscription  of  five  shillings 
per  annum  constitutes  membership,  and  confers  the  right 
of  voting  on  any  question  brought  before  the  above- 
named  meetings,  and  also  gives  one  vote  for  each 
member  at  the  annual  election  of  the  Committee  of  the 
Association.  2.  Separators. — Tin  separators  are  in  com- 
mon use  between  sections.  The  tin  used  should  be  as 
thin  and  light  as  possible.  Many  advanced  bee-keepers 
advocate  thin  wood  separators.  Either  kind  may  be 
perforated  as  desired.  3.  Preventing  Queen  entering  upper 
Boxes.  —  In  tiering  up,  whether  for  extracting  or  for 
obtaining  comb-honey,  we  never  use  excluder-zinc.  By 
keeping  the  brood-chamber  sufficiently  large  and  free 
from  storage  of  honey,  and  by  giving  room  beneath  it, 
in  the  form  of '  ekes'  or  shallow  chambers,  with  sufficient 
bottom  ventilation,  the  queen,  as  a  rule,  may  be  pre- 
vented from  entering  the  upper  boxes  and  from  leading 
off  swarms,  i.  Stocking  an  Observatory  Hive. — A  small 
swarm  will  be  required  for  an  observatory  hive  of  four 
frames.  We  should  prefer  nice,  straight,  newly.built 
combs  to  giving  foundation,  but  cither  may  be  used. 
Shake  the  bees  on  a  sheet  in  front  of  the  wedged-up  hive 
and  allow  thorn  to  enter  at  the  bottom.    If  it  is  simply 

a  case  of  transferring,  remove  the  bees,  with  their  queen, 
combs,  and  brood  from  the  ordinary  to  the  observatory 

Honet  Deop. — The  dust  of  lump  sugar  will  make  useful 
syrup ;  it  is  desirable  that  it  should  be  as  free  from  dirt 
as  possible. 

John  Bdxl.— Gloves.—  Be  a  true  '  John  Bull,'  and  do  without 
them.  They  are  great  hindrances  to  manipulation,  and 
when  once  stung  they  retain  the  smell  of  the  poison,  and 
invite  further  attacks.  The  best  gloves  are  the  two  pairs 
of  fine  cotton  texture,  well  wetted  with  water.  The  Eev. 
W,  E.  Burkitt  could  supply  you  with  the  special  in- 
formation you  require ;  the  gloves  mentioned  by  him 
were  leather  gloves,  manufactured  by  a  dealer  in  High 
Street,  Andover.  Some  gloves  have  recently  been  im- 
ported from  the  Continent  made  of  American  cloth ;  but 
they  look  clumsy,  and  would  be  found  awkward  and 
troublesome  in  working  with  them.  Now  that  Grini- 
shaw's  Apifuge  and  Lyon's  Sting-Preventer  are  before 
the  public,  we  should  be  pleased  to  have  some  indepen- 
dent opinion  of  their  value. 

H.  P. — 1.  Dry  Sugar  Feeding. — Mr.  Simmins  recommends 
for  this  purpose  Porto  Bico  sugar :  that  you  have  for- 
warded is  a  sample  of  sugar  called  '  pieces.'  If  presented 
to  the  bees  they  will  utilise  it,  but  you  cannot  expect 
that  the  result  will  be  so  beneficial  as  the  using  of  that 
which  the  experience  of  practical  bee-keepers  has  found 
most  serviceable.  2.  Fertile  Worker. — There  can  be  no 
doubt  of  the  presence  of  a  fertile  worker  in  your  hive  ; 
and  in  due  time  we  shall  be  pleased  to  receive  the  results 
of  your  experiments  as  to  the  full  development  of  the 
drones  so  produced. 

Bee-ologist.  —  British  Wild  Bees.  —  Monographia  Apum 
Anglice,  by  W.  Kirby ;  British  Bees,  by  Lieut.  Shuckard, 
with  illustrations;  Apida—Bees,  by  F.  Smith,  Brit.  Mus. 
The  above  books  are  out  of  print,  but  may  occasionally 
be  found  on  book-stalls.  The  most  exhaustive  and  com- 
plete work  on  wild  bees  is  Apidee  Europccm.  This  is  being 
published  in  parts  at  the  present  time ;  as  a  book  of 
reference  it  is  invaluable,  and  the  excellent  illustrations 
it  contains  are  a  great  help  in  determining  species.  This 
work  comes  out  quarterly,  and  the  annual  subscription 
is  fourteen  marks. 
;  B.  Young. — Scotch  Hive  Manufacturers. — We  have  no  doubt 
that  there  are  in  the  north  of  Scotland  numerous  dealers 
in  bee-appliances  ;  but  though  very  desirous  of  giving  all 
possible  and  all  proper  information  to  our  readers,  we 
consider  that  it  is  more  the  duty  of  bee-keepers  in  that 
part  of  the  kingdom  to  advertise  their  wares  in  our 
■Journal,  than  that  our  Journal  should  advertise  them. 
The  Journal  has  a  large  and  an  increasing  circulation 
in  Scotland,  and  we  suggest  that  purveyors  of  appli- 
ances in  that  part  would  find  it  to  their  advantage  and 
profit  to  make  use  of  our  Journal  towards  the  development 
of  their  business. 

Welsh  Novice. — Directly  you  commence  to  increase  your 
stocks  you  reduce  your  yield  of  honey.  If  we  could 
absolutely  have  the  entire  control  of  their  swarming,  we 
should — in  order  to  get  the  greatest  yield  of  honey — 
prevent  such  entirely,  but  this,  up  to  the  present,  being 
an  impossibility,  we  should  manipulate  our  stocks  that 
from  those  who  show  the  greatest  swarming  proclivities, 
make  our  artificial  swarms,  and  rear  the  queens  from 
those  who  have  the  best  storing  qualities,  not  forgetting 
to  rear  the  drones  also  from  such  stocks.  You  will 
usually  find  these  two  latter  qualities  go  hand  in  hand. 

Taffy. — 1.  Soft  Warm  Candy. — This  is  simply  candy, 
made  either  by  boiling  and  stirring  while  cooling  or  by 
kneading  finely  ground  sugar  in  honey  to  the  consistence 
of  dough,  warmed  to  about  80°  before  giving  it  to  the 
bees.  2.  Enamel  Cloth  is  that  used  for  chair-covers  but 
without  the  imitation  leather  grain  upon  it.  3.  Bees  in 
Confinement. — Having  kept  your  bees  confined  by  per- 
forated zinc  and  fed  (?)  them  with  syrup  during  the 
winter,  the  wonder  is,  not  that  four  lots  arc  dead  but  that 
the  other  four  are  alive.  Eelease  the  others  at  once  and 
give  them  soft  candy  if  they  require  food.  -1.  Location 
of  hives. — You  had  Letter  replace  them  on  their  stands 
as  last  year.  Another  winter  leave  them  alone  instead 
of  moving  them  into  a  shed.    5.  Erica  vulgaris. 

March  3,  1887.] 



J.  G. — It  is  always  a  very  delicate  matter  to  interfere  with 
the  decisions  of  judges.  These  judges  are  not  appointed 
to  their  arduous  and  often  thankless  position  without 
much  anxious  thought.  It  would  appear  from  your 
statement,  and  the  subsequent  act  of  the  Committee, 
that  in  the  instance  mentioned  the  judge  might  have 
erred  ;  but  before  saying  that  he  had  so  done  it  would  be 
just  on  our  part  to  remember  the  advice,  Audi  alteram 

H.  C. — 1.  Dust  thrown  out  by  the  bees. — The  sample  you 
send  is  simply  the  cappings  removed  from  sealed  honey  in 
order  to  get  at  the  contents  of  the  cells,  just  as  one 
throws  away  the  cover  of  a  pot  of  preserves.  2.  Bee-tent 
at  Horticultural  Show. — You  had  better  write  to  the  Hon. 
Secretaries  of  the  counties  named,  and  arrange  for  the 
tent  to  be  sent  to  your  local  show. 

C.  Fox. — Whether  you  can  mate  bee-keeping  pay  depends 
in  a  great  measure  upon  yourself  and  the  locality  in 
which  you  are  situated.  You  must  not  expect,  if  you 
purchase  a  few  hives  and  give  them  no  further  attention, 
that  you  will  make  a  living.  We  should  advise  you  to 
get  one  or  two  hives  only  to  begin  with,  and  when  you 
are  able  to  manage  them  properly  to  go  in  for  more.  In 
this  way  you  may  be  better  able  to  judge  whether  you 
are  fitted  to  undertake  bee-keeping  on  a  large  scale. 
The  Heddon  hive  is  not  suited  to  this  climate,  and  if  you 
wish  to  use  it,  you  must  have  an  outer  covering  for 
winter.  We  advise  you  not  to  go  in  largely  for  these 
hives  until  we  have  had  some  reports  of  their  success  in 
England.  A  simple  hive  with  Standard  frames  is  all  you 
need  for  storifying.  We  did  not  find  the  shallow  frames 
a  success  for  this  purpose.  If  you  will  say  what  other 
questions  you  wish  answered,  we  shall  be  pleased  to  give 
you  all  the  help  we  can. 

For  the  use  of  Manufacturers  and  Purchasers  of  Bee- 
keeping Appliances. 

The  Name  and  Address  and  Business  of  any  Manufacturer 
will  be  inserted  in  this  List,  under  one  heading,  for  One 
Pound  per  annum.  Additional  headings,  Five  Shillings 
extra.  Advertisers  in  '  The  Bee  Journal,'  whose  orders 
amount  to  Five  Pounds  per  annum,  icill  be  inserted  Free. 


j  Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 
Appleton,  H.  M.,  256a  Hotwell  Boad,  Bristol. 
Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 
Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 
Burtt,  E.  J.,  Stroud  Boad,  Gloucester. 
Edet  &  Son,  St.  Neots. 
Howard,  J.  H,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Received  from  Mr.  Alfred  Rusbridge,  The  Apiary,  Sidle- 
sham,  Chichester,  for  the  library  of  the  British  Bee-keepers' 
Association  a  copy  of  the  Tidsskrift  for  Biavl,  or  the  Danish 
Bee  Journal  for  the  year  1S86.  It  contains  a  translation  of 
Mr.  Rusbridge's  book  on  bee-keeping.  In  comparing  the 
translation  with  the  original  many  words  appear  very  simi- 
lar in  sound,  although  the  characters  differ.  H.  B.  H. 
the  Princess  of  Wales  has  been  pleased  to  accept  a  copy  of 
both.  In  the  Tidsskrift  we  notice  a  description  of  Mr. 
Cowan's  hive  with  illustrations,  articles  on  bumping,  and 
translations  from  the  British  Bee  Journal. 

,g>how  jSLnnouncements. 

Giving  Name  and  Address  of  Secretary,  Date  and  Place  of 
Show,  Date  of  Closing  Entries.  Terms :  Three  Insertions 
and  under,  Two  Sliillings  and  Sixpence;  additional  inser- 
tions, Sixpence  each.  No  charge  made  to  those  Associations 
whose  Shores  are  announced  in  our  general  Advertising 

July  11-15. — Royal  Agricultural  Show  at  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne.    Entries  close  May  12.     J.  Huckle,  Kings  Langley. 

August  3-5. — Yorkshire  Agricultural  Society  at  Ycrk, 
Secretary,   H.  L.   Rickards,   Poole,  near  Leeds. 

business  ^Directory. 

Hutchings,  A.  F.,  St.  Mary  Cray,  Kent. 

Meadhaii,  M.,  Huntington,  Hereford. 

Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 

Neighbour*  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holbom. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

The  British  Bee-keepers'  Stores,  23  Cornhill,  E.G. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 

Webster,  W.  B.,  Wokingham. 

Wren  &  Son,  139  High  Street,  Lowestoft. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

British  Honey  Co.  ,  Limited,  17  King  William  St. ,  Strand. 

Country  Honey  Supply,  23  Cornhill,  E.C. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holbom. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Benton,  F.,  Munich,  Germany. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holbom. 

SraaiNS,  S.,  Rottingdean,  near  Brighton. 

Walton,  E.  G,  Muskham,  Newark.  , 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Lyon,  F.,  94  Harleyford  Road,  London,  S.E. 

Meadows,  W.  P.,  Syston,  Leicester. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holbom. 

Walton,  E.  C,  Muskham,  Newark. 


Abbott  Bros.,  Southall,  London. 

Baldwin,  S.  J.,  Bromley,  Kent. 

Blow,  T.  B.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 

Howard,  J.  H.,  Holme,  Peterborough. 

Neighbour  &  Sons,  149  Regent  St.  &  127  High  Holbom. 

Stothard,  G.,  Welwyn,  Herts. 



BELLINZONA  (Suisse  Italien). 

Successors  of  the  old-established  Bee  Business  of  the  late 
Professor  A.  MONA. 


A  Fertilised 
Queen  with  a 
Cluster  of  Bees 

Swarm  of 
.}  kilogram. 

Swarm  of 
1  kilogram. 

Swarm  of 
1J  kilogram 




March  and  April 




1  to  15  May  ... 




16  „  31     „     ... 




1  ,,  15  June  ... 




16  „  30    „     ... 




1  „  15  July  ... 




16  „  31     „     ... 




1  „  15  Aug.  ... 




16  „  31    „     ... 




1  „  15  Sept.... 





16  ,,  30    ,,     ... 





1  „  15  Oct.  ... 





16  „  31     „     ... 





Carriage  not  paid.  A  Queen  arriving  dead,  if  returned  at  once, 
will  be  replaced  without  charge.  Terms,  Cash.  Be  particular 
to  give  the  exact  Address  and  Name  of  the  Station.  Queens 
reared  by  selection.  Five  per  cent  discount  on  an  order  for  10 
Queens  or  Colonies  at  a  time ;  10  per  cent  if  20  Queens  are 
ordered ;  15  per  cent  on  50 ;  and  20  per  cent  on  100  Queens  or 
Colonies  ordered  at  one  time.  Write,  if  possible,  in  French  or 
German.  We  have  been  acknowledged  as  the  sole  successors  of 
the  late  A.  Mona  by  the  official  Federal  Gazette.  See  notice 
in  British  Bee  Journal  (page  424  of  9th  Sept,  1SS6). 

a  2393 -(164) 


[Mar.  3,  1887. 



Entirely  supersedes  the  Smoker,  both  in  Simplicity  and 
Effectiveness.  No  '  going  out.'  No  tainting  or  soiling  of 
combs.  Always  ready  for  use  without  any  preparation. 
Can  be  carried  in  the  pocket. 

With  Bellows,  4s.  6d. ;  postage,  4.Vd. 

Without  Bellows,  3s. ;  postage,  3d. 

Can  be  adjusted  to  any  ordinary  smoker  belloivs. 

6  oz.  Bottles  of  Agent— carbolic  acid,  oil  of  tar,  and  water, 

properly  mixed — 6d.  each. 


With  this  appliance,  frames  can  be  removed  from  hive, 
replaced  and  examined  on  both  sides  without  inverting,  with 
one  hand,  leaving  the  other  free  for  manipulating,  at  the 
same  time  preventing  soiling  the  hands  with  propolis. 

W.    B.  WEBSTER, 


1st  Prize  Silver  Medal,  Boyal  Counties'  Agricultural  Show. 

Highest  Award,  Colonial  and  Indian  Exhibition,  London. 

2nd  Prize  Bronze  Medal,  Colonial  and  Indian  Exhibition, 


2nd  Prize  Altrincham,  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  B.  K.  A. 


The  only  perfect  pattern.  The  metal  being  flush  with 
the  inside  of  the  Hive  side,  CANNOT  BE  FIXED  TO  IT 
BY  PROPOLIS.     All  the  so-called  Improvements  CAN. 

The  Special  Alloy  used  allows  them  to  be  LIGHT  YET 
STBONG.     One  gross  weighs  5J  lbs. 

Price  for  1887  5/6  Per  gross. 


Prize  Medal,  1879,  for  the  best  Bee  Dress,  The  only 
Medal  ever  awarded  to  a  Veil,  2/2  each,  post  free.  Every 
genuine  Veil  bears  the  Registered  Trade  Mark. 


The  ONLY  CUBE  for  Stings,  1/8  per  bottle,  post  free. 

Guaranteed,  with  Directions,  1/2  per  bottle,  post  free. 

Methyl  Salicylate,  or  '  Sting  Preventer.' 

1  oz.  bottle,  post  free,  1,8, 

HIVE  MAKERS  supplied  with  SPRINGS,  GLASSES  for 

Sections,  PHENOL,   METHYL   SALICYLATE,  in   bulk, 

&c,  &c,  at  lowest  prices. 

F.  LYON,  94  Harleyford  Rcl.,  London,  S.E. 

TO       DEALERS. 

CI  END  to  A.  P.  Hutchings  for  quotations  of 
SECTIONS  of  the  finest  manufacture  and  quality,  300,000 
will  shortly  be  on  hand.  Special  terms  for  all  Orders 
before  March  25.  Don't  fail  to  get  my  prices  before  you 
Order  elsewhere !  Address,  West  Kent  Steam  Power  Hive 
Works,  St.  Mary  Cray,  Kent. 

Choice  Selected  Collection  of 

lllil  ©f  f  3L0W1ES' 

SOUGHT  AFTER   BY  BEES.     Free  by  post,  2/6. 

SOLD   BY  (162) 

JOHN  SMITH,  The  Royal  Nursery,  Clewer,  Windsor,  Berks. 


I  WILL  send  to  any  address  26  varieties  of  BEE- 
FLOWER  SEEDS,  including  the  Noted  CHAPMAN 
HONEY  PLANT,  for  2s.  post  paid.  GARDEN  SEEDS.— 
I  will  send  21  packets  of  Garden  Seeds  to  any  address  for 
2s.  6d.  post  paid.  BAR-FRAME  HIVES  with  Straw 
bodies,  the  hive  least  affected  by  heat  or  cold.  _  My  Hives 
and  Appliances  are  all  forwarded  carriage  paid,  and  re- 
turnable if  not  approved  on  arrival.  Please  send  your 
address  on  post-card,  and  I  will  send  Descriptive  and 
Priced  Catalogue  post  free.  Address  John  Moore,  Seed 
Merchant,  Market  Place,  and  Prospect  Farm,  Warwick. 

Patent  Bee  Feeder.— Removing  the  Flask. 

Or  for  giving  warm  syrup  in  eases  of  dysentery. 

bUOAK.     thoge  ,, 

had  many  enquiries  from 
those  who  cannot  obtain  the  right 
kind,  we  now  offer  Genuine  PORTO  RICO,  on  rail  at 
Brighton,  21s.  per  cwt.,  lis.  50-lbs.,  5s.  9<J.  28-lbs.  DUTCH 
CBUSHED,  best  for  Syrup,  22s.  6<7.  per  cwt.,  lis.  6d.  56-lbs., 
6s.  28-lbs.  Quantities  of  not  less  than  2  cwt.  of  Dutch 
Crushed,  direct  from  London,  at  19s.  6rf.  per  cwt.  ;  not  less 
than  10  cwt.  Porto  Bieo,  at  18s.  For  Cash  only  with  Order. 
No  Samples  sent,  as  we  recommend  only  what  we  would 
use  ourselves.     Subject  to  fluctuations  in  Market. 

Address:  Simmins'  Factory,  Brighton.    (161 

°  1  lb.  3/-  or  1/10. 

Dealers  and  others  apply  for  List  (110  Illustrations), 
G.   STOTHARD,   WELWYN,   HERTS,   a  2324 

QCREW  CAP  JAES.—  Fifty  2-gross  Cases  of 
|kj  new  Straight  Shape  1-lb.  JARS  to  be  Sold  at  a  great 
reduction,  together  or  separately.  Address  Fredk.  Pear- 
son, Stockton  Heath,  Warrington. 

be  sold  cheap.  Apply  to  C.  Cust,  3  Temple  Terrace, 
Dorchester.  A  2347 

QECTIONS.— 5000  1-lb.  White  Lime  dove-tailed 

|ij  Sections,  cost  from  Abbott  81. 15s.,  sacrifice  lot  for  il. 
Address  E.  Hurst,  Wilmington,  Polegate,  Sussex. 

Communications  to  the  Editor  to  be  addressed  '  Stuangeways'  Piunting  Office,  Tower  Street,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  w.c.' 

[No.  24H.    Vol.  XV.] 

MARCH  10,  1887. 

[Published  "Weekly.] 

(^tutorial,  Motlm,  #r. 


The  time  is  drawing  near  when  the  committees 
of  the  various  Associations  will  be  taking  into  con- 
sideration the  task  of  drawing  np  their  various 
schedules  for  the  regulation  of  their  annual  shows, 
and  it  may  not  be  considered  inopportune  to  throw 
out  a  few  suggestions  or  hints  which  may  be  of 
some  assistance  to  them  in  this  duty.  Bee-keeping 
cannot  now  be  considered  to  be  in  its  infancy  ; 
it  has  been  developing  in  experience  for  some 
years ;  the  lessons  of  the  past  should  not  be  lost 
upon  us,  and  we  are  all  desirous  that  our  api- 
cultural  system  should  be  approximating  the  goal 
of  perfection.  Admittedly  there  are  still  before  us 
many  debateable  points.  We  are  not  all  in  agree- 
ment respecting  the  highest  points  in  judging 
either  hives  or  honey.  In  time  these  differences 
may  possibly  be  adjusted,  and  these  points  solved. 
It  would  be  an  advance  in  that  direction  if,  as 
suggested  at  the  last  annual  meeting,  the  Com- 
mittee of  the  B.B.K.A,  could  see  their  way  to  draw 
up  some  simple  rules  for  judging,  which  from  such 
a  quarter  would  be  sure  to  find  acceptance  with  the 
several  affiliated  Associations. 

During  the  past  year  discussions  have  arisen  ill 
our  Journal  which  have  proved  of  the  greatest 
utility,  and  viewing  these  with  an  editorial  eye, 
it  may  be  allowable  while  the  committee  of  the 
B.B.K.A.  are  pondering  over  the  above  matter  to 
throw  out  a  few  hints  pro  bono  publico. 

The  little  contretemps  at  the  Indian  and  Colonial 
Exhibition  was  not  without  its  benefits.  The 
county  competition  was  an  experiment  which  in 
its  results  more  than  surpassed  the  most  sanguine 
expectations  of  its  promoters.  It  was  difficult— it 
haying  been  a  first  endeavour — to  know  how  the 
scheme  would  work,  and  therefore  it  cannot  be 
wondered  at  that  all  was  not  right,  that  the 
judges'  work  was  not  the  acme  of  perfection.  It 
has  simply  shown  us,  as  might  have  been  antici- 
pated, that  on  a  future  occasion  a  few  slight 
alterations  will  be  necessary  in  the  details  to 
render  such  an  exhibition  more  complete. 

Turning  to  the  last  annual  meeting,  Mr.  Burkitt's 
resolution  will  have  its  results.  We  feel  sure  that 
gentleman  had  no  desire  to  throw  more  work  on  the 
officers  of  Associations  j  he  may  have  had  in  his 

mind's  eye  cases  which  have  come  under  his  own 
notice,  where  there  has  been  a  long  list  of  rules, 
and  the  judges  have  received  copies  just  as  they 
wero  beginning  their  arduous  duties,  without  time 
being  allowed  to  grasp  some  of  the  more  minute 
details.  To  overcome  this  difficulty,  let  us  suggest 
that  it  would  be  wise  if  secretaries  were  to  forward 
to  the  judges  a  copy  of  the  rules  a  few  days  prior 
to  the  show,  so  that  they  could  make  themselves 
thoughtfully  and  thoroughly  acquainted  with  them. 

Another  point  which  occurs  to  us  relates  to 
judges.  Rules  for  judging,  suggestions  forjudges, 
&c,  are  all  very  well  in  their  way ;  but,  after  all, 
it  is  able  and  experienced  men  that  are  required, — 
men  who  know  their  subject,  and  are  well  up  in  it, — 
men  who  are  known  to  give  their  judgment  to  the 
best  of  their  ability, — men  in  whose  verdict  all  will 
be  ready  to  acquiesce.  Of  late  the  cry  has  been — 
loud  and  urgent — that  the  B.  B.  K.  A.  should  frame 
rules  for  judging,  so  that  any  one  may  undertake 
the  duties  of  a  judge.  But  unless  such  judges  were 
able  to  give  a  reason  for  the  decisions  they  may 
arrive  at,  there  would  still  be  much  dissatisfaction. 
The  resxilt  of  a  show  is  not  merely  for  the  present, 
it  influences  the  direction  of  the  work  of  the 
bee-keepers  for  the  future  season,  therefore  much 
necessarily  depends  on  the  confidence  that  can  be 
placed  in  the  opinions  of  the  judge.  We  would 
say  to  the  various  associations,  Follow  the  example 
of  other  societies,  and  obtain  judges  well  qualified 
for  their  work. 

Another  suggestion,  and  we  have  done  for  the 
present.  Offer,  in  future,  medals  for  the  encou- 
ragement of  the  production  of  wax  and  the  use 
of  honey  in  various  forms.  Comestibles  of  all 
kinds  with  honey  as  an  ingredient  are  now  nu- 
merous, we  are  glad  to  say.  Honey  in  medicine 
is  regaining  its  proper  footing,  and  honey  is  being 
utilised  in  many  other  ways ;  and  now,  when  con- 
sidering what  to  do  with  our  increased  produc- 
tions of  honey,  we  would  desire  especially  to  direct 
the  attention  of  committees  to  this  matter.  Don't 
forget  to  encourage  all  the  utilities  for  honey  ;  offer 
prizes  for  honey  comestibles,  honey  medicines,  and 
have  a  separate  class  which  will  cover  anything 
worthy  of  commendation  in  which  the  products  of 
the  apiary  are  employed.  By  such  encouragement 
fresh  channels  will  be  opened,  larger  quantities  of 
honey  will  be  disposed  of;  and  need  we  say  prices 
will  improve,  and  bee-keeping  considered  one  of  the 
most  profitable  of  inchistries  f 



[March  10,  1887- 



This  Association  held  its  Annual  Meeting  on  Thursday, 
February  24th,  at  Gloucester.  Report  was  read  showing 
increase  of  members,  &c.  Financial  statement  closed 
with  a  working  balance  in  hands  of  treasurer.  Per- 
mission was  given  for  the  formation  of  a  Bristol  district 
association  under  their  enterprising-  local  secretary,  Mr. 
Appleton,  which  it  is  hoped  will  much  assist  in  the 
better  working  of  that  portion  of  the  county.  Received 
with  regret  the  resignation  of  the  Hon.  Secretary,  the 
Rev.  John  Turner,  Mr.  Slade,  of  12  Promenade  Villas, 
Cheltenham,  being  appointed  Hon.  Secretary. 


The  Annual  General  Meeting  of  the  above  Association 
was  held  on  Thursday,  February  24,  at  2  p.m.,  in  Dr. 
Traill's  Class-room,  35  Trinity  College,  H.  Chenevix, 
Esq.,  J.P.,  in  the  chair.  Present — Miss  E.  E.  Rutherford, 
Miss  Violet  Knight,  Dr.  J.  Purser  Allen,  Messrs.  J.  M. 
Gillies,  J.  Edmondson  (treasurer),  C.  F.  Knight,  J.  K. 
Milner,  "Walter  J.  Stanford  (lion,  secretary),  and  M.  H. 

The  following  is  an  abstract  of  the  report  adopted : — 

'  The  heavy  debt  of  30/.  carried  into  last  year's 
accounts  from  1885  has,  owing  to  the  great  liberality  of 
a  few  gentlemen,  been  cleared  off.  The  Committee 
made  arrangements  to  send  an  exhibit  of  Irish  honey  to 
the  British  Bee-keepers'  Show  at  South  Kensington. 
Only  four  members,  however,  availed  themselves  of  the 
facilities  offered,  owing  to  the  extraordinary  lateness  of 
the  season ;  and  three  exhibits  of  1-lb.  sections,  and  two 
of  1-lb.  bottles,  were  delivered  at  the  show  from  Ireland, 
and  with  these  five  exhibits  one  second  prize  and  two 
highly  commended  in  a  class  of  forty-two  entries,  and 
one  highly  commended  in  a  class  of  thirty-eight,  were 
secured  ;  honours  equivalent  to  80  per  cent  of  the  Irish 
exhibit.  The  only  appearances  of  the  bee  tent  this  year 
were  at  Dunadry,  co.  Antrim,  on  July  26th,  and  at  the 
Giant's  Causeway,  Portrush,  on  July  27th.  After  much 
difficulty  a  honey  market  was  at  last  started  in  Dublin 
for  members  of  the  Association  in  August.  The  com- 
mittee were  fortunate  in  securing  the  services  of  Messrs. 
Carton  Brothers,  17  Halston  Street,  as  agents,  to  whose 
untiring  energies  the  success  of  the  scheme  is  largely 
due.  Fourteen  different  members  sent  up  honey  amount- 
ing to  1228  lbs.,  for  which  a  total  of  50/.  9s.  lOd.  was 
realised,  or  an  average  of  9-86rf.  per  lb.  Two  conver- 
saziones were  held  during  the  year,  in  June  and 
November,  which  were  well  attended.  Several  interest- 
ing and  instructive  papers  were  read,  and  various  other 
subjects  of  apiarian  interest  were  freely  discussed  and 
appliances  exhibited.  The  list  of  members  now  numbers 
eighty-three,  of  whom  six  are  life  members,  and  seventy- 
seven  annual,  as  against  three  life  members  and  106 
annual  in  1884,  and  four  life  members  and  sixty-three 
annual  in  1885.  It  will  be  seen,  therefore,  that  though 
there  was  a  very  heavy  fall  in  1884-1835,  we  are 
again  on  the  rise  slowly,  having  added  sixteen  to  our 
total  since  last  year,  with  twenty-eight  new  subscribers. 
Several  new  names  have  already  been  received  for  1«87. 
They  also  desire  to  bring  under  your  notice  that  this 
past  year  the  Government  have  for  the  first  time  included 
apiculture  in  their  annual  agricultural  returns,  thereby 
proving  how  important  a  part  of  the  industry  of  the 
country  it  is  considered.  Ireland  having  taken  the  lead 
in  this  important  matter  it  is  much  to  be  hoped  that 
England  and  Scotland  will  very  soon  follow  her  example.' 

The  financial  statement  shows  that  the  income  from 
annual  subscriptions  for  1880  amounted  to  23/.  lis.  6c/., 
as  against  only  17/.  9*.  (id.  for  the  year  1885.     Besides 

this  there  were  special  donations  towards  paying  off  the 
outstanding  accounts  of  the  Association  amounting  to 
10/.  10s.  aud  also  3/.  18s.  Cd.  from  sundry  sources,  making 
a  grand  total  of  47/.  9s.  Of  this  12/.  5s.  lid.  was  ex- 
pended to  meet  the  current  expenses  of  the  3'ear,  and 
30/.  0s.  3d.  to  pay  off  the  Association's  debts,  leaving  a 
balance  in  the  treasurer's  hands  of  5/.  2s.  Wd. 

The  following  were  elected  to  serve  as  officers  for  the 
ensuing  year  : — President,  the  Lord  Ardilaun  ;  Vice- 
presidents,  the  Rev.  R.  Bellew,  W.  J.  Brandy,  Esq.,  the 
Rev.  Canon  Proctor;  hon.  treasurer,  J.  Edmondson, 
Esq.;  lion,  secretary,  H.  Chenevix,  Esq.,  J. P. 

A  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  to  Mr.  Stanford  for  his 
services  as  lion,  secretary  during  the  past  year,  wbich 
was  duly  acknowledged  by  that  gentleman. 

The  committee  for  1837  are, — the  Rev.  P.  Kavanagh, 
Messrs.  Walter  J.  Stanford,  J.  K.  Millner,  Dr.  Traill, 
Messrs.  M.  H.  Read,  J.  M.  Gillies,  C.  F.  Knight,  R. 
Sproule,  Dr.  Allen,  Dr.  O'Farrell,  J.  S.  B.  Vanston,  the 
Rev.  T.  Lindsay,  Edward  Byrne,  J. P.,  John  Jones,  M.D., 
S.  K.  Twigg. 

It  was  moved  by  Dr.  Knight  that  steps  be  taken  by 
the  incoming  committee  to  place  the  Association  on  a 
more  representative  basis  by  conferring  powers  on  district 
branches  to  nominate  a  member  or  members  for  election 
on  the  general  committee  and  by  indicating  clearly  on 
the  voting  papers  that  such  members  had  been  so  nomi- 
nated.    This  was  seconded  by  Mr.  Gillies  and  passed. 

It  was  moved  by  Dr.  Knight  that  District  Associations 
be  formed  throughout  Ireland. 

Mr.  Stanford  objected  to  District  Associations  being- 
formed  at  all  at  present  on  the  grounds  that  the  Irish 
Bee-keepers'  Association  itself  was  not  strong  enough  to 
subdivide  into  smaller  associations.  He  suggested  that 
the  matter  should  be  allowed  to  drop  for  another  year. 
Mr.  Read  said  that  local  secretaries  would  meet  the 
requirements  of  Irish  bee-keepers  at  present.  Mr. 
Chenevix  was  of  the  same  opinion.  After  some  discus- 
sion, therefore,  the  motion  was  withdrawn. 

It  was  moved  by  Dr.  Knight  that  steps  be  taken  by 
the  incoming  committse  to  carry  out  the  plan  of  the 
Cottiers'  Fund.  This  should  be  done  by  some  few 
members  each  sending  a  name  of  a  suitable  cottager  in 
their  neighbourhood  for  approval  to  the  committee,  who 
should  select  one  or  more  of  these  names  and  supply 
them  as  funds  permitted  with  the  appliances  neces- 
sary to  start  bee-keeping.  The  members  who  nominated 
the  choseu  ones  to  become  responsible  for  repayment  in 
easy  instalments  for  the  appliances  furnished.  This  was 
seconded  by  Mr.  Stanford  and  passed. 

The  meeting  adjourned  with  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the 

Weight  of  full  Bars  of  Comb  eefoke  and 
after.  (Standard  size.) — I  thought  it  might  interest 
some  readers  of  the  Bee  Journal  to  know  this.  Last  year  I 
weighed  one  box  of  ten  bars,  the  top  storey  of  a  hive  :— 

Fcll.  Emptt. 

lbs.  ozs.  lbs.  ozs. 

4  2    1     4 

5  5    1     3 

5  4    1     4 

6  0    1     S 

5  3  1  2 

6  9  1  4 

5  12  1  5 

5     1  1  2 

5  12  : 1  2 

5     3  1  2 

54     3    12     4 

J.  W.  L. 

'  Gloves.' — A  Suggestion. — Cut  off  the  finger-ends  of  the 
gloves,  if  not  quite  prepared  to  manipulate  without  some 
protection,  then  if  desirous  of  making  doubly  sure  of  being 
unharmed,  a  very  small  application  of  Grimshaw's  'Api- 
fuge'  ought  to  suffice. — C.  A.  J. 

March  10,  1887.] 




Tho  Editor  docs  not  hold  himself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed 
by  his  correspondents.  No  attention  will  be  taken  of  anonymous  com- 
munications, and  correspondents  are  requested  to  write  on  one  side  oj 
the  paper  only,  and  give  their  real  names  and  addresses,  not  necessarily 
for  publicatio'n,  but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith.  Illustrations  should 
be  draven  on  separate  pieces  of  paper. 

Communications  relating  to  the  literary  department,  reports  oj 
Associations,  Shoics,  Meetings,  Echoes,  Queries,  Books  for  Review, 
&c,  must  be  addressed  only  to  *The  Editor  of  the  "British  Bee 
Journal,"  c}o  Messrs.  Strangeways  and  Sons,  Tower  Street,  Upper 
St.  .Martin's  iane.Xondon,  IF.  C.'  Ml  business  communications  relating 
to  Advertisements,  £c,  must  be  addressed  to  Mr.  J.  Huckle,  King's 
Langlcy,  Herts  (see  2nd  page  of  Advertisements). 

%*  In  order  to  facilitate  reference,  Correspondents,  when  speaking  oj 
any  letter  or  query  previously  inserted,  will  oblige  by  mentioning  the 
number  of  the  letter^  as  xcell  as  the  page  on  which  it  appears. 





[845.]  The  recent  statements  of  Mr.  F.  Benton  in 
reference  to  these  bees  will  have  interested  many  :  but  I 
do  not  see  why  he  should  fear  that  others  may  say  he  is 
actuated  by  interested  motives.  We  all  know  that  his 
motives  are  honourable,  and  if  there  is  one  man  more 
capable  than  any  other  of  forming  a  correct  opinion  of 
these  bees  it  is  "himself.  I  believe  that,  as  a  rule,  bee- 
dealers,  as  well  as  manufacturers,  recommend  an  article 
because  they  honestly  telieve  it  to  be  of  value,  and  I 
would  ask,  "Who  is  there  better  able  to  judge  correctly 
than  those  who  provide  for  the  many  ?  I  know  that  there 
a  ie  others  who  hold  their  peace,  fearing  they  will  be 
insidered  'interested';  but,  friends,  if  your  opinion  is 
worth  anything  at  all,  by  all  means  let  us  have  it.  The 
majority  will  believe  in  your  sincerity.  Time  proves 
all  things,  and  truth  will  prevail. 

I  am  afraid  Mr.  Benton  has  not  had  the  recompense 
he  deserves  for  all  the  trouble  and  expense  he  has  been  at 
in  bringing  the  new  races  more  prominently  before  the 
public,  and  placing  Cyprians  in  particular  more  within 
reach  of  those  who  can  afford  to  pay  for  them.  The  price 
has  been  high — too  high  to  enable  bee-keepers  generally 
to  adopt  them ;  but  I  feel  certain,  could  he  but  see  his  way 
clear  to  make  a  considerable  reduction  from  his  charges, 
the  demand  would  be  so  much  greater  as  to  fully  repay 

The  reports  regarding  the  temper  of  Cyprians  have 
been  so  conflicting  it  cannot  be  wondered  at  that  so 
much  uncertainty  exists  in  regard  to  them.  The  bad 
opinion,  as  expressed  by  some,  results  from  one  of  two 
causes ;  either  through  careless  handling,  or  the  _  bee- 
keeper has  hybrids,  which  he  persi